Scientists can grow human brain tissue in mice for 233 days.

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 Scientists can grow human brain tissue in mice for 233 days.


In the eyes of scientists, these mice with human brain tissues behave in the same way as their counterparts. Each of the tested mices cerebral cortex was implanted in the human Mini brain and replaced some of the skulls with a transparent glass cover. Scientists have used this method to understand the development of the human brain and to test whether these organs will become a cortical repair tool in the future to replace the injured or dysfunctional regions of the brain. MichalStachowiak, a neuroscientist at the Suny Buffalo, once created the organs of the human brain to study schizophrenia, which he says is an important technological progress and is the important beginning of the use of organs in regenerative medicine. In November 2017, when researchers at the Sorkin Institute briefly described their experiments at the annual meeting of the society for neuroscience, bioethicists raised the question of how the human brain in the human brain could affect the intelligence, consciousness, and even the identity of mice. The latest paper, published in the Journal of natural biotechnology, describes how organs can successfully integrate into the rat brain and solve one of the problems: at least in scientists experiments, mice that have human brain organs seem to be less different from other mice and are not smarter than the latter. Since the first human brain organ was bred through stem cells in 2013, scientists have made them form a structure like the brain of the fetus, producing dozens of different kinds of brain cells and developing abnormal tissues such as Timothy syndrome and other neurologic diseases. Researchers hope that in revealing how the human brain develops, the class organs are better than laboratory animals or cultured cells. At the same time, it is possible to identify potential therapeutic or genomic editing targets under normal circumstances and errors. The study needs to collect human stem cells, then divide them into brain cells, and make them grow into several millimeter bodies to simulate the structure of the real organ, the number of cells, and even the electrical activity. But the reality of human brain organs is limited: oxygen and nutrients are unable to enter their deepest cells when they are more than a few millimeters in diameter. Fred Gage, the head of the study, said: in our hands, the organ will stop growing within five weeks. FredGage From the beginning of tenth weeks, we even saw that many of the cells in the periphery began to die, and this change became more and more obvious over time. Obviously, this is a clear obstacle to long-term research. When our goal requires more than three months of brain development, the current brain organs begin to atrophy. The implantation of human brain organs into the mouse brain, and the growth and development of them, can help solve the current dilemma. The Sorkin Institute will grow the brain tissue of 31 to 50 days in laboratory Petri dishes to the mouses brain (now more than 200), and they have taken a small piece of tissue from the rats brain to make room for space. Because human cells express green fluorescent protein through genetic engineering, these tiny spots can be seen in bright lime through transparent glass. About 80% of the implants were successful. Within 2 to 12 weeks, these organs produce extra neurons, including neurons, glial cells (including astrocytes) and neural stem cells that are found in specific areas of the human cerebral cortex. By 14 weeks, almost all of the organs formed a rich vascular network that conveyed nutrients and oxygen, supported the survival of the organs for 233 days, and their structure and cell maturity were similar to those of the newborns. These implanted organs also transmit axons (the brain signals from one neuron from one neuron to another), and go into the brain of the rat, not only near the side of the glass, and form strong synapses in rat neurons, and the neural activity of humans and mice is synchronized. Abeid Mansour, the lead author of the study, said: AbedMansour: When neurons are clustered together, it means that they are interconnected and cross talk, thus forming a neural network. However, for all human mouse mixtures, these rodents did not become better learners than ordinary mice. Scientists put the mice on a circular platform with 20 holes around them, gently leading them into a hole leading to the escape channel, and then letting them try to use memory to find a escape hole. (the other holes are all dead hutongs. In the first day of the test, mice with human brain organs made fewer mistakes and found the right hole, but the advantage disappeared in second days. Gage said: in terms of behavior testing, we have just touched the surface. I think it is too early to provide a reliable answer to this important question. This escape test function is very limited, and I can not rule out other behavioral effects. (small) source of this article: NetEase science and technology report editor: Wang Fengzhi _NT2541 However, for all human mouse mixtures, these rodents did not become better learners than ordinary mice. Scientists put the mice on a circular platform with 20 holes around them, gently leading them into a hole leading to the escape channel, and then letting them try to use memory to find a escape hole. (the other holes are all dead hutongs. In the first day of the test, mice with human brain organs made fewer mistakes and found the right hole, but the advantage disappeared in second days.