A passage about domestic chips and operating systems

category:Internet
 A passage about domestic chips and operating systems


Source: WeChat public number Liang Ning - Hua Zhao Shui Lu Author: Liang Ning The ZTE incident led to a hot discussion of the network. What this is the core of the American card, ten thousand years to come out, Chinese core gun: the lack of core is because of the lack of money domestic operating system, depend on BAT... This kind of speech looks at my chest pain. After a few days, I cant help it today. Talk about the past of your experience. Ten thousand words were written unwittingly. It is divided into several parts: The great opening, the difficulties of the first second sticks, the difficulties of the system ecology and the great collapse, the restoration of the ark and the eternal middle, and why we cant do the operating system. From 2000 to 2002, 3 years ago, as an assistant to Ni Guangnan, I participated in the work of ark CPU, everlasting Office, NC thin client and Linux operating system. Brilliant start In 2001, No. 1 of Fang Zhou was born. The media called it Rewriting the history of Chinas no core . The 863 major projects of the Ministry of science and technology, major projects of the Planning Commission, and the industrial support fund of the Ministry of information industry all gave money. The technical appraisal committee of No. 1 Fang Zhou was produced by the Chinese Academy of engineering. Former president Song Jian and former vice president Zhu Gaofeng personally served as the positive and deputy director of the appraisal committee. On July 10, 2001, Liu Zhihua, the former deputy mayor of Beijing, was the host of the conference of the former deputy mayor of Beijing. Before that, Vice Premier Li Lanqing heard the report for the 3 time. This is the treatment of CPU, No. 1 Fang Zhou. The highest standard of people, money support, all in place. I began to participate in the Ark Project from 2000. I am the author of the report submitted to the 863, the Planning Commission (now called the development and Reform Commission) and the Ministry of letters and production for support. Technical appraisal meetings and press conferences are all involved in the preparations. Its hard to forget that in April 2001, after the first batch of streaming tape came back, after the intense debugging, we saw that the CPU started by ourselves. Liu Qiang looked in my eyes and said, the core is jumping. At that moment, it was hard to forget. Perhaps this is the best moment in that affair. Ark technology is an enterprise founded by Canadian Chinese Li Delei. Li Delei graduated from Harbin Institute of Technology in 1977 and went to Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences to study. He went to Albert University in Canada to study. And then stay in Canada. In January 8, 1997, the founder of ark technology was founded in Beijing. Mainly rely on Li Delei to introduce outsourcing business. In 1997, Li Delei, who left Motorola, joined Hitachi (USA) semiconductor company as the director of microprocessor design. In contrast, BBTs outsourcing business also shifted from Motorola to the latter, mainly based on the Hitachi chip. At that time, Liu Qiang graduated from Ph.D. and joined vice president of research and development. In 1999, Li Delei found Ni Guangnan. Ni Guangnan saw that he had trained a complete technical team to do CPU - this is what he longed for. At that time, the Chinese IT industry and Ni Guangnan himself had been concerned about the operation system and chips without independent intellectual property rights. (18 years, still so) At that time, Xu Guanhua, Minister of science and technology, once said, Chinas information industry is short of core and little soul. The core is the chip, and the soul refers to the operating system. So, Ni Guangnan helped the ark find money, find the government, find all resources needed by the core, and he himself did not get a cent from SMIC, zero shares. He is willing to pay everything. He wants a new core framework of IT industry. Ni Guangnan, the academician, told me about the CPU+Linux operating system of the ark, the thin client NC, cloud + end solution, instead of the Wintel architecture, I was so excited to hold my fist tightly and nail into the meat. We used to play Lenovo games designed by Wintel Alliance (Microsoft and Intel alliance). Wintel is your top floor. Your cost and performance can only be in the space it sets. Now, our group is working to change the core framework. To bring our IT industry a completely different imagination and design space for cost and performance. This is a great thing! The difficulties of the first and second bars We have the technology of CPU and SOC, and the money given by the government is also in place, and the chip is also made. At this point, the real difficulty begins. The hardest thing to do is not to develop CPU. From the beginning of the industrial revolution, Europe has realized and understood the value of protecting intellectual property rights in order to encourage knowledge innovation. The United States is blue. A patent can be registered as long as it is a Idea. Patent protection is one of the core competitiveness of Intel. Intels long-term large-scale professional lawyer team has registered almost all patents related to X86 system. Why there is AMD. INTEL is a shareholder of IBM, and IBM is a AMD shareholder. This is itu3002 So for the team of the