Chen Yan Japans semiconductor industry in the past 40 years Recently, the US government punished ZTE with semiconductor as its reason, and semiconductor began to enter the perspective of ordinary readers. Semiconductor in the hearts of ordinary readers, first of all diodes or transistors and other radio parts, but in fact, its classification is quite broad. If the semiconductor is classified according to manufacturing technology, it can be divided into integrated circuit device, discrete device, photoelectric semiconductor, logic IC, analog IC, storage and so on. Different enterprises, the classification of semiconductors is not the same, Japanese companies are usually more willing to divide semiconductors into IC (integrated circuit), LSI (large scale integrated circuit), VLSI (super LSI) and so on. In addition, according to the signal processed, it is divided into analog, digital, analog digital mixing and function classification. The Japanese semiconductor has gone through the process of decay. It is not that Japanese enterprises do not know how important the semiconductor is, it is the fault of the countrys policy to the United States, and it is limited to the experience that has been successful. It has not been able to change the enterprise R & D system in time. It is not as good as one day in the whole day of the semiconductor industry in Japan. Think of the top ten world semiconductor companies in 1995, NEC (first), Toshiba (second), Hitachi production unit (third), Fujitsu (eighth), and MITSUBISHI electric (ninth). In 2005, Toshiba (4) and NEC Electronics (10) could still be maintained. But by 2018, if Toshiba had sold its semiconductor sector, the era of brilliant Japanese semiconductor has completely reversed. From the introduction of technology in 70s to the tip of the small lotus in 80s, it came into its peak in 90s, and began to decline in 2000. To today, it needs to rely on selling children and selling women. The Japanese semiconductor industry has gone through the process of strong and strong decline from weak to strong in 40 years. The largest developing and producing country of calculators and portable computers. In 1972, Japanese companies were able to produce 1K bits of DRAM, and it was almost desperate to see that the new system launched by IBM needed a product of 1000 times the 1M bit larger than the 1K bit. It is almost hopeless for a company to accomplish this task in a relatively short period of time. At that time, the Japanese economy province, which had a great call for the enterprise, called Fujitsu, Hitachi, NEC, MITSUBISHI motor and Toshiba, set up an Enterprise Federation such as super LSI technology research portfolio. The officials of the Ministry of industry and commerce are directly responsible for the promotion of related projects. In the 4 years since 1976, the Japanese country made a budget of 70 billion yen for the large computer used semiconductors, with a direct appropriation of 29 billion yen for the state. At the initial stage, Japanese countries and enterprises have clear guidelines on how to develop semiconductor technology and how to make localization of relevant manufacturing equipment in the future. This is an important reason for Japans rapid surpassing of other countries. First, in terms of technology, Japan focuses on the development of manufacturing equipment for micro processing. In order to increase the capacity from 1K to 1M, it needs to shorten the interval of semiconductor circuit. It needs precision processing technology and related equipment. Under the command of provincial production, the research and development of related equipment is quite successful. In the 70s of last century, Japans semiconductor manufacturing equipment was basically imported from abroad, but by the beginning of 80s, more than 70% of Japans equipment could have been made by Japan. On the other hand, Japan needs to improve silicon crystallization. If the crystalline size of the silicon is large, the waste can be reduced when the wafer is processed, and a chip can play the functions of various components. In terms of basic R & D, enterprises are strung together and pushed forward together. When the time comes for specific production, each enterprise will take their own way. As the products are almost the same, several enterprises can produce roughly equivalent products at the same time. The Japanese semiconductor enterprise group has the advantages of manufacturing technology and the competition of updating equipment and products at home. The level of technology has been improved continuously, so that the world is beginning to look at Japan. Japanese enterprises quickly formed a feature in the 80s of last century, that is, the price of its semiconductor products is very low, and can provide related products to any country in the world. At the same time, all enterprises are able to ensure that their products are used for 25 years and sell products to the world on such conditions. In that era, no one was comparable. Thus, Japanese enterprises quickly occupied the world semiconductor market. In 1985, Japanese companies played a role in the market share of semiconductor production in the United States: Japan first and the United States two. As for enterprises in Europe and other places, the total volume is below 10%, almost without market significance. In the mid 80 century, more than 50% of the products of the world semiconductor were produced in Japan. People say that the basis of Japans first is here. We can see that in, Intel announced that it would quit from 1985 manufacturing and concentrate solely on the production of microprocessors. Japanese and American trade wars and the emergence of the horizontal division of labor The United States was rather dissatisfied with Japans rapid occupation of the US market after World War II. In the 50 era of the last century, there were already 1 shirts made in Japan to enter the US market, and Japanese and American textile friction began to appear. In the 60 years, it was the trade friction of steel. Originally, Japans steel technology was very underdeveloped, and it helped the United States to improve its rolling technology. But in the twinkling of an eye, Japan threw steel products to the United States. Since 70s, the household appliances in Japan have entered the United States market in a large scale, and in 80s the semiconductor products that are related to the national security of the United States have flocked into the United States from Japan. The United States is moving and starting to fight back. In 1985, the world market share of the Japanese semiconductor industry exceeded that of the United States. In 1986, the United States used its absolute power in politics, military and diplomacy to force Japan to sign an alliance of Japan - the Japanese American semiconductor agreement. The agreement is to prevent Japanese enterprises from