The theory of human evolution out of Africa believes that modern humans rose in Africa about 200 thousand years ago. 60 thousand years ago, they began to prosper on Eurasia and replace the Aboriginal people they had never seen before. In 1990s, this hypothesis was widely accepted by paleo anthropologists, especially in the first analysis of the DNA of the Neanderthal (Neanderthal), which seemed to indicate that Neanderthals and modern people did not have mixed hybrids. Photo: cave art from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia is now considered the oldest cave art in the world. But this popular theory may need to be rewritten now, especially considering important archaeological discoveries in Asia over the past few decades. For example, the discovery of the Hobbit, Homofloresiensis of Flores, is about 1.2 meters high, living in the late Pleistocene (12000 years ago), and obviously several different groups are distributed throughout Asia. In addition, many of the new human fossils found in the past ten years, especially in China, have now been preliminarily identified for more than 60 thousand years, which raises questions about the idea that modern humans migrated from Africa only 60 thousand years ago. Take two modern human teeth discovered recently in Luna cave, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, for example. Lunacave When the researchers used uranium isotopes to determine the age of two human teeth located just above and below the rock (rocks that were precipitated in the cave), they found that these human teeth could be traced back to 70000 to 126000 years ago. If modern humans left Africa 60 thousand years ago, this situation is obviously impossible. With these findings, we can not help but wonder: what exactly happened at that time? The latest evidence shows where we really came from. This is the question that this article needs to explore. The first question we should ask is why modern humans (now thought to have appeared about 315000 years ago) began to leave Africa. If these people are fully adapted to the local specific environment and have abundant resources, there is no reason for them to migrate or change. For example, the cobra Monkey (this lovely non human primate, only the size of the palm of the hand, and the big eyes) has a group of teeth that have hardly changed for millions of years, indicating that they have found a place to fit themselves and are happy to stay there. However, due to environmental changes, the monkeys have moved from Europe to the Southeast Asian countries. This leads to another question: which way do modern humans go out of Africa? From North Africa across the Mediterranean, there is no clear route, so the early man who stepped out of Africa and entered the Eurasian continent may have crossed the Arabia peninsula. One possibility is that they travel through the Bab-el-MandebStrait (Bab-el-MandebStrait) to Yemen, even if it needs water during a large glacier, but more likely to reach the Sinai peninsula from northern Egypt. Evidence from the Misliya cave of Israel shows that this migration began 200 thousand years ago. The early modern humans reached the farthest reaches of Israel, such as Misliya, Qafzeh and Skhul. But most early human migration seems to follow a more southerly route, bypassing the daunting Himalaya mountains and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and eventually reaching central, Southeast Asia and Australia. These early human migrations were much smaller than later ones. But as genetic technology sequenced older DNA sequences, we began to discover these early human migrations. In fact, a recent genetic study published in the journal Nature found that about 2% of the modern Papua New Guineas DNA came from these early human immigrants. Then, about 60 thousand years ago, humans began to move out of Africa on a larger scale while moving north-south. The expansion of the North encouraged people to enter Europe, Siberia and even the Japanese archipelago, eventually reaching the Americas across the Bering Strait. The southern line migrated across the India subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Australia, and finally crossed the Pacific Ocean. Early archaeological and genetic studies showed that the southern route migration occurred more rapidly, and was carried out near the coast. But today we are not very sure because of the lack of archaeological evidence and the lack of extensive data on the continental shelf of the low-lying coastal areas (the land glaciers, the surface of the sea level falling out of the ground). In addition, human beings, like most mammals, need fresh water support every day, which seem to be not too much in the coastal areas and are more common in the inland areas. Therefore, there is a lot of evidence to support the migration of ancient humans along the southern route, but it is not necessarily confined to coastal areas. When modern humans reach different parts of Asia, they may be surprised to find many people who look similar to them. Who did the modern man meet