ark, it is not the technical difficulty of the X86 system, but on this road, every step, you will encounter the patent of INTEL. We cant afford a lawsuit. Therefore, Ni Guangnan made the technical route choice is to take the RISC structure, do embedded, bypass the X86 system. Then second difficult is that, in the early 2000, the Chinese IT industry not only do not do CPU, and even based on CPU, they do not have the ability to design their own core circuit boards. At that time, China also had the list of top 100 electronic industry enterprises. We think of second. Behind it, there were Ni Guangnan, Song Jian and other big men. I took the list of Chinese electronic enterprises and found 100th from first, and found the chief engineer of each big company. The dialogue is always the way it is: I: we have independent intellectual property CPU, we also have the ability of SOC, so that we can greatly integrate the functions you want, and your company can define the performance and volume of your product more flexibly. The other person: Oh, Im sorry. We have no ability to develop product prototypes based on a CPU. They are all INTEL or his Designhouse do the public board, we choose one, then we develop it based on their board. We found that Intel did not make CPU, but nurtured a CPU based development ecosystem. The first stick is the core component. Second rods are countless small Designhouse around the Intel to make public boards, make product innovation, product prototyping, do differential optimization. Then, the next bar is to select the product prototype from Designhouse and make it commercialized. Put on the market. Do brand, do sales, and do customer service. In 2000, our top 100 electronics companies were basically third. So, when we make CPU, and the core jumps. We hold it to our hands and want to give it to others. There is no third stick company in China. There is no way, only forward. So after completing CPU, ark technology set up hardware team and made the prototype of NC, and made the public board. Its equivalent to a small CPU design company, and it has to work for Designhouse at the same time. Finally, CPU and product prototypes are all OK, which can deliver a commercialized operation of a third bar enterprise. Yu Cisheng was the first to eat crabs in Beijing. The difficulty of system ecology -- a great collapse The next question comes. The bigger problem. Wintel alliance. Microsoft, which is more difficult to break through the Intel. CPU did it, then prototype it, then make the product yourself. After finishing the product, it is found that no supporting software is available. A NC board, the ark technology bite and dry. But so many software transplants, adaption and two development are not done by 1, 10 or 100 companies. At this time, Yu Cisheng launched the sailing plan, aiming at more than 50 problems of the 13 major categories of Linux desktop, bidding in the whole country. Browsers, OFFICE, players... One solution. Then, he did the famous thing in the circle -- the selection of office software of the Beijing municipal government, and kicked Microsoft out. The IT circle was a sensation, and Microsoft China President Gao Qunyao resigned. Then Kissinger wrote to Liu Qi, who was mayor of Beijing, and intercede for Microsoft. Pressure to deal with Yu Cisheng. (no wonder the US politicians serve the business of their own country too. At that time, China had just succeeded in bidding for the Olympic Games. Kissingers pressure was BOSS killing power. It was the winter of 2001, the biggest snow in Beijing. On that day, more than ten academicians joined the prime minister and interacted with Yu Cisheng. Zhang Xiaoxiang, one of the founders of the Chinese computer business, and the academician of the two academicians, signed the first Ni Guangnan. It is said that Premier Zhu saw the joint name of more than ten academicians. 863 plan, from March 1986, 4 academicians jointly wrote to Deng Xiaoping. Because time occurs in March 1986, so it is referred to as 863. From then on, this is the key program of Chinas hi tech development. The start of 863 is the joint name of 4 academicians. Bao Shu, there are more than a dozen academicians. I remember it all the time. Later, at home, look at Saint Seiya, and the 12 golden holy warriors go to righteousness for the sake of wearing the light of the sigh wall. More than a dozen academicians signed their names without any benefit to them. They just want to protect the light. Therefore, I do not want to recall the past, because we failed. From then on, we have become the laughingstock of many people. Especially academician Ni Guangnan. This is a phrase I learned after 10 years of joining Tencent: user experience. If this war is simple, it is that we have settled the prime minister and failed to get the user experience. The result is the collapse of the mountain. In 2003, Yu Cisheng set up another sail plan. Summon all the Office players in China, and invited Korean HancomOffice and Japanese taro technicians. Microsoft, China, Japan and South Korea together to crack the document format, in order to read and save. The effect is not good. In this way, we failed. Later, the ark CPU stopped developing. Bankruptcy liquidation. The tens of thousands of NC that the government paid to support an industry were estimated to have sold scrap iron long ago. When I saw the news, I felt that my face was clipped by the door. I watched the person who joked at