There are some claims that integrated circuits are more high-tech than aerospace. In 2017, Chinas integrated circuit imports reached 377 billion yuan, up 10.1% over the same period last year, and imports amounted to US $260 billion 100 million (about 17561 billion yuan), an increase of 14.6% over the same period last year. In 2017, the import of Chinas goods was 12 trillion and 460 billion yuan, which means that the import of integrated circuits accounted for 14.1% of the total import of China, while the total import of crude oil in China was only about $150 billion in the same period. China spends nearly two times as much on semiconductor chip imports as crude oil. Recently, more and more people are concerned about the progress of Chinas self-developed chips. What steps do we need to make a Chinese core? Present situation The cost of importing semiconductor chips is nearly two times that of crude oil Probably not everyone knows about integrated circuits, but many people have heard Moores law. Moores Law means that when the price is constant, the number of components that can be accommodated on an integrated circuit doubles every 18 months and doubles the performance. Half a century ago, this speculation, put forward by Moore, one of Intels founders, lasted for more than 50 years. Moores law reveals the speed of development in the field of integrated circuits. In such a high-speed innovation and development, IC products continue to reduce costs, improve performance and increase functionality. It is also in this rapid development that the gap between countries in integrated circuit technology is widening. Insiders say that if China wants to catch up with top companies in the main integrated circuit area, it will need more time than the whole system. The public information of the General Administration of Customs shows that the import of integrated circuits has exceeded crude oil for three years since 2015, and the import difference between the two parties is more than $95 billion a year. Among them, in 2017, Chinas IC imports reached 377 billion yuan, up 10.1% over the same period last year, and imports amounted to US $260 billion 100 million (about 17561 billion yuan), up 14.6% over the same period last year. In 2017, the import of Chinas goods was 12 trillion and 460 billion yuan, which means that the import of integrated circuits accounted for 14.1% of the total import of China, while the total import of crude oil in China was only about $150 billion in the same period. China spends nearly two times as much on semiconductor chip imports as crude oil. investigation The chip has dozens of gate classes on thousands of small doors A chip is a silicon chip containing integrated circuits, which is small in size and is often part of a computer or other electronic device. Chipset is a series of interrelated chip combinations. They are interdependent and combined to play more roles. For example, the central processor (CPU) in the computer and the radio frequency, baseband and ADC in the communication base station are the larger integrated circuits that are combined by multiple chips. The integrated circuit is a very precise instrument whose unit is nanometer. One nanometer is 1/100000 millimeters. This requires strict and high standards for design and manufacturing processes. There are many kinds of chips, the chief analyst, Gu Wenjun, told the Beijing Youth Daily: only from the product category, there are dozens of gate types and thousands of small doors, and more if the equipment process is involved. The United States is a holistic and omni-directional lead, and we are just breaking through some areas, and these areas are not the core, high end areas, such as Chinas memory, CPU, FPG and high-end analog chips, power chips, and so on. If China does research and development, it may break through in some small categories. rack down sb. to interview There are hundreds of chips in a communication base station As an example of the operators business, the communication base station equipment is one of its most important products. In a communication base station, there are hundreds of chips responsible for the realization of different functions. In simple terms, the base station launches and reclaims signals, and the signal is first filtered to stabilize the signal, and then the chip amplifies such a particularly small signal; then the chip is parsed and processed; then the chip is responsible for transmission and distribution. The core of the base station is similar to the computer, which can realize various functions, but it can support multiple phones, so it is faster and the chip is more complex. The people said. Among them, the most typical is the ADC chip. China is unable to produce alternative products at present. The ADC chip is the analog to digital conversion chip, which is responsible for converting the continuous analog signals received by the antenna to the digital signals for calling or accessing the Internet. At present, ADC relies mainly on the supply of companies such as Adno and TI. In terms of software, EDA simulation software is another typical example. Using this software, an electronic designer can design a chip system on a computer. A lot of work can be done by computer, and a combination of multiple products can be implemented. If there is no EDA simulation software, it is necessary