Bao Zhenan: artificial electronic skin is not fantasy. There will be no intelligent machines in the future.

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 Bao Zhenan: artificial electronic skin is not fantasy. There will be no intelligent machines in the future.


An interview with Cui Yuxian | technology NetEase [who is she Bao Zhenan, Bao Zhenan is Professor of K.K.Lee chemical engineering at Stanford University, Professor of chemistry and professor of materials science and engineering. She was the founder and director of the wearable electronics center at the Stanford University. Before joining the Stanford University in 2004, she was an outstanding technician of the 1995-2004 year Baer Laboratory of Lucent technology. Bao Zhenan is a member of the National Academy of engineering and a member of the National Institute of inventions. Bao Zhenan was chosen as the ten major science and technology figure in 2015 in Nature magazine because of her work on artificial electronic skin. She won the 2017 Polymer Chemistry Award of the American Chemical Society and the AndreasAcrivos chemical engineering professional progress award in 2014. [wonderful speech 1, using electronic skin like electronic materials to make electronic devices is no longer a science fiction dream, but a possible realization. 2, the electronic skin is a trend in the development of the electronics industry, which can stimulate our thinking, let us have more space for imagination, and can stimulate the invention of new materials and new technologies. 3, electronic devices, like skin, can be attached to the surface of our body or under the skin, or in the body, such a sensor system, like our skin, can help our life and help us better understand our physical condition. 4. The next generation of electrons is not only flexible, but also stretchability, self repair and biodegradability. We think the electronic skin is an inevitable trend in the development of the electronic industry in the future. 5, the electronic skin is still in the beginning stage. It needs more basic research. The relationship between the electrical properties and mechanics of these new electronic materials is studied from the material and technological aspects. And how to design the material can make us achieve good electrical function and good mechanical function. [text One morning, the electronic skin on your body will wake you up gently and tell you that todays physical signs are normal and can open a new days work. When you brush your teeth, the mirror will tell you what the weather and temperature are, what kind of clothes you should wear, and if you are interested, tell you what the news is today; when you go out, go out. Dont want to take a key, take a cell phone... All of this is no longer just imagination. Professor Bao Zhenans recent breakthrough in the field of flexible electronics has made mankind a step closer to such a new technological society. As professor Bao Zhenan said, smart phones are now, and artificial electronic skin is the future, the direction of the development of the next generation of electronics industry, and an inevitable trend. In February 2018, in the British journal Nature, Bao Zhenans research team announced that they achieved new breakthroughs in manufacturing technology in the field of flexible electronics. For the first time, a highly sensitive, highly sensitive, highly sensitive stretch transistor array was developed. In order to realize the new mode of electronic devices and final electronic products, we start with the development of new electronic materials, and we have to do it after we have electronic materials. There are a lot of different materials in the integrated circuit, Bao Zhenan explained. These different materials have to be able to make very small different shapes. Then one layer is superimposed on the other. The whole process has dozens of steps to hundreds of steps, so it makes a lot of technical difficulty. The research and development path of manufacturing technology is not simple. According to Bao Zhenan, the team also studied for 8-10 years before making the process. The meaning of this is very important. The reason is very important because everyone used to be flexible electronics, electronic skin could not be stretchable before, and there was no integrated circuit. But integrated circuits are very important for electronic devices, because display screens, sensing and computing all require integrated circuits. This is the first time such an integrated circuit has been made on flexible electronic skin. The success of this step proves that electronic skin like electronic materials can be realized as an electronic device instead of a science fiction dream. At present, only tens of transistors have been integrated into thousands of transistors, but at least people have begun to take the first step. For the future development of electronic skin, Bao Zhenan once said that smartphones are now, but in the future it will be the BodyNet human network implemented by artificial electronic skin. Therefore, the electronic skin is a direction and trend in the future of the development of the electronic industry. It can stimulate human thinking, let human beings have more space for imagination, and can invent new materials and new technologies. The tactile sensor, for example, can be a product that can measure blood pressure; there are some stretchable materials that have very strong hardness and very good self repair functions. These materials can be used in lithium batteries that make lithium batteries high capacity and can continue to charge and discharge longer. These are some of the early applications that can be realized. Bao Zhenan, for example. The following is an interview with Professor Bao Zhenan: 1, can you share the background and development process of natures breakthrough in the field of flexible electronics? Bao Zhenan: This is what we have accumulated for many years. It is mainly the first time to make an integrated circuit of extensible organic semiconductors, which is of great significance. The reason why it is very important is that people used to be flexible electrons. The electronic skin was not able to be stretched before, and there was no integrated circuit. The importance of integrated circuits is that all electronic devices need transistors to be integrated to perform functions such as display screens, sensing, and computing. This is the first time such an integrated circuit has been made for flexible electronic skin electronics. Although our integration is only capable of having tens of transistors to thousands of transistors, this is a starting point. 2. How long does this project take? What are the difficulties encountered during the period and what bottlenecks encountered? How to achieve the breakthrough? Bao Zhenan: in fact, we are doing a new model of electronic devices and final electronic products, we need to start from the development of materials, with these new electronic materials, and also need to be able to do the process. There are many layers of different materials in the integrated circuit. These different materials have to be able to make very small and different shapes. Then one layer is superimposed on the other, and the whole process has dozens of steps to hundreds of steps, so it makes a lot of technical difficulty. These are the results of the previous eight to ten years of research. 