when he arrived in Asia? A large number of new studies from Central Asia and Siberia showed that Neanderthals did not stay in Europe and the Mediterranean region. They are also traveling, and we are likely to meet them in Asia. Interestingly, ancient anthropologists working in North Korea wrote that they might have discovered fossils of Neanderthals. In the southeastern part of China, some skulls of Maba are considered to be similar to Neanderthals and may be earlier. When modern humans arrived in Asia, another group of early human beings appeared in this area, often called archaicHomosapiens, and more and more ancient people began to call them the Homoheidelbergensis (mid-Pleistoce) or mid-Pleistoce (mid-Pleistoce). NeHomo). There is evidence that the European and African fossils of 300 thousand to 500 thousand years ago can be more easily classified as Heidelberg people, but the Asian fossils are not so easily classified. Some people suggest continuing to use the word Hsapiens, or in another way, it may be more appropriate to update the world. That is, until new fossils are found, or new ways of studying these fossils, it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic relationship between humans living in Africa, Europe and Asia at the same time. As it is not clear whether the fossils of the updated world are directly from the local ancient human or from earlier migratory humans (many think this may be an early alternative), the situation in Asia is a bit unclear. At the beginning of twenty-first Century, a series of unusual human fossils were excavated at the LiangBua cave site on Flores Island, Indonesia, which are now believed to be traced back to 60 thousand -10 million years ago. These fossils are known for their short stature and tiny heads, so they are named hobbits. However, after they were found, the question came: whether they were direct ancestors of Herectus or Hhabilis, or they were only modern human variants with the disease (or dwarfism). Although most researchers believe that their evidence for new species is overwhelming, it has never been finalized. Even recently, it has been suggested that the hobbits may be the mixed race of Homo erectus, the updated or undetermined ancient humans and modern humans. Most researchers believe that for a long time, hobbits were isolated, resulting in a large number of inbreeding phenomena. However, the island of Flores is not a very small island, and modern humans, passing through the area on their way to New Guinea and Australia, will certainly stop to explore and replenish their supplies. It would not be unusual if hobbits had never met strangers in decades or even hundreds of thousands of years. Therefore, the hypothesis of mixed blood is the most possible. Genetic research in the past ten years or so has helped scientists identify a new human group, Danny Denisovans. Dannys people were found by genetic analysis of the phalanges and teeth of the fingers, but there is still much uncertainty about the morphology of the fossils. Since the main difference is determined by genetic analysis rather than by comparison of bone analysis, the Danny Musa is not identified as a new species, but is simply regarded as a group. Scientists are conducting more and more skeletal studies on the fossil Dannys human fossils to determine whether there has been the skeleton of the Danny Musa, and we have not yet found them. For example, a study found that in the early Pleistocene sites in sangillan, Indonesia, and in the late Pleistocene of Xujiayao in northern China, the erectus represented by the middle updated world were similar to the Danny Sona. Another study points out that Dannys teeth are similar to those of other ancient human teeth in Central Asia. It is only a matter of time to determine whether the Danny sew has been found to have bone remains, because there is a clear link between the Russian Danny cavern fossils and the more known paleohuman fossils. However, genetics has shown that the distribution of Danny in South-East Asia is likely to be common in Southeast Asia. There is evidence that there are a small number of Danny DNA in many human bodies in the modern human population of Australasia and even in northern Australia. If this is true, then the Danny SW from the cave may be a small foraging group, from a larger group that extends northward. The results from Dannys study compelled the paleoanthropologists to change their view that in the Pleistocene, there were several different species of ancient human beings in Asia. What happens when these different ancient humans meet in Asia? We can find clues through genetics, archeology and fossils themselves. Recent studies have shown that modern humans, Neanderthals, and Danny pewis often cross, and a ghostly lineage (perhaps a erectus) may also contribute to DNA. In general, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans is quite low, and in the range of 1%-4%, it seems to show that modern humans and Neanderthals had been mixed up 270 thousand years ago. But fossils discovered 40 thousand years ago in