Its really sad that many, many names that are associated with our growth are leaving one after another.
This morning was washed up by such a shocking and regretful news.
It is reported that Li Yong, a famous program host, died in the US due to illness, aged 50.
It was Li Yongs wife, Harvin, who posted the microblog. She was a classmate of Li Yong at the Beijing Broadcasting Institute. They both had a daughter.
And when Xiaobian sees the four words lost my love forever in his blog, he also deeply feels the weakness and sorrow.
This is not only the feelings of havin, but also the real situation of mankind facing cancer under normal circumstances.
Have to say goodbye, unable to retain!
We often hear of familiar public figures, even relatives and friends, who suddenly die of cancer.
Yao Bena, a popular singer like Xiaobian, died in Shenzhen in 2015 at the age of 33 because of a recurrence of breast cancer.
Paul Alan, co-founder of Microsoft, who died of cancer complications half a month ago, was 56 years old.
Jobs, co-founder of the legendary Apple Corp, died in 2011 at the age of 56, suffering from pancreatic cancer. Wait
These lines of counts, written in blood-like letters on our minds, are horrible and incurable. From some data, it is easy to find that cancer seems to favor more successful people who are stressed, busy and have less regular work and rest.
In fact, the incidence of cancer is also rising year by year, according to the WHO released data show that 8.8 million people die of cancer each year, accounting for nearly one sixth of the total annual global death. About 14000000 new cancer cases per year are projected to increase to about 21000000 by 2030.
Many people believe that once suffering from cancer, they will be faced with death. Why is cancer so scary? What are the types of cancer? At present, how is the level of medical treatment developed to treat cancer? Can cancer be cured? What are the ways to prevent it? The following is a science article prepared by Xiao Bian, responsible for his health, and turn around.
Common cancer: 1 people die from lung cancer per minute.
In most peoples minds, cancer is often synonymous with incurable disease. The horror of cancer stems from the fear of incurable disease.
Cancer, also known as malignancy, refers to the abnormal proliferation of cells that may invade other parts of the body; not all tumors are cancerous, and some cells do not invade other parts of the body, called benign tumors. Common signs and symptoms of cancer include new mass, abnormal bleeding, chronic cough, unexplained weight loss, and changes in gastrointestinal peristalsis, but these symptoms may also occur in other diseases, so finding these symptoms does not necessarily indicate cancer. In humans, more than one hundred cancers are known at present.
What are the characteristics of cancer?
Zhao Chengyuan, doctor of medicine at Peking University, said: The incidence of cancer is very high, and many people die of cancer; cancer is difficult to detect early, and many cancers are at advanced stage; cancer cells are poorly disciplined and easy to metastasize; the existing treatment methods, whether surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or drug treatment, have their own. Limitations, it is difficult to completely cure cancer.
How many kinds of cancer are there in the world? Although medical statistics are not yet rigorous, the top international medical journal JAMA Oncology published the latest data on cancer worldwide, analyzing the incidence of cancer worldwide.
The most common cancers in men are prostate cancer, trachea, bronchus and lung cancer, accounting for 40% of all cancer cases; the highest mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are trachea, bronchus and lung cancer, liver cancer, and gastric cancer; the most common cancers in women are breast, colorectal and skin cancer, accounting for 40% of all deaths; The highest rates of death and DALYs were breast cancer, trachea, bronchus and lung cancer, and colorectal cancer.
The ten highest incidence of cancer in the world is ranked first in the trachea, bronchus and lung cancer (TBL). From 2006 to 2016, lung cancer cases increased by 28 percent, sweeping 2 million people in 2016, resulting in 1.7 million deaths, the highest morbidity and mortality in the world.
Colorectal cancer ranks second, mainly because of the aging population and population growth, the risk of disease in men is higher than in women.
Ranked third is breast cancer, female killer. Many stars suffer from illness. For women, breast cancer is the most common cancer in 131 countries and the most common cause of cancer death in 112 countries. But this does not mean that men will not suffer from the disease. According to statistics, 10 thousand men also lost their statements.
