Fish ace defenses: poisonous and long eyed needling, who will swallow bad luck?

category:Internet
 Fish ace defenses: poisonous and long eyed needling, who will swallow bad luck?


According to the Smithson Institute website, the newly discovered sword shaped socket is expected to reshuffle the relationship between these deadly fish. In 2003, Leo Smith, an evolutionary biologist at University of Kansas in the United States, was dissecting a velvetfish (LeoSmith). He wants to find out the relationship between Scorpaeniformes, which includes the cashmere, the tiger fish, the stone fish and the notorious Leo fish. This purpose is derived from the bone board found on the cheeks of each fish. When he dissected the upper jaw of the velvet skin, he noticed a strange place that he could not remove the lacrimal bone. Smith recalls, for normal fish, there are connective tissue between the maxilla and this bone. You can cut them with anatomical blades. But at that time, I found it difficult to separate this structure. When I finally separated it, I noticed that the structure was uneven, when I suddenly realized that there should be some locking mechanism. His work focuses on the evolution of fish poison and bioluminescence. Most of the skins themselves look weird. They are spines, and they are distributed with drop spots, so the uneven structure is not so rare. But Smith spent years studying the shape of the order, which he had never encountered before. He and his colleagues called the new strange structure lachrymalsaber. This is the X ray diagram of WhiskeredProwfish. It has a sword shaped eye socket. It is a kind of tiger fish that glows in the eye.) Smiths article in collaboration with some members of American fish scientists and reptilian associations was published in the Copeia journal, the first of which described the unlikely eye spines, and they described another kind of small spines that emit green fluorescence. The researchers did not specify the use of the appendage. However, they claim that the discovery of this piercing eye is expected to subvert the evolutionary tree of the shape, and change our understanding of these highly toxic fish. The discovery raises the question of why this luminous, locked sword attachment has been ignored for so long. (a stone fish called SpottedGhoul is half hidden in gravel.) Its easy to miss the stone fish under water. Fish, like their names, are very similar to rocks. They are covered with pebbles and look like underwater rubble or coral reefs. But when you step on one, you will never forget it. There are more poisonous fish in the ocean than land snakes, even more than all poisonous vertebrates. The stone fish is the most poisonous fish on the earth. Unfortunate to be bitten by a stone fish, as a victim once described, hammer your toes with a hammer, and file your toes over and over again with a nail file. Once divers were killed after being bitten by stone fish, but this is not common. The stone fish and their close relatives are also very good at camouflage. Some fish grow algae and Hydra gardens on their backs, and some fish can change colors at will. Bait (decoyscorpionfish) has a bait on its dorsal fin, similar to a small fish swimming. These miraculous creatures live mainly in the tropical waters of the India ocean - Pacific region, which use camouflage to ambush their prey and avoid being a predators lunch. The sword shaped orbital bone is peculiar to these fish, but this kind of eye thorn is somehow neglected. Its structure is very special. Imagine the complex thorns underneath the fish eye, which are locked from side to side like ratchets and pawns, like two sharp arms. Smith said, these fish move the underlying skeleton through the locking mechanism, then rotate their eyes. At least one species, Centropogonaustralis, has a light yellow green fluorescence, while the rest of the fish makes orange red light in some light. Adam Summers, a bioforce and fish specialist at University of Washington, is currently conducting CT scans on 40 thousand species of fish. AdamSummers He has scanned 3052 kinds of fish and 6077 samples. Over the years he has studied many species of fish for the purpose of the shape, but never noticed the structure of the eye thorn. Summers is a science adviser to Pixar Animation Companys first and second Nemo. He said, the vertical defense of fish is very common. This refers to the anatomical defense of certain species when a certain structure is erected under pressure or threat. He said, if you catch a fish and pull it off the hook, you will feel that its back spine will stand up and will tie you all the time. But for many years, we have not discovered the structure under the eyes - eye thorn, it is unbelievable. Smith explained: in the past, the classification of the objective form was chaotic. There are problems in the relationship with the stone fish, and when these fish are regarded as two major pedigree rather than 10 traditional fish families, many of the name of the science level related to them have been cancelled. Now the difference between them is simpler, and the existence of the thorns can completely distinguish these two lineages. (in the field museum, a Apistuscarinatus is eaten by a meat beetle, leaving only bones). When he first dissected the velvet leather, Smith did not understand what he was looking at. He said, I thought they were just a little bit too rough and a little rough. They have a lot of spines and bumps on the head. So I said, Oh, these eye bones are more interesting. Many of these specimens were made by cleaning and staining, and scientists mixed liquid formaldehyde with a trypsin called gastric enzyme to dissolve muscles and other soft tissues. As a result, the bones are dyed red, the cartilage is dyed blue, and the skeletal structure is clearly rendered, like stained glass. This technology makes it easier for scientists to study the skeletal structure of vertebrates. Summers pointed out that people who study fish often have to deal with dead fish, and many very good techniques can not be applied to animals that are unable to move. Its really great to see eye piercing and realize that it is a unified feature of the whole fish group. Smith was not sure why fish evolved this trait. The obvious assumption is that eye spines have defensive functions, because the protruding spines widen the width of the head, making them more difficult to swallow, and more likely to pierce the hunters. Other fish also perform similar defensive measures: the back spines of deep sea lantern sharks have light swords that glow, and scientists believe that the lightsaber is a defensive predator. However, Smith is not sure about the defense effect of eye acupuncture. Another possibility is to attract mates, he said. In other words, the real meaning of eye thorn is still a mystery. In 2006, Smith and Ward Wheeler (WardWheeler) found that over 1200 species of fish were poisonous, while the previous estimate was about 200 species. Ten years later, Smith updated the species of poisonous fish to 2386 to 2962 species. He also wrote a paper with famous fish scientists, Matt Davis (MattDavis) and John Spark (JohnSparks) and published in the Journal of the public library of Science (PlosOne). It is pointed out in the paper that bioluminescence of marine fish lineages has evolved 27 times. He even modified the classification of butterfly fish. Smiths new discovery may subvert peoples understanding of fish relationships, and Sarah Gibson (SarahGibson), an associate professor of biology at St. Claude State University in Minnesota, is devoted to the study of Triassic fishes. I think this is a very important study, she said. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of the fish can actually affect our understanding of the evolutionary history of fish. Summers added that understanding the evolutionary history of the stone fish is the key to protecting them. We need to know their true face, or we cant do protection. The mystery of the sword shaped eye socket is an interesting topic worth exploring. I didnt find it before, and Im still shocked. In the end, the discovery also verifies what Smith said to the New York Times, and despite hundreds of years of research and exploration, we know nothing about the fish. Source: NetEase science editor: Guo Hao _NT5629 Smiths new discovery may subvert peoples understanding of fish relationships, and Sarah Gibson (SarahGibson), an associate professor of biology at St. Claude State University in Minnesota, is devoted to the study of Triassic fishes. I think this is a very important study, she said. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of the fish can actually affect our understanding of the evolutionary history of fish. Summers added that understanding the evolutionary history of the stone fish is the key to protecting them. We need to know their true face, or we cant do protection. The mystery of the sword shaped eye socket is an interesting topic worth exploring. I didnt find it before, and Im still shocked. In the end, the discovery also verifies what Smith said to the New York Times, and despite hundreds of years of research and exploration, we know nothing about the fish.