Pe teracuOase of Romania showed that Neanderthal DNA accounted for 9% of the total. This means that hybridization has occurred recently, perhaps in the four to six generations before the human fossil. Most of our evolutionary history is mixed with Neanderthals, which may explain what happened when different ancient humans met. But if we are interracial, what should we expect from the Neanderthals and the descendants of modern humans? Will the child have a prominent chin and a globular skull (defining modern features), or a prominent brow and a round occipital behind the skull (features associated with Neanderthal)? Some people believe that the fossils from the cave such as the cave of the Homo sapiens in the south of China have a common feature of the modern and modern humans, which indicates that modern humans have already arrived in Asia. Compared with the simple combination of paternal and maternal characteristics, the way of identifying mixed race is more complicated. The cross study of non human primates has provided some clues for this, because special traits (such as extra teeth) that do not exist in the parent group sometimes appear in the offspring. However, people still have questions about how different species or subspecies interbreed. When different human groups meet, what else can be exchanged besides gene? Here, the archaeological record may help. Symbolic acts seem to be shown by ochre pigments, perforated shells, stones, pendants, and many other things, which are symbols of human use and manipulation of symbols. Researchers have long argued that these are only products of modern humans, not the core of other human skills. It is surprising that, as early as 60000 years ago, mankind appeared in Asia before going out of Africa, but there was no evidence of symbolic behavior. Another interesting observation is that the site itself was well known in the archaeological world before the discovery of the Danny cowis and Neanderthals in the Danny cavern cave, because there is a great deal of evidence that there is a symbolic act of the Paleolithic age (such as the formation of compound necklaces and bracelets in the bracelet). This raises several questions: who left these relics? Is it Danny, the people of the Neanderthal, or the presence of modern humans in caves? If more ancient human groups leave these artifacts, does that mean they have the ability to perform symbolic acts? If it is a modern human being, does this mean that the cave has been occupied intermittently by these three ethnic groups? With the spread of modern human beings with these symbolic capabilities, why are there many craftwork, ochre, and so on in the Southeast Asian continent? In fact, in addition to the rock art in Sulawesi, Indonesia, there is little evidence to show that the Old Stone Age sites of the late Paleolithic sites in the area had symbolic behaviour. Now, when modern humans arrive in Southeast Asia, why do their behavior patterns seem to have changed? A part of the so-called modern human behavior theory, the idea that these actions are confined to modern human beings, is our ability to build strong ships and to travel from the starting point to the unseen destination. Although the initial report shows that the MataMenge site on Flores island in Indonesia may be only habited by the erectus with navigation ability, researchers later questioned the argument. However, the residents of Australia and the Japanese Islands apparently arrived through waterways. As far as Japan is concerned, it is generally believed that about 40 thousand years ago, these migrations were carried out by modern people. It has always been thought that only modern humans can go to Australia to settle in the early days, because the necessary navigational tools are needed to get there. However, owing to the discovery of the genetic material owned by the Danny species in modern Australasia and the northern Australian population, the voyage of the Danny group can not be completely ignored. But if we can first figure out what the Danny and the ancient sites of their lives look like, it may help them to become Voyager. In the field of Paleontology in Asia, there is still a lot of research to be done. More and more evidence from entering Asia has forced scholars to rethink, for example, how they view the models of modern human origin. In fact, in January this year, a scientific study showed that the earliest modern human beings in Asia traced back to 177 thousand to 194 thousand years ago, and they found evidence in the Misliya cave in Israel. Every few weeks, it seems that there will be significant news in Asia about new human fossils, genetic studies, archaeological sites, or sites, which still have large areas to be explored. The origin of entering Asia seems much more complicated than ever before out of Africa: there are many early migratory groups in Africa, and there are much more crossbreeding among species than we thought. Facts have proved that the richer the content of these stories is, the more helpful we understand the history of human origin.