The fourth place is non melanoma skin cancer. The more exposure to sunlight, the higher the risk of skin cancer. The fifth is prostate cancer; the sixth is gastric cancer, which is the third-highest incidence and mortality rate of cancer in China; the seventh is liver cancer. Globally, liver cancer is more common in men, with one in every 38 men suffering from liver cancer and one in every 111 women; the eighth is cervical cancer; the ninth is leukemia; and the tenth is liver cancer. Non Hodgkin lymphoma.
The earlier the cancer is detected, the easier it is to treat. Once suffering from cancer, every minute and every second is life. Statistics show that pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer and skin cancer are easy to miss, but the fastest growing cancer.
According to a report from the Harvard School of Public Health in the United States, the number of lung cancer deaths in China will reach 18 million in the next 30 years, which means one person will die every minute from lung cancer.
Lung cancer is also considered to be one of the fastest-growing malignancies in terms of morbidity and mortality, with the greatest threat to human health and life.
Actually, lung cancer is one of the most preventable cancers. Professor Zhi Xiuyi, Minister of Tobacco and Lung Cancer Prevention and Control of the China Cancer Foundation, said that lung cancer could be excluded from the door in the first place by keeping away from tobacco, ventilating at home, wearing a mask when going out, driving less, touching kitchen fumes and using environmentally friendly decoration materials. The reason why lung cancer has such a high mortality rate is mainly because nearly 80% of the clinical patients can not be diagnosed until late.
Can cancer be cured?
Cancer is the most difficult problem that medicine wants to overcome. When can humans conquer cancer? It is the most concerned topic at present.
Cancer biologist Wang Xiaofan, a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a lifelong lecture professor at Duke University, told Netease Science and Technology that cancer is still the number one killer in China and the number of cancers is increasing. The rate of cancer is increasing very fast at present, possibly because of some environmental reasons, such as pollution. Air and water. There are also some infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B, and hepatitis B can also cause liver cancer. The incidence of liver cancer, digestive tract cancer and esophageal cancer in China is much higher than that in the West. Lung cancer ranks first in China and the United States, because China has a large population of smokers.
David Baltimore, a 1975 Nobel Laureate in medicine or physiology, told Netease Technologies that few treatments for cancer actually cure cancer, many of them prolonging life expectancy, but not cancer. Cancer immunotherapy may actually cure cancer. About 20% of the patients can be cured. This is a new prospect for cancer treatment. It is very exciting and effective.
In a previous interview with Netease Technologies, Chen Ping, professor of cancer research at Yale University and director of immunology at Yale Cancer Center, said that tumor immunotherapy will make great progress in the next 10 years and is expected to be effective for 60-70% of cancer patients.
On October 1, 2018, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James Allison of the United States and Tasuku Honjo of Japan for their contributions to the discovery of negative immunomodulatory therapies for cancer.
Shen Zhongyang, Dean of Tianjin First Central Hospital, told reporters at todays 2018 World Congress of Life Sciences that, first, medical research and treatment of cancer have made progress in clinical practice. Some cancers can be cured, such as lobular lung cancer, which is quite different from a few years ago. Long term survival. Second, but also cancer, different types, its treatment effect is different, some are more difficult to overcome. Three, at present, quite a number of scientists are studying cancer problems.
Scientists struggle against cancer on the way to conquer cancer. Scientists are expected to make breakthroughs at an early date.
What else can cancer do besides traditional treatment?
Once suffering from cancer, everyone feels helpless and hopeless. The traditional treatment of cancer mainly includes three ways: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
Besides, radiotherapy for localized lesions can also achieve the purpose of killing cancer cells. Many superficial tissue cancers or early-found cancers of the internal organs can be cured by these methods. However, when cancer cells have metastasized, surgery or radiotherapy is difficult to achieve satisfactory results, and other means must be carried out.
But traditional treatment can destroy cancer cells and damage normal cells.
Liu Xiaole, a longtime professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology at Harvard School of Public Health and director of the Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, told Netease Science and Technology that there are still targeted drugs and immunotherapy for cancer.