dumping against the United States, but Japanese enterprises have no vacillation in technology and other aspects. The US has put forward a numerical target that requires us to have a share of 20% semiconductor products in the Japanese market. Japan has agreed to this requirement. Because the technical level and product quality are there, the rigid market share does not mean that American enterprises have advantages. Japan does not know that Americas demand gives American companies a chance to breathe. Although American companies are not technically superior, American companies will be able to come back if their products are replaced. In order to keep Taishans posture, Japanese enterprises continue to provide products with low price and 25 years shelf-life for computers and other enterprises. However, the sudden change in the market, the emergence of portable computers, the demand for semiconductor components more vigorous, although the American enterprise is still unable to keep up, but South Korea suddenly jumped out of a company called Samsung, specializing in the production of semiconductors for computers. For Samsungs R & D and production capacity, Japanese enterprises cant see it at the beginning. It is estimated that it will not take long, and the product of Samsungs level will be eliminated. Japanese enterprises absolute scorn for Samsung has laid the foreshadowing for its subsequent failure. From the mode of production, the production mode of the component parts of the computer era has changed greatly. The mode of the horizontal division of labor has become the mainstream. The vertical division of labor like the Japanese enterprises is becoming more and more unable to cope with the new situation. At this time ARM company is responsible for research and development, and the TSMC company is responsible for the production of the new mode of production. The relationship between Intel and Samsung also has the characteristics of this level of division of labor. In Japan, the development and production of semiconductors cant be compared with other enterprises in the world. One big reason is that Japanese enterprises have to develop and produce, the investment in R & D is huge and the production needs to be constantly updated. If neither side is able to take care of it, it will be left behind. Japanese enterprises have fallen back in succession Defeat was like a mountain. In the late 90 century, people heard almost the news of the failure of Japanese semiconductor companies. In order to sort it out, at that time, there were some changes in the following enterprises: in 1999, Fujitsu withdrew from the DRAM business; in 2001, Toshiba was withdrawn from the cause of DRAM; in 2002, NEC separated the semiconductor department from the deficit; in 2008, Fujitsu stripped out the LSI cause that had been in the deficit. Enterprises that can go on to do it can only keep warm. In terms of DRAM business, 1999 was founded in Japan in 1999, mainly composed of NEC and related departments of MITSUBISHI. MITSUBISHI motor entered in 2003. In the aspect of system LSI business, 2003 and MITSUBISHI motor company formed a RENESAS (Renesas) Company in 2003, and relevant departments of NEC joined in the year of 2010. Unfortunately, the situation of these weak and weak joint ventures is very bad. ELPIDA bankruptcy in 2013 was eventually absorbed and merged by Microsoft. In the same year, reesa was transformed into a Japanese state. At some time, people are not as good as the sky. For example, before the arrival of the mobile phone era, ELPIDA company prepared the latest DRAM for the new era product, its market share is very high, but after the emergence of the mobile market, the financial crisis of 2008 has come, the exchange rate of the yen appreciates, the financial crisis of ELPIDA company itself is broken, there is good technology but not in the market. Its really used. Toshiba has survived the financial crisis and has developed its flash memory to prepare semiconductors for smartphones and digital cameras. Unfortunately, Toshibas failure in nuclear power has finally forced the company to sell the semiconductor department to Japan, the United States and the south. Of course, the decision of the sale also requires the final result of the Chinese governments deliberations, and it will certainly not be reached until the end of 2018 5. Toshiba also wants to push back as much as possible, so that the semiconductor sector can win more benefits for Toshiba, and Toshibas life will be better. Finally, say a few words. Japanese companies are not useless in semiconductors. Now SONY has CMOS sensor technology for smartphones, and Rezas semiconductor components and MITSUBISHI motors energy semiconductor technology in the control of power still holds a pivotal position in the world. Japanese enterprises were very strong in 70s and 80s in the last century because of the guidance of national policies. In the middle of 80s, the Japanese enterprises were damaged by the Japanese US trade war. After 90s, they were mainly restricted by the vertical division of labor in their own countries and began to go downhill. Can companies in the US and South Korea maintain their absolute dominance in semiconductor industry in the future? Its hard to say. Semiconductor updates are fast, and equipment has a huge investment, basically every 4 years, there will be a big cycle (Moores law), and more sophisticated, larger capacity development. As we enter the ultimate stage, technological innovation is becoming more and more difficult, and technology itself is more difficult to maintain through blockade. Chen Yan is the executive director of the Japanese enterprise (China) Research Institute] first finance and economics was authorized to reprint the source of the WeChat public number of the Qin Shuo friend circle : the first financial responsibility editor: Wang Fengzhi _NT2541 Japanese enterprises were very strong in 70s and 80s in the last century because of the guidance of national policies. In the middle of 80s, the Japanese enterprises were damaged by the Japanese US trade war. After 90s, they were mainly restricted by the vertical division of labor in their own countries and began to go downhill. Can companies in the US and South Korea maintain their absolute dominance in semiconductor industry in the future? Its hard to say. Semiconductor updates are fast, and equipment has a huge investment, basically every 4 years, there will be a big cycle (Moores law), and more sophisticated, larger capacity development. As we enter the ultimate stage, technological innovation is becoming more and more difficult, and technology itself is more difficult to maintain through blockade. Chen Yan is the executive director of the Japanese enterprise (China) Research Institute. First finance is authorized to be reprinted from the WeChat public number of Qin Shuo circle of friends.