Among the numerous objections to postpone retirement, the most frequently raised one is what to do if you cant find a job after retirement. This worry is not groundless. There is a phenomenon of 35 years old in Chinas current employment market, and age discrimination is also very common. It is relatively difficult for people over 50 years old to reemployment after unemployment. Therefore, for a long time, the government has listed the 40-year-old women and 50-year-old men as the group with employment difficulties, and included them into the assessment target of the governments employment work.
Some netizens said that now, whether it is the recruitment of civil servants or enterprises, 35-year-old is a barrier, 40-year-old almost no unit to. Before the implementation of the progressive delayed retirement scheme, can we first abolish the age limit for recruitment at the age of 35, and solve the problem of finding a job if you are over 35 years old.
Not only the civil servant examination, but also in the recruitment of enterprises, whether state-owned or private, in addition to special positions, most of the recruitment is also limited to the age of 35.
Industry analysis shows that before the implementation of gradual delayed retirement, it is necessary to eliminate the system obstacles of the 35 year old age requirement in real recruitment. From the perspective of employment discrimination, not only civil servants, but also the general posts in society can not be distinguished by age and gender. From a fair point of view, it is unreasonable to limit the age of applicants.
The academic support for delayed retirement is not only from the perspective of pension balance, but also an effective policy tool to alleviate the negative impact of aging on Chinas economic growth.
Cai Fang estimated that the potential growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) dropped from about 10% before 2010 to 7.6% during the 12th Five Year Plan period and 6.2% during the 13th Five Year Plan period. It is expected that the potential growth rate of GDP will further drop to about 5.5% during the 14th five year plan period.
To develop the human capital of the elderly and improve the labor participation rate has become an inevitable policy option for Chinas stable economic growth. However, Chinas employment market is not ready for this.
Feng Lijuan, chief human resources expert of 51job, told first finance and economics that in enterprise research, it has been found that middle and low-level managers over 35 years old, including offline front-line operators and service personnel, face the greatest employment pressure because of the current business model, income source and long-term competition mode of the enterprise, all of which make workers over 35 years old in the human resource structure They dont have an advantage, and once they lose their jobs, its hard to get back to work.
Yao Kai believes that cost consideration is an important reason why enterprises are willing to employ young people. Young people have low cost, good physical strength and can work overtime for a long time.
Chinas long-term demographic dividend has also made enterprises accustomed to this pinch point employment method, but with the reduction of labor supply, the situation is also changing. In recent years, enterprises have obviously found it difficult to recruit young people and have to relax the age limit for job seekers. From the market situation, manufacturing enterprises are generally relaxed to 40 years old, while many jobs such as property management and cleaning have been relaxed to 60 years old.
However, Feng Lijuan said that many enterprises are not willing to use the technology more frequently than in the past. They are willing to use the technology more frequently than in the past. The difficulties faced by older workers are inevitable at this stage.
Legislation against discrimination and encouraging the employment of older workers
From the perspective of the labor market, China has not paid enough attention to the development of human capital for the elderly, especially for the younger ones. It is difficult for the elderly with employment intention to obtain services from public employment institutions. According to the data of Chinas Labor Statistics Yearbook, the main way for people over 60 years old to find jobs in cities and towns is to entrust relatives and friends to introduce them, accounting for more than 50%.
According to international experience, most aging countries encourage and protect the employment of the elderly through legislation. In 1986, Japan established the employment stability law for the elderly to encourage and promote enterprises to extend the retirement age; in 1991, Korea established the Employment Promotion Law for the elderly, stipulating that enterprises are obliged to employ employees up to the age of 60; in 2007, South Korea passed the law on Prohibition of age discrimination in employment and promotion of employment of the elderly, which was amended in 2008 to provide that if the employer uses the The company will be fined 5 million won for refusing to recruit employees on the grounds of senior.
According to the China Development Report 2020 released by the China Development Research Foundation, the efforts made by developed countries to encourage the employment policies of the elderly basically include two types of policies: one is aimed at employers to enhance the enthusiasm of employers to employ the elderly, universal legislation forbids employment discrimination and provides employment subsidies; the other is aimed at improving the employability and employment opportunities of the elderly labor force Ability. For example, the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries provide high employment subsidies to employers, while France, Italy and Greece reduce social security contributions for employees over 50 years old.
Yao Kai said that the employment market should be treated separately according to the age of the employees. For the people who intend to delay retirement, in addition to employing in their original units, we should actively establish employment information systems and professional intermediary agencies for these groups, so as to form corresponding market segments. It is also suggested that the state introduce employment norms or legislation to avoid discrimination against older people. Of course, industries that are not suitable for the elderly should be treated differently.
From the perspective of enterprises, it is the general trend for employers to accept delayed retirement, and it is also necessary to consider how to deal with this change in the employment market in the long run.
Feng Lijuan said that with the acceleration of digital transformation, China is also facing an aging population. Enterprises must adjust their employment strategies to provide older workers with career development and job opportunities, because in an aging society, they will also be the main consumers of enterprise products.
Enforcement or flexibility?
Another issue that arouses the debate among netizens is whether to adopt mandatory or flexible measures if gradual delayed retirement is implemented.
In fact, as early as five years ago, the postponement of retirement had been implemented in female cadres and intellectuals. On February 16, 2015, the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and the Ministry of human resources and Social Security jointly issued a notice saying that female cadres at the principal and Deputy levels in party and government organs, peoples organizations and public institutions, as well as female professional and technical personnel with senior titles, will retire at the age of 60. The notice said that the retirement age of female cadres at the department level was delayed in order to give full play to the role of female leading cadres and professional and technical personnel.
After the introduction of this policy, it did not adopt a one size fits all approach, but adopted a certain degree of flexibility in promoting. For women cadres and high-level intellectuals who have reached the retirement age of 55, they are allowed to voluntarily choose whether to retire or delay to 60.
This triggered a discussion among netizens. Some netizens think that according to the characteristics of the industry, it is better to adopt flexible retirement. It is up to you to decide whether to retire at a certain point. If you are in good health and are willing to continue to work for a few more years, those who are not in good health or want to retire will retire.
Some netizens also suggested that deferring retirement should consider the difference of occupation, and then consider the flexible retirement age on this basis.
From the perspective of gender, because the retirement age of female employees is too early, we can consider that the pace of womens retirement is faster. In this regard, sun Yongyong suggests that the statutory retirement age for women and men should be raised simultaneously and gradually, and the frequency of women should be accelerated. For example, women should increase their retirement age by one year every two years and men by one year every three years. After 15 years, men will retire at the age of 65 and women will retire at 57.5 years old. The reform can be carried out according to this idea, but the final plan can only be determined after strict calculation. Sun Yongyong said.
Source: China Economic Weekly, first finance and Economics