At present, there are several levels of targeted therapy, such as organ targeted therapy, cell targeted therapy and molecular targeted therapy. We first identify the target, cancer cells. Because cancer cells have many different characteristics from normal cells, these differences provide us with useful molecular targets. After we find the targets, we can find a specific combination of these targets to attack the target. This allows normal cells to avoid injury.
Cancer immunotherapy is the most advanced cancer treatment method in the world. At present, tumor immunotherapy (anti-PD therapy) mainly focuses on immunocheckpoint inhibitors. It kills tumor by overcoming immunosuppression in patients and reactivating their own immune cells. It is a new concept of anti-tumor therapy. .
Liu Xiaole told Netease technology that traditional treatment, targeted therapy and immunotherapy are complementary to each other, in view of the specificity of each patients tumor, to find the best compound therapy for patients to really play a therapeutic role.
We cant say that all cancers are cured, but I believe that most cancers can be treated and treated in the lifetime of young people today. Liu Xiaole said.
In addition, it is worth reminding that cancer is eroding peoples body, and it also affects peoples feelings and feelings. Therefore, the mood and mood of cancer patients also have a certain impact on the disease. Keeping a positive attitude and keeping yourself in top shape can help patients cope better with cancer.
How to prevent cancer?
Cancer is so terrible. What are the factors that cause cancer? According to the success of scientists, the following aspects:
2. Diet and physical activity: lack of exercise, dietary factors, obesity, overweight and obesity are associated with many types of cancer, such as esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. High levels of fruits and vegetables in diet may protect against multiple cancers. Conversely, excessive consumption of red meat and salted meat may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, preventing healthy eating habits associated with diet related cancer can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise, healthy weight and healthy diet can significantly reduce the risk of cancer.
3. Alcohol consumption: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for a variety of cancers, including oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal and breast cancer. The risk of cancer increases with the increase of alcohol intake. If people drink a lot of alcohol and smoke a lot, the risk of multiple cancers will increase significantly. Alcohol-related specific types of cancer differ between men and women, mainly due to differences in average intake levels. For example, alcohol-induced oral and oropharyngeal cancers accounted for 22% of men, while the corresponding burden for women dropped to 9%. Such gender differences are also reflected in esophageal cancer and liver cancer.
Infectious diseases: Cancer deaths caused by infectious pathogens account for nearly 22% of the developing world and 6% of the industrialized world. Hepatitis B and C causes liver cancer; human papillomavirus infection causes cervical cancer; and Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of gastric cancer.
5. Environmental pollution: Cancer caused by air, water and soil pollution with carcinogenic chemicals accounts for 1-4% of all cancer cases. Drinking water or indoor and ambient air pollution may lead to exposure to environmental carcinogens.
Occupational carcinogens: In the working environment, more than 40 substances, mixtures and exposure to human carcinogens, they are classified as occupational carcinogens. The causal relationship between occupational carcinogens and lung, bladder, larynx, skin, leukemia and nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been well documented.
The World Cancer Foundation and the China Cancer Foundation have jointly proposed 12 recommendations for cancer prevention:
2. keep a good attitude. This is one of the important factors to improve immunity.
3. thin as far as possible in the normal weight range. Diabetic patients are excluded.
4. engage in at least 30 minutes of physical activity every day. Walking is the best sport.
5. avoid drinking sugary drinks. Limit the intake of high-energy foods.
6. eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans.
7. limit red meat intake and avoid processed meat products.
8. men do not exceed two servings a day, and women do not exceed one. (10-15 grams of alcohol content)
9. limit salted food or processed food with salt. Smoked food should also be eaten less.
10. do not use dietary supplements to prevent cancer. Health care products are also rare for health care workers.
11. mothers have better breastfeeding for infants within 6 months. Reduce the incidence of breast cancer.
12. cancer patients should follow the advice of cancer prevention after treatment.
Life is fragile and healthy life starts from scratch.
Appendix: current progress in cancer detection technology
Global technology companies and scientists have never stopped exploring cancer diagnostics. With regard to cancer diagnosis, many new cancer detection technologies are emerging.