to manually design and test. At present, there are more than ten kinds of EDA softwares that are widely influenced by China, and basically come from the United States. It takes 5000 steps to make a chip An expert in the field of chip manufacturing told the North Youth newspaper that the manufacturing process of a chip is very complex, and a production line involves more than 50 industries and 2000-5000 processes. For the foundries, it is necessary to purify the sand into silicon, then cut it into crystal and then process the crystal. The wafer processing plant consists of two processes. The front process is divided into several large modules - lithography, film, etching, cleaning, and injection. The post process is mainly encapsulated - interconnect, wire and seal. Among them, photolithography is the link between manufacturing and design. Many of these processes are carried out in an independent factory, and the equipment used is also required by a specialized plant; the materials used include hundreds of special gases, liquids, and targets, all of which require special chemical industry. In addition, the production of integrated circuits is carried out between ultra clean rooms, and the exhaust and air purification systems are also needed. It is said that integrated circuits are more advanced than aerospace. According to the industry, this statement is also justified, the reliability of the space is estimated to be 4 9, 5 9 (X 9 indicates that the system can normally use time and total time in the process of using the software system for a year). Now the purity of silicon wafer material will be more than 6 or more than 9. Global chips are almost monopolized by us, Japan and Europe According to the report of the prospective research institute, the global chips are still mainly American, Japanese and European enterprise products, and the high-end market is almost monopolized by the three major regions. In the field of high-end chips, because domestic manufacturers have not yet formed scale effect and cluster effect, their production is still dominated by OEM mode. By the end of 2015, the data showed that there were 94 advanced crystal manufacturers worldwide, of which 17 were in the United States, 71 were in Asia (9 in China) and 6 in Europe. Japan took the lead in the 80s in the last century, but its global semiconductor market share began to decline significantly since 90s. By 2015, only 3 Japanese chip manufacturers ranked the top twenty in the world - Toshiba, reesa electronics and SONY. At the same time, other countries in East Asia have become the main companies in the dynamic random access memory market. Samsung Electronics and Hai Shi Li are currently the second and third largest semiconductor companies in the world. According to the latest statistics from the American Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), the chip market share of China and the United States expanded from January 2017 to February, respectively, 33.10% and 19.73%, and the chip market share in Japan and Europe declined, 9.29% and 9.12%, respectively. Chinas chip market is the largest and fastest growing market in the world, but its dependence on foreign trade is too high. Hotspot Intel has always been the largest chip maker in the world Intel has been the largest chipmaker in the world since January 1993. Intel occupies 80% of the CPU processor used by personal computers. People familiar with Pentium, Cy Young, and core processors come from Intel. At present, Intels annual battalion yield continues to grow, from PC, data center server or Internet of things chip. In 2016, Intel was still the worlds largest chip supplier, with annual sales of chips amounting to US $54 billion 90 million, an increase of 4.6% over 2015 and a market share of 15.7%. Bright spot Chinas top three semiconductors are HUAWEI, violet and ZTE. According to the statistics of China Semiconductor Industry Association, the sales volume of Chinas IC industry reached 541 billion 130 million yuan in 2017, an increase of 24.8% over the same period last year. Among them, the integrated circuit manufacturing industry has the fastest growth rate, an increase of 28.5% in 2017 and a sales volume of 144 billion 810 million yuan. The design industry and the sealing industry continued to maintain rapid growth, with the growth rate of 26.1% and 20.8% respectively, with sales volume of 207 billion 350 million yuan and 188 billion 970 million yuan respectively. A new ranking report on the ten largest integrated circuit design / manufacturing industry in 2017, published by the semiconductor association and the Ministry of industry and information industry and information industry, shows that HUAWEI Hass semiconductor is the first among the top ten integrated circuit design enterprises in China, and the Thunis is 11 billion. Yuan ranked second; ZTE microelectronics ranked 7 billion 600 million at third. Subsequently, there are also Hua Da semiconductor, smart core microelectronics, sink top technology, CAD microelectronics, Shenzhen Technology Co., Ltd., geo microelectronics and medium star microelectronics. Observe Can China jump from the IP core in the United States? Some experts say that Chinas integrated circuit is not too late to start, only a few years later than the United States. However, due to many factors such as European and American technology