In twenty-first Century, the Chinese Academy of economic research believed that further urbanization, unoptimistic aging of population, unreasonable diet, and unhealthy lifestyles such as smoking, drinking and lack of exercise promoted the incidence rate of malignant tumors, heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. In the future, we should combine medical treatment with maintenance to promote the improvement of Chinese peoples health.
The proposal of the CPC Central Committee on formulating the fourteenth five year plan for national economic and social development and the long-term goals for the year 2035 (hereinafter referred to as the plan) proposes that patriotic health campaign should be carried out in depth to promote the development of a civilized and healthy lifestyle. Improve the public service system of national fitness. Accelerate the development of health industry.
In the future, the improvement of Chinese peoples health level will depend on the joint efforts of their own and the external medical level.
The increase of prevalence promotes the number of visits
So, what is the health level of Chinese people?
In 2019, Chinas life expectancy per capita is 77.3 years old, which has increased for many years in a row. Another data shows that in the past 20 years, the mortality rates of newborns, infants, children under the age of 5, and pregnant and lying in women in China have all declined significantly, less than 1 u2030 in 2019.
According to the two-week prevalence rate of diseases in the survey area, the circulatory system diseases including heart disease, hypertension and cerebrovascular disease increased from 5.03% in 2008 to 15.43% in 2018.
The increase of the prevalence rate directly promoted the number of visits per capita in China. At present, the number of visits per capita in China is rising rapidly, and the number of visits by residents has reached 6.2 in 2019, compared with 4.4 in 2010.
The 21st Century Institute of economics believes that in addition to the prevalence rate, the reasons for the increase in the number of visits include the implementation of national medical security and the increase of residents health knowledge. In addition, a considerable number of residents participate in health examination, hoping to prevent it in the bud.
On the whole, hospitals, especially public hospitals, are still the tranquilizing needle for Chinese peoples health. In 2019, the number of medical and health institutions in China was 8.72 billion, an increase of 49.37% compared with 5.84 billion in 2010. Among them, the number of patients in hospitals reached 3.84 billion, and public hospitals were the preferred institutions for patients, with a total of more than 3.2 billion.
The 21st Century Economic Research Institute believes that although the number of private hospitals has exceeded that of public hospitals as early as 2015, it is still difficult to match the latter in terms of the number of beds and the number of health personnel. Among the 2007 hospitals with 800 or more beds in China, 1874 belong to public hospitals, and the number of medical staff in public hospitals is four times more than that in private hospitals.
The vast majority of people who come to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment belong to outpatient and emergency department. In 2019, the number of outpatients and emergency patients in the hospital reached 3.753 billion, of which the medical department, traditional Chinese medicine department and surgery department received the most, accounting for 21.19%, 17.87% and 9.5% respectively.
The increase in the number of visits has also brought about some pressure on the workload of doctors. According to the data, the average daily number of doctors responsible for diagnosis and treatment is 8. Among them, the primary health institutions, especially the community health service centers (stations) have the largest workload of doctors, with nearly 16 patients responsible for diagnosis and treatment.
From the hospital level, doctors from leprosy hospital, childrens Hospital and Dermatology Hospital had the largest number of patients, with an average of more than 10 patients per day. Among them, the busy childrens Hospital reflects the desire for this part of medical resources. In 2019, the six national ministries and commissions jointly issued the opinions on strengthening the reform and development of childrens medical and health services, and vigorously supported doctors in pediatrics and childrens hospitals.
Heart disease is the number one threat to rural residents
For the Chinese, a problem that needs attention is that the mortality rate of some malignant diseases is on the rise.
For example, among urban residents, in 2005, the death rate of malignant tumor was 124.86 per 100000 people, and the mortality rate of cerebrovascular disease was 111.02 per 100000. In 2010, the death rate of heart disease was 120.19 per 100000 people.
These three diseases have also become the top three killers endangering the health of residents. In 2019, in terms of urban residents, lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal and anal cancer and esophageal cancer pose the greatest health threat to urban residents, with more than 10 deaths per 100000 people.
According to the research of the 21st Century Institute of economics, improper diet, lack of physical exercise, smoking, alcohol abuse, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and other factors are the causes of these high mortality diseases. The incidence rate of malignant tumors in China is lower than that in North America, Europe and Australia, according to the 2015 National Cancer Epidemic analysis published in 2019 by the National Cancer Center. It is suggested that Chinese residents should enhance the awareness of early screening, early diagnosis and early treatment of cancer, and strive to kill the tumor before it develops to the middle and late stage.
However, the mortality rate of malignant diseases is significantly different between men and women. On the whole, the mortality rate of male in malignant tumor, heart disease and cerebrovascular disease is higher than that of female. Among them, in 2019, the mortality rate of male in malignant tumor will reach 203.01/100000, which is also the most fatal disease.
Heart disease is the number one enemy of womens life safety. In 2019, the female mortality rate of heart disease reached 143.42 per 100000 people. According to an article entitled womens problems in cardiology published in the lancet magazine, different manifestations of womens heart disease symptoms (usually manifested as unexplained weakness or discomfort) can delay the time for women to seek medical assistance; even after seeking help, they are often difficult to get emergency treatment such as aspirin and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
At the same time, heart disease is also the number one health threat to rural residents. During the period from 2005 to 2019, the mortality rate of rural residents showed a rapid growth trend, and reached 164.66/100000 in 2019, significantly exceeding that of urban residents. In addition to the pathogenic factors caused by bad living habits, this is also related to the insufficient attention paid to the disease and the insufficient proportion of medical resources in rural areas.
Another concern is that among the notifiable infectious diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and syphilis rank the top three incidence rate. The incidence rate of AIDS is only 5.1/10 million, but its mortality rate ranks first, reaching 100 thousand people and 1.5 deaths. AIDS is mainly transmitted by sexual transmission, blood transmission and mother to child transmission. At present, there is no cure method. Only antiretroviral drugs can be used for treatment. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis followed AIDS in mortality. In viral hepatitis, the incidence rate of hepatitis B is 71.77/10 million, and the mortality rate is 0.03/10 million. Although hepatitis B patients have a high risk of death from liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, vaccines have been available since infancy to minimize the risk of infection. Source: editor in charge of economic report in the 21st century: Zhong Qiming_ NF5619
Another concern is that among the notifiable infectious diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and syphilis rank the top three incidence rate. The incidence rate of AIDS is only 5.1/10 million, but its mortality rate ranks first, reaching 100 thousand people and 1.5 deaths. AIDS is mainly transmitted by sexual transmission, blood transmission and mother to child transmission. At present, there is no cure method. Only antiretroviral drugs can be used for treatment.
Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis followed AIDS in mortality. In viral hepatitis, the incidence rate of hepatitis B is 71.77/10 million, and the mortality rate is 0.03/10 million. Although hepatitis B patients have a high risk of death from liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, vaccines have been available since infancy to minimize the risk of infection.