3. This project is the first successful development of high-density, high-sensitivity and stretchable transistor arrays which are more easily produced. What is the significance of this research? Bao Zhenan: as I said before, electronic products need integration of many transistors before they can have their functions. So its a possible thing to go to this step to prove that electronic materials like electronic skin can be done, not a dream of science fiction. The realization of electronic skin is only a matter of time. The bigger the integration, the more functions we do, the first step we have proved. 4, what stage has the electronic skin developed in reality? Bao Zhenan: the electronic skin work will be a direction and a trend in the future of the development of the electronic industry in the future. It can stimulate our thinking, have more space for imagination, and can invent new materials and new technologies. But these materials and technologies will have some very valuable applications in the near future, such as tactile sensors that can be used as a product to measure blood pressure, and some stretchable materials with very strong hardness and very good self repair functions that can be used in lithium batteries to make lithium batteries available. High capacity, and can continue to charge and discharge longer; these are early applications that can be implemented. Bao Zhenan: I think the electronic skin is a changing direction in the electronics industry. The basic idea is to combine sensing and signal processing with signal transmission, but these electronic devices are not like the wearable watches that have already been used, but like skin, it can be attached to the surface of our skin. Or under the skin, or in the body, the whole sensing system will be as close as our skin, helping our lives and helping to better understand the physical condition. If it is not on the human body, it can also be on the surface of the building, on the surface of the airplane, or on the body surface of the robot. So this idea can be applied in various systems, including sensing and signal processing and signal transmission. This is our most basic concept. Electronic skin, which we consider, is an inevitable trend in the development of the future electronic industry. 6, what breakthroughs do we need to achieve to achieve the landing of electronic skin? What are the problems? Bao Zhenan: in fact, this field is still in its initial stage. From the perspective of basic disciplines, more basic research is needed to study the relationship between electrical properties and mechanics of these new electronic materials from the material and technological aspects. And how to design materials can make us achieve good electrical functions and good mechanical functions. These are the challenges of new material design. It needs a lot of basic research. Then, from the technological point of view, although we have recently published the first integrated new material in the journal Nature, this is only the beginning stage, and further implementation of more complex, larger integrated circuits is needed. From an applied perspective, the electronic skin can be like a science fiction film, and it can be a very complex system like human skin, a very complex system. But it still needs to be able to find an application road map. The roadmap must start from simple applications, apply some existing invented materials and devices, so that there is a simple application to produce products, and then slowly to more and more complex and systematic applications, so develop such application prospects. It is also a very important direction and needs to be studied. 7, the smart phones you are using are offering flexible electronic screens. What do you think of these studies and applications? Bao Zhenan: I think its an unstoppable trend about flexible electronic screens and mobile phones. When I started studying in the Baer laboratory twenty years ago, it was the future of flexible electronics. At that time, flexible electronics was a science fiction future, but now flexible electrons can already be seen to be realized, only a matter of time, the companies mentioned, they should be able to achieve this in a relatively short term. Therefore, artificial electronic skin is the next generation of electrons, these electrons are not only flexible, but also stretchable, self reparable and biodegradable, so this is a trend in the future of the development of the electronic industry. I think its the development of artificial skin now, just as I just started a case of flexible electronics just 20 years ago. Its the beginning of a field, so its very exciting, because there are a lot of interesting scientific problems to be solved. This is the reason why we focus on this direction. 8, graphene has always been a hot word. What do you think of the application and development of graphene in electronics? Bao Zhenan: the battery research is going to get involved in my team, because the source of the energy of all electronic devices in the electronic skin is essential, so there is an integrated circuit in the problem we solve, but the integrated circuit or these display screens need to have batteries to supply it to it. This is a question that we have to consider. With these power, if we make the integrated circuits as stretchable as human skin, the batteries have to be stretchable, like skin. So this is a new challenge, but a lot of materials can be learned from material research, so part of my research group is devoted to the research of stretchable batteries and some current batteries for electric cars. Graphene is a very interesting material for the study of graphene. I think the most important thing is to discover the advantages and defects of the material, find the right place, the place where the material is most suitable for application. So graphene I think because it has a lot of very special properties, the basic research now gives us a better understanding of the properties of this material, and only through these basic studies can we know where graphene is the most suitable application. A lot of important information has been obtained from this basic research, so it is likely to be a turning point in the course of which it is best to analyze what kind of materials can be applied from basic research. Source: scientists say responsibility editor: Guo Hao _NT5629 Bao Zhenan: the battery research is going to get involved in my team, because the source of the energy of all electronic devices in the electronic skin is essential, so there is an integrated circuit in the problem we solve, but the integrated circuit or these display screens need to have batteries to supply it to it. This is a question that we have to consider. With these power, if we make the integrated circuits as stretchable as human skin, the batteries have to be stretchable, like skin. So this is a new challenge, but a lot of materials can be learned from material research, so part of my research group is devoted to the research of stretchable batteries and some current batteries for electric cars. Graphene is a very interesting material for the study of graphene. I think the most important thing is to discover the advantages and defects of the material, find the right place, the place where the material is most suitable for application. So graphene I think because it has a lot of very special properties, the basic research now gives us a better understanding of the properties of this material, and only through these basic studies can we know where graphene is the most suitable application. A lot of important information has been obtained from this basic research, so it is likely to be a turning point in the course of which it is best to analyze what kind of materials can be applied from basic research.