Among the numerous objections to postpone retirement, the most frequently raised one is what to do if you cant find a job after retirement. This worry is not groundless. There is a phenomenon of 35 years old in Chinas current employment market, and age discrimination is also very common. It is relatively difficult for people over 50 years old to reemployment after unemployment. Therefore, for a long time, the government has listed the 40-year-old women and 50-year-old men as the group with employment difficulties, and included them into the assessment target of the governments employment work.
Some netizens said that now, whether it is the recruitment of civil servants or enterprises, 35-year-old is a barrier, 40-year-old almost no unit to. Before the implementation of the progressive delayed retirement scheme, can we first abolish the age limit for recruitment at the age of 35, and solve the problem of finding a job if you are over 35 years old.
Not only the civil servant examination, but also in the recruitment of enterprises, whether state-owned or private, in addition to special positions, most of the recruitment is also limited to the age of 35.
Industry analysis shows that before the implementation of gradual delayed retirement, it is necessary to eliminate the system obstacles of the 35 year old age requirement in real recruitment. From the perspective of employment discrimination, not only civil servants, but also the general posts in society can not be distinguished by age and gender. From a fair point of view, it is unreasonable to limit the age of applicants.
The academic support for delayed retirement is not only from the perspective of pension balance, but also an effective policy tool to alleviate the negative impact of aging on Chinas economic growth.
Cai Fang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, recently wrote that the increase in the dependency ratio of the population has led to a sustained slowdown in economic growth. From 2012, the working age population aged 15 to 59 entered negative growth; from 2014, the population aged 15 to 64 entered negative growth. This kind of population factor leads to a large reduction of the new labor force every year; the aging of the labor force reduces the average education level; the capital replaces the labor force too quickly, which leads to the decrease of the rate of return on investment; the deceleration of labor transfer causes the space of resource reallocation to shrink, which slows down the increase speed of labor production rate.
Cai Fang estimated that the potential growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) dropped from about 10% before 2010 to 7.6% during the 12th Five Year Plan period and 6.2% during the 13th Five Year Plan period. It is expected that the potential growth rate of GDP will further drop to about 5.5% during the 14th five year plan period.
To develop the human capital of the elderly and improve the labor participation rate has become an inevitable policy option for Chinas stable economic growth. However, Chinas employment market is not ready for this.
Age discrimination is still one of the common phenomena in the employment market. For example, the 35 year old phenomenon can be seen everywhere. Most enterprises and institutions will set the maximum age of application at 35 When recruiting. When some Internet big factories optimize the human resource structure, the age of 35 also becomes a dividing line.
Feng Lijuan, chief human resources expert of 51job, told first finance and economics that in enterprise research, it has been found that middle and low-level managers over 35 years old, including offline front-line operators and service personnel, face the greatest employment pressure because of the current business model, income source and long-term competition mode of the enterprise, all of which make workers over 35 years old in the human resource structure They dont have an advantage, and once they lose their jobs, its hard to get back to work.
Yao Kai believes that cost consideration is an important reason why enterprises are willing to employ young people. Young people have low cost, good physical strength and can work overtime for a long time.
Chinas long-term demographic dividend has also made enterprises accustomed to this pinch point employment method, but with the reduction of labor supply, the situation is also changing. In recent years, enterprises have obviously found it difficult to recruit young people and have to relax the age limit for job seekers. From the market situation, manufacturing enterprises are generally relaxed to 40 years old, while many jobs such as property management and cleaning have been relaxed to 60 years old.
However, Feng Lijuan also said that at present, Chinese enterprises are facing much greater pressure of growth and competition than in the past. It is an indisputable fact that they frequently adjust their business strategies, are more willing to use young people, and take the initiative to use digital technology. The difficulties faced by older workers are inevitable at this stage.