Harvards graduation ceremony that Dad, I finally got the diploma, the retired charitable person, who would choose a sick boy on the cover of a sick boy when he was on duty editor of the Time. I think the man is an angel or a devil. He really did a lot of good things. But he failed to get the general software industry in China. As a small businessman, secular success is easy. In 03 years, I left Mr. Nis alliance and felt very sad that I was a deserter in a great sacrifice war. In the 08 year, when I started my website, a child sat at night in the latest version of the red hat desktop. I passed by, saw at a glance, stopped, and then I used it. Try this, try that, and you cant help crying. If the desktop can have such a standard in 2002, this big ticket holder should not lose so ugly. After leaving teacher Ni, after more than a year, a lot of people look for me to work, more than half of the two kinds of things, one kind is I agent a product, you help me build a channel in China. Or I made a product, you run the government relationship for me. These two kinds of things, I dont want to do any more. But in addition to this, I wont be anything else. Later, I ran to the King Road. I told him: after all these years, what I learned was only needed for a very large system. I want to learn something specific for you to support your family. Later, Wang Lu asked me to be the general manager of a digital magazine to be closed. I came out from Wang Lu and made a telephone call to Lei Jun. Im going to work. I showed him the magazine in my hand and said it was the general manager of the magazine. Lei Jun said, why do you want to do this? I said: I cant find a job. Lei Jun said, but why do you want to do this? Lei Jun said, well, you do it. The general manager of a magazine is actually advertising sales. It is not difficult to write an advertising proposal of three hundred and fifty thousand to advertisers by writing the quality of hundreds of millions of proposals to the Planning Commission. The first time a customer asked for a kickback. I cant confirm that this is the money? But think about it or try it. That night, I shed tears for a long time. In the past, I worked hard every morning and early for the sake of friendship and honor. From then on, I didnt get half a fortune in anything I could do, but I only did a small business of advertising to kickbacks. Later, I learned to do websites. Later, I sold the website to Tencent, and later... 10 years have passed. In the eyes of the world, I was a success. Academician Ni Guangnan is still sticking to it At the beginning of 2014, I left the Tencent. After finishing the formalities, I sent a WeChat to academician Ni Guangnan: Mr. Ni, I left Tencent. Miss Ni replied, you came to see me. I have a business here. Ill go and see him. In 2013, government procurement studied the strategy of Win8 and consulted academician Ni Guangnan. Academician Ni Guangnan directly wrote to the general secretary and said frankly: based on shareware architecture, we develop and develop Chinas autonomous and controllable operating system. More than 10 years later, he experienced defeat and reproach, and he paid his respects to the Ministry of science and technology. In early 14, I went to see him. The cotton dress he wore was the one in 2001. Ni academician still trusts me, directly pull me and his core several people together to discuss how to promote, under the mobile scene autonomous control operation system. 10 years have passed. Its Google and apple that beat Microsoft. Microsoft is still so strong, its just the end of the PC era. Both Yu Cisheng and Li Wuqiang have retired. Li Delei was insensible and went bankrupt in the middle. Liu Qiang left the ark 05 years ago to set up Mr. Zheng, and in 2010, IPO. Now 360 cameras, millet watches and many other chips are mostly made by Liu Qiang. In 2000, academician Ni Guangnans investment in ark CPU still had results. HUAWEI bought the ARM authorization and made the Hass chip. Millet also sold several hundred million pineal processors. Just like more than 10 years ago, as long as the intellectual property rights problem is solved, the technical route is chosen, and the people who can do it are put to work. CPU/ chips can be produced. Its still an operating system. The gap is still ecological. In the same year, it was a Intel, but a Microsoft. Now, around Arm, cant make Android. In that period, Mr. Ni took part in several high-end meetings. Full of Zhu Zi, also talking about the discourse system 14 years ago. For the past 10 years, I have not reported to a leader, and I havent had a minute to speculate on leadership intentions. I just need to continue to do one thing, that is, to see the needs of users and optimize the user experience. This is exactly the two way to do things in the system. The second time, I left Teacher Ni again. At that time, I thought I could directly judge that it could not be done. That is to say, if the practice is not changed, it may still be able to get a lot of money, lots of resources and lots of land to be built, but the ecosystem of the operating system can not be built. Android has three: 1. Continuous iterative optimization of the Android system itself 2, now we are very accustomed to various applications based on Android: WeChat, business, games, life, entertainment... 