AI testing: in early 2017, Google developed an artificial intelligence (AI) system for breast cancer diagnosis. This systematic analysis of a large number of microscopic images of pathological tissue, much faster than in humans, and tumor detection rate as high as 92.4%.
Urine detection: Using nanowire materials, researchers at Nagoya University and other institutions in Japan have developed a new detection technology that can detect about 1,000 microribonucleic acids from 1 ml of urine. Using this technique to analyze the urine of cancer patients, we found that some special microRNA abnormalities were found, which were related to the characteristics of lung cancer, liver cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer and other cancers.
Immunotherapy is an anti-cancer therapy that transforms the bodys immune system to specifically attack tumors. Immunotherapy represented by PD-1/PD-L1 antibody and CAR-T provides a new weapon for human anti-cancer. PD-1/PD-L1 antibody is known as the subversive therapy of cancer.
CAR-T cell therapy works by specifically recognizing antigens on cancer cells. In August 2017, the first CAR-T therapy approved in human history was officially launched to treat recurrent or refractory (r/r) childhood and young adults with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
New Epigenetic Therapy: Researchers at Genentech in the United States have identified a key enzyme that promotes malignant transformation of pancreatic cancer cells by epigenetic modification of cell chromatin, targeting the enzyme or effectively promoting the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to current therapies. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in the United States have found that combining several epigenetic therapies to treat non-small cell lung cancer can make it more responsive to immunotherapy.
There is increasing evidence that cancer epigenetics and cancer immunology depend on each other. Therefore, the combination of immunotherapy and epigenetic therapy will be the next frontier in the development of anticancer drugs.
Advances in cancer vaccines: With the deepening of cancer research, scientists have found that cancer prevention and treatment can be achieved by developing cancer vaccines, which has become a new front for human to conquer cancer.
Cervix, a cervical cancer vaccine, has been approved by the food and Drug Administration of China. In fact, in addition to cervical cancer, many cancers are also expected to be controlled through vaccines.
RNA Vaccines Help the Immune System Prevent Cancer: A study at the University of Mainz in Germany used the immune systems response to viral infections to develop a nanoparticle RNA vaccine. The vaccine was injected intravenously into the body and successfully elicited an anti-cancer immune response in laboratory mice and three patients with advanced melanoma. The study paved the way for the emergence of universal cancer vaccines, which promise to make cancer immunotherapy a reality.
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine found that injecting specific double-stranded RNA into liver cancer mice at the precancerous stage could activate the innate immune system and prevent the growth of liver cancer cells in mice. The study suggests that there may be a vaccine that can prevent the occurrence of cancer in people at high risk of liver cancer.
The new vaccine is effective against HER2-positive breast cancer: data show that HER2-positive breast cancer accounts for 20-30% of all human breast cancer, and is the most dangerous breast cancer. Researchers at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and the University of Bologna in Italy have developed a new vaccine technique to combat HER2-positive breast cancer in mice. In addition, scientists from Huazhong University of Science and Technology and other research institutes have found that loading HER2-positive breast cancer antigen into silicon particles can greatly improve the effectiveness of the vaccine. Developing a cancer vaccine against HER2 may help the bodys immune system recognize and destroy cancer cells that overexpress HER2, without bringing any source of information to healthy cells: Netease Technologies, Beijing News, Popular Science China, Shell Web, Wikipedia. Two thousand five hundred and forty-one
The new vaccine is effective against HER2-positive breast cancer: data show that HER2-positive breast cancer accounts for 20-30% of all human breast cancer, and is the most dangerous breast cancer. Researchers at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and the University of Bologna in Italy have developed a new vaccine technique to combat HER2-positive breast cancer in mice. In addition, scientists from Huazhong University of Science and Technology and other research institutes have found that loading HER2-positive breast cancer antigen into silicon particles can greatly improve the effectiveness of the vaccine. Developing a cancer vaccine that protects against HER2 may help the immune system recognize and destroy cancer cells that overexpress HER2 without causing any damage to healthy cells.
Sources: NetEase technology, Beijing News, popular science China, nutshell, Wikipedia