blockade and domestic historical problems, the gap between Europe and the United States is relatively large, and it is difficult to catch up in a short time. One practitioner told the Beiqing newspaper that from the whole industry, the American card is IP. The war around IP is more intense. Even if you use other peoples technology, people have property rights. You cant get around it to solve the problem. The data show that the IP core has designed some modules, such as FIR filters, SDRAM controllers, and PCI interfaces, which are commonly used but more complex in digital circuits, and are designed to be modifiable parameters. The Chinese integrated circuit industry has been popular with the word bend over. Many people are wondering if they can jump off the IP core in the United States and develop a complete set of ecosystems. But its really too complicated. Many industry researchers say that the current integrated circuits in China are systematically backward, and the overall promotion needs to be done from basic research and talent training. It takes longer time. We need to cultivate basic talents in mathematics and physics. When these people are brought up, they are trained to intersect with other subjects. They need to master the technology of industrial design. Case display HUAWEI Hass Semiconductor Co., Ltd. was founded in 2004, the predecessor of HUAWEI integrated circuit design center, founded in 1991. At present, Hass is headquartered in Shenzhen and has design branches in Beijing, Shanghai, Silicon Valley and Sweden. Its products cover chips and solutions in wireless networks, fixed networks, digital media and other fields. They have been successfully applied to more than 100 countries and regions in the world. In the field of digital media, SoC network monitoring chips and solutions, videophone chips and solutions, DVB cores and solutions, IPTV chips and solutions have been introduced. . HUAWEI Hesters products are used in many business lines, such as operator business and consumer business, while ordinary consumers are more aware of the kylin processor on HUAWEI phones. At present, many of the HUAWEI phones include the Mate series, the P series and the glorified mobile phones. Kirin 960 is also rated by the foreign media as the 2016 best Android processor, which outperforms the high pass processor. He Tingbo, President of Hass, once said, we are starting to make 7 nm, and we are following the industry together to see these 5 nanometer advanced processes. Hisilicon Kirin 960 was rated as 2016 best Android processor violet is developing its own CPU with independent controllable structure. The purple light exhibition is the purple light groups response to the national integrated circuit development strategy, and has developed vigorously through capital operation, enterprise layout and so on. In December 2013, the group bought the first and third world ranked Telecom baseband chip design enterprise exhibition communications company on NASDAQ in the United States, and completed the merger and acquisition of anatase microelectronics company in July 2014, which was the same as the NASDAQ listed companies and the domestic ranked second. . In 2016, purple light holding Shanghai Hong Mao Microelectronics Co., Ltd. was in the field of integrated circuit packaging and testing. At the same time, in 2016, Wuhan Changjiang storage Co., Ltd. was held by Purple Light Holdings, and in Chengdu and Nanjing, storage chips and memory manufacturing plants with total investment of nearly $100 billion were signed in succession in Chengdu and Nanjing. According to its official website, in 2015, violet launched its cooperation with Intel to develop a system chip based on Intels x86 architecture and go public. At present, violet has more than 5000 employees, of whom more than 90% are R & D personnel, and has 16 R & D centers worldwide. Violet is working hard to develop CPU, an independently controlled domestic architecture. Source: Beiqing Net - Beijing Youth Daily editor: Ding Guang Sheng _NT1941 The purple light exhibition is the purple light groups response to the national integrated circuit development strategy, and has developed vigorously through capital operation, enterprise layout and so on. In December 2013, the group bought the first and third world ranked Telecom baseband chip design enterprise exhibition communications company on NASDAQ in the United States, and completed the merger and acquisition of anatase microelectronics company in July 2014, which was the same as the NASDAQ listed companies and the domestic ranked second. . In 2016, purple light holding Shanghai Hong Mao Microelectronics Co., Ltd. was in the field of integrated circuit packaging and testing. At the same time, in 2016, Wuhan Changjiang storage Co., Ltd. was held by Purple Light Holdings, and in Chengdu and Nanjing, storage chips and memory manufacturing plants with total investment of nearly $100 billion were signed in succession in Chengdu and Nanjing. According to its official website, in 2015, violet launched its cooperation with Intel to develop a system chip based on Intels x86 architecture and go public. At present, violet has more than 5000 employees, of whom more than 90% are R & D personnel, and has 16 R & D centers worldwide. Violet is working hard to develop CPU, an independently controlled domestic architecture.