15 years ago, the transplanting of desktop office applications had made the group of warriors die. Now, the number is far greater than the number of applications transplanted in the past, and there is also a larger and more abundant ecosystem. It is still the original system, or the original way. In the face of a bigger battle, there is no chance of winning. It is a completely different feeling to quit a company and leave a person, not to accompany this person, to support his ideals. I resigned from Lenovo and resigned from the Tencent. But I have been deeply ashamed of the second time I left academician Ni Guangnan. He was 75 years old. This is the dream of his life. I am a disciple who he likes and trusts. I didnt help him. Reversion of ark and everlasting Today again, more than ten years ago, ark and Yong Zhong did something wrong. First of all, Fang Zhou. First of all, ark technology is Li Deleis personal company. Li Deleis purpose of opening this company is to make money, and his choice is natural and what money can be made to do. Ni Guangnan saw the companys talent reserve and Knowhow reserve, pulled up all his own contacts and credit, and hoped that through a project, the talent reserve and Knowhow reserve of the ark would be condensed into the bottom of the IT system for sustainable development. Where is the wrong thing? Thats the organizational principle I mentioned in my 30 thought of product thinking. The first class organization is common faith, The second rate is in the common interest, The common rules of the three flow organization. So, with this organizational principle, lets see why Li Delei is treacherous. Ni Guangnans interest is to let ark reserves and Knowhow reserves become the bottom of a sustainable IT system. Therefore, the basis for cooperation between the two is that Ni Guangnan can meet the common rules if Li Delei can continue to meet the demands of his interests. That is to say, once Li Delei is not satisfied with what he has offered to his interests, the rules are immediately inconsistent. So, after the NC market failed to start, Li Delei immediately made a 863 default and turned to other businesses to make money. Of course, Li Delei handled something very ugly and even more criticized. But fundamentally speaking, Li Delei and Ni Guangnan are not an organization that can conspire and carry great pressure. If the problem of the ark is the basis of organization, the core of the organization is very good. Zhang Yanqing and Cao Shens common interests and common belief are almost the most important. The problem of eternity is product definition and user experience. In my product thinking 30 lectures, I use a lesson to talk about user value formula. This formula is actually put forward by Yu Jun. I think so. User value = (new experience - old experience) - replacement cost You want to get a user, relying on the user value. The user gets a high enough value and he will migrate. For example, hundreds of millions of users migrate from text messages to WeChat smoothly. What is called a user. We have relied on government instructions to install Office in the tens of thousands of government offices on public servants. Do we get this user? OK, first calculate the value of Yong Zhong Office to the user. If Microsofts office software experience 90 points, price experience 50 points, two one by one, Microsoft office software gives users the old experience of 45 points. Yong Zhong Office experience 70 points, price experience we calculate 90 points, two points 63 points. Wing Chung Office can unilaterally say that the new experience he brings to users is 63 points, better than Microsoft. But there are still replacement costs. What are the users replacement costs? Brand awareness, acquisition cost, learning cost, use cost, and use cost include timely assistance in the process of using problems. We know that Bill Gates is the worlds richest man for a long time, Microsoft Corp brand, channel, product maturity, customer service system, including the sharing of users all over the Internet and so on, and the issue of the compatibility of document format I mentioned earlier. User replacement costs are actually very high. If we go down, the replacement cost of users is 20 points. Then user value = new experience 63 points - old experience 45 points - user replacement cost 20 points = minus 2 points. That is to say, we are highly motivated to score high Office for Yong Zhong, Microsoft, and low user mobility, ignoring the cost of user migration. It is not the intention of the user to migrate at all. At the same time, we need to note that government procurement is paid by the unit. Therefore, users actually do not perceive the price experience. So, if we use user experience to score, The =70-90-20=-40 score of the user value of everlasting In fact, its lower than the score. Caos core competitiveness is defined as data integration. He analyzed that Microsoft Office software has obvious defects: Word, Excel and PowerPoint are three independent and integrated applications. If the document processing, spreadsheet, and slide production are integrated into the same program, then the user modifies the data in the document, and the corresponding data in the spreadsheet and slide will be automatically modified, and the user will not need to find the place to be modified one by one. What the helluff01 A data should be referenced in Word, Excel and PowerPoint at the same time. This is a very low frequency application scenario, OK? I have just recollections of my own documentation operations over the past 