According to international experience, most aging countries encourage and protect the employment of the elderly through legislation. In 1986, Japan established the employment stability law for the elderly to encourage and promote enterprises to extend the retirement age; in 1991, Korea established the Employment Promotion Law for the elderly, stipulating that enterprises are obliged to employ employees up to the age of 60; in 2007, South Korea passed the law on Prohibition of age discrimination in employment and promotion of employment of the elderly, which was amended in 2008 to provide that if the employer uses the The company will be fined 5 million won for refusing to recruit employees on the grounds of senior.
According to the China Development Report 2020 released by the China Development Research Foundation, the efforts made by developed countries to encourage the employment policies of the elderly basically include two types of policies: one is aimed at employers to enhance the enthusiasm of employers to employ the elderly, universal legislation forbids employment discrimination and provides employment subsidies; the other is aimed at improving the employability and employment opportunities of the elderly labor force Ability. For example, the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries provide high employment subsidies to employers, while France, Italy and Greece reduce social security contributions for employees over 50 years old.
Yao Kai said that the employment market should be treated separately according to the age of the employees. For the people who intend to delay retirement, in addition to employing in their original units, we should actively establish employment information systems and professional intermediary agencies for these groups, so as to form corresponding market segments. It is also suggested that the state introduce employment norms or legislation to avoid discrimination against older people. Of course, industries that are not suitable for the elderly should be treated differently.
From the perspective of enterprises, it is the general trend for employers to accept delayed retirement, and it is also necessary to consider how to deal with this change in the employment market in the long run.
Feng Lijuan said that with the acceleration of digital transformation, China is also facing an aging population. Enterprises must adjust their employment strategies to provide older workers with career development and job opportunities, because in an aging society, they will also be the main consumers of enterprise products.
Another issue that arouses the debate among netizens is whether to adopt mandatory or flexible measures if gradual delayed retirement is implemented.
With the further promotion of the gradual delayed retirement system, Yang Lixiong predicted that the female cadres and senior intellectuals at the department level who reached the retirement age of 55 were less likely to choose on their own, and they were likely to implement the system uniformly.
This triggered a discussion among netizens. Some netizens think that according to the characteristics of the industry, it is better to adopt flexible retirement. It is up to you to decide whether to retire at a certain point. If you are in good health and are willing to continue to work for a few more years, those who are not in good health or want to retire will retire.
Some netizens also suggested that deferring retirement should consider the difference of occupation, and then consider the flexible retirement age on this basis.
From the perspective of gender, because the retirement age of female employees is too early, we can consider that the pace of womens retirement is faster. In this regard, sun Yongyong suggests that the statutory retirement age for women and men should be raised simultaneously and gradually, and the frequency of women should be accelerated. For example, women should increase their retirement age by one year every two years and men by one year every three years. After 15 years, men will retire at the age of 65 and women will retire at 57.5 years old. The reform can be carried out according to this idea, but the final plan can only be determined after strict calculation. Sun Yongyong said. At the same time, flexible retirement is also popular hope. Experts and industry insiders interviewed by China first finance and Economics said that they hoped that the government would have greater flexibility in formulating the policy of delaying retirement and respect the wishes of individuals more. For example, the implementation of the pension early reduction and late increase plan will give the elderly more opportunities to choose from, so as to enable the elderly with employment willingness and employability to realize their desire to continue to work, and the elderly who do not want to continue to work can enjoy more leisure time. Source: China Economic Weekly, first finance and economics article source: NetEase Finance and economics responsible editor: Chen Hequn_ NB12679
At the same time, flexible retirement is also popular hope. Experts and industry insiders interviewed by China first finance and Economics said that they hoped that the government would have greater flexibility in formulating the policy of delaying retirement and respect the wishes of individuals more. For example, the implementation of the pension early reduction and late increase plan will give the elderly more opportunities to choose from, so as to enable the elderly with employment willingness and employability to realize their desire to continue to work, and the elderly who do not want to continue to work can enjoy more leisure time.
Source: China Economic Weekly, first finance and Economics