5 years, with less than one data integration. In Yong Zhong, Cao Shen is the core of the undisputed product. Zhang Yanqing is very much in support of Cao Shen. Ni teacher took me to the road of Yong Zhong and praised the spirit of collective struggle. When we were waiting for a bus, Mr. Ni said, buy an ice cream for you. How about the strawberry? Alas, for the ice cream, I left two times. He was sorry for the ice cream. Back to wing Chung, the problem of wing Chung is that it does not pay enough attention to enhance user experience in the users most frequent use scenarios. Instead, it takes the core strength to work hard for a user who hasnt used it for 5 years, and is complacent about it. I watched the outcome of Yong Zhong and Cao Shens recollection on the Internet, and Cao Shen put his resentment on Tang Min and others. In fact, it shouldnt. Yong Zhong was bankrupt and liquidated because he owed 10 million yuan in debt. 10 million RMB, an ordinary house in Beijing. If the user value of the product is clear and positive, raising 10 million yuan is not difficult. Wing Chung has a solid organization that has a good start and has made 7 or 8 products. But it was defeated. In his recollection, he boasts of his own innovation and resentments to his opponent, but there is no complete user scene, user experience map, and user value. Ma Huateng said: product managers can not fight for their self-esteem. It is possible to cultivate innovative ecology by changing the way of examination. Re opened my understanding of ark and Yong Zhongs two star enterprises more than ten years ago, the core defeat point. We did make a mistake at that time. We are wrong in many aspects such as organization design, user insight, user experience and so on. But the government failed to support a major project. Over ten years later, China still had no chips and operating systems. This is not our fault. Then try to find out why twenty years later, we have a number of high buildings, many counties have been built like Beijing, we have the new four new inventions. But we still have no operating system. In the international space of information society, China is a network power. But this network power is built on Microsofts Windows and Googles Android. In 2014, I accompanied Mr. Ni to a very high-end Seminar on mobile operating system ecology. I say, if our country really wants a mobile operating system ecology, it is quite clear and clear that the countrys money, the seed, 100 billion in a year to the market, even 5 years of money. A large area of failure is allowed. The officials then talked about how to make high government investment assets from the science park to ensure the investment results. I have no language. And then quit. Why do we build the house and put the satellite on it, but we cant operate the system? In fact, Lenovo and Lenovo sell the Wintel framework PC to the world first, but it cant take a stick to do the core technology, and can not take a step further to the next, embrace the Internet and the mobile Internet. The reason is the same. The collective mental model of the system is highly dependent on certainty. Within the framework of certainty, internal talent is highly competitive and can not contain failure. ???? The result is overmanagement. All people are proud to make sure that they are determined again. Uncertainty is fear, it is panic. Failure is a shame, a stain. Innovation and creativity, from germination to growth, are accompanied by uncertainty and failure. This is Lenovo or our system, fear and intolerance. And market oriented enterprises, they follow customers, follow the market. In the past 14 years, Mr. Ni has again promoted the mobile operating system. Let me talk to Tencent about whether WeChat can be transplanted to an autonomous and controllable operating system. I immediately found the Tencents big brother, talked about the general secretarys instructions, and then asked whether WeChat could transplant. The reaction of Tencent people is consistent with my expectation: we follow customers. There is no amount of user, work can not be arranged. Therefore, there is an article domestic operating system depends on BAT, which is expected to get a fortune every quarter to support the share price of listed companies? Dont pull it off. How much money did the ark and the everlasting Today, looking back, it is regarded as a major failure. How much money has been invested in the ark and Yong Zhong project, which have broken countless heroes? Fang boat 3 research and development funds appropriation of 15 million 380 thousand yuan, such as according to the 863 project project budget requirements, the salary of the researchers should not exceed 15%, about 2 million 300 thousand yuan, then the nearly 60 workers involved in the research and development of Fang Zhou is also salary of more than 2 thousand yuan per month. Li Delei said that the money was too small for wages. It was then mocked by the 863 experts. The expert explained that the chip project funds are mainly used on the chip and EDA tools, and the salary is only small. Ignore the market, ignore the human nature. Liu Qiang, I am such a person. Its easy for us to do something easy. If we find people like us, let them do the hardest things and give them the least money. Why do our officials take it for granted. In the middle of the world? Cao said: since 2000 to 2008, the technology has been allocated more than 8000 yuan by the government, and has invested 152 million yuan in product research and development. In the same period, the sales revenue of products was only 5000 yuan, and the company lost more than 5000 yuan. Did a bunch of post-90s investment fund managers laugh? We use our toes to recall how much of this new invention was burned. Do not recall a thousand regiment war, do not recall taxi subsidy war. In 2018, a bike company burned 10 billion of the motorcycle that left behind peers. How much money has been burned for the CPU+ operation system plus core office software of Chinas independent intellectual property rights? Count all the NC that turned into scrap. This number is a terrible memory. More than ten years later, the State paid a fine for ZTE. A sum of 800 million dollars. However, the money paid out by the state is not erroneous. This is the choice of our system. No one will dare to do something wrong. More than ten years ago, Li Wuqiang stood out with fear of losing his black cap. This kind of fool has been so few in more than ten years. And a few fools have failed. A lesson in front of the car. Whose delusion, whose shame So, I say the government wants to operate the system. What is needed is not to invest in a team, but to burn money and burn an ecosystem. Its burning money. Tolerate failure. During the Warring States period, Yu Yishui built the gold platform on the Bank of Yan Zhao, who was able to recruit a member of the world. Market and human nature, why should we deceive ourselves? When a bicycle burns 10 billion, our countrys operating system and complex ecosystem will require countless people to participate. Do you plan to invest in a few companies in a definite way, give you less than 15 million, and then go to Android? Whose delusion is this? Why is it harder to challenge Android than to challenge Microsoft? Because today, Androids ecosystem is bigger, more prosperous and more frequent. From office, business, life, entertainment. Almost all the digital space of an individual and enterprise can be completed by mobile phone. Our dependence on mobile scenes is much larger than that of desktop. How much does Microsoft OFFICE invest? Microsoft is a publicly traded company and publicly released its financial results. In 2016-2017, Microsofts R & D investment was 12 billion 400 million euros a year. About 100000000000 RMB. Microsoft has invested 100 billion RMB in one year. I dont know in the middle, how much money is used for OFFICE. However, in any case, the 8 years of Yong Zhong spent 150 million, and the failure of the challenge became a major blemish. I do not know whose delusion and shame. 18 years ago, academician Ni Guangnan and I sighed: pure planning economy or pure market economy. You can make big things. In the eyes of the world, he was a Tang Ji. Liu Chuanzhi was expelled from Lenovo, a major project that had not been completed. To be used by one person for this dream. And he knew he was being used, and still preferred to risk his life in the name of water. No action, no fault people laugh at him: ignorant of the times, old people cheated, being cheated is still doing...... Then everyone continues to pay for the core less directly and indirectly. I do not know whose delusion and shame. Concluding remarks I was very reluctant to recall the past because I was filled with passion, loss, doubt, guilt and complex emotions. Take advantage of this opportunity to take a breath and write it out today. Not to miss Ni. Because teacher Ni is a real gentleman. If I show him, he will avoid this man and consider it for that person. From last night, I suddenly wanted to write. I couldnt sleep at 6:00 this morning. I got up and wrote ten thousand words in one breath. Perhaps the writing should not be written, I have written all. This is my personal perspective, personal narrative. One year, I went to Changbai Mountain to play with Hao Xilong and his friends. The farm house at the foot of the mountain. In this farmyard, I met Liu Qiang. Farewell to the ark. I did not expect to see this place thousands of miles away after many years. The old teenager has been spotted on the temples. At that time he had founded the monarch. The ark of the ark, everyone would not like to mention it again. So many good comrades in arms, we have dispersed, and have not said goodbye. But attempts, efforts, mistakes and sacrifices have been made. It happened. Put this article on the Internet, so as to fight side by side, support each other, complaining to each other, not good goodbye to the comrades, teachers, say: Thank you, precious. Thank you for reading. The source of this article is Liang Ning - Hua Hua Zhao Shui editor: Hou Wei Cheng _NT4124 One year, I went to Changbai Mountain to play with Hao Xilong and his friends. The farm house at the foot of the mountain. In this farmyard, I met Liu Qiang. Farewell to the ark. I did not expect to see this place thousands of miles away after many years. The old teenager has been spotted on the temples. At that time he had founded the monarch. The ark of the ark, everyone would not like to mention it again. So many good comrades in arms, we have dispersed, and have not said goodbye. But attempts, efforts, mistakes and sacrifices have been made. It happened. Put this article on the Internet, so as to fight side by side, support each other, complaining to each other, not good goodbye to the comrades, teachers, say: Thank you, precious. Thank you for reading.