The less types of mobile communication technology standards, the larger the market of standardized network equipment and terminals, the lower the cost of network construction and maintenance, the greater the dividend of consumers. However, as a natural monopoly industry, the government has implemented high-intensity supervision on the operation license and spectrum authorization, and the situation in more than 200 countries and regions is different; there are tens of thousands of companies developing and producing mobile communication equipment, terminals and solutions around the world, and the accumulation of technical patents, product evolution routes and market patterns are extremely different, and only one standard is used to realize this Often difficult.
In fact, there is no technical standard for analog communication (1g) in the world. The large-scale network includes the AMPS system which started commercial use in the United States in 1978, NMT (1981) in northern Europe, TACs (1985) in Britain, and Ericsson equipment was introduced into China in 1987, which also realized commercial use. The mobile communication in its infancy has been divided into several regional markets that cannot be interconnected and roamed in other countries. With the rapid development of analog communication, governments, equipment manufacturers and operators all over the world attach great importance to the standardization work. The road of global standardization centered on smooth upgrading of technology to the greatest extent and driving industrial development to the greatest extent by economy has been opened.
Cell phone, can be called the ancient ancestor of mobile phone
Technical standards first appeared on the world stage in 2G era. Digital mobile communication services that meet the European GSM standard were commercially available in 1991, followed by D-AMPS and CDMA in the United States and PDC in Japan. The technology competition in front of the four standard families, roaming alliance, national will behind the scenes and industrial camp accelerated the rapid growth of mobile communication industry. The golden age of seven countries and eight systems for equipment manufacturers has come. Nokia, Siemens, Alcatel, itatel, Nortel, Motorola, Ericsson, Lucent, Fujitsu and NEC are all very active companies in this period. Today, GSM is still recognized as the most successful mobile communication standard in the world because of its simple and reliable network architecture, cheap and diversified terminals and roaming services all over the world.
3G continues to maintain four standards worldwide. ITU of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) confirmed the three major standards of WCDMA, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA in May 2000. This is the first time that the standard dominated by China has become an international standard. In 2007, under the repeated operation of the US government, WiMAX was accepted as the 3G standard. However, 3G has been questioned for a long time. What is broadband mobile communication used for? If you just call, 2G is enough. It was not until the advent of jobs iPhone in 2007 that a convincing answer was found. Most of the time, the main business is not necessarily omnipotent, cross-border may be the surprise.
Verizon took the lead in large-scale commercial 4G in the United States in October 2010. This time, Verizon finally achieved only two standards, TD-LTE and fdd-lte. What is more gratifying is that with the joint efforts of China Mobile, Softbank and other operators, the system equipment has realized the integration of TD and FDD wireless interfaces, thus realizing a mobile phone to travel around the world in terms of consumer experience, and the operators have also achieved a network to serve global customers. This has brought the development of mobile Internet into a golden decade. It has also spawned a large number of new super companies, such as apple, Google, Amazon, Alibaba, Tencent, Huawei, ZTE, Baidu and byte hop. Digital transformation and digital economy have rapidly become the focus of social issues.
According to China Internet development report 2020, the scale of Chinas digital economy will reach 35.8 trillion yuan in 2019, accounting for 36.2% of GDP
5g era started in April 2019, which is the first time that there is only one standard mobile communication system in the world. In more than one year of large-scale commercial use, more than 100 5g networks have been opened in the world. With more than 150 million terminal connections, Chinas three major operators have ranked first in the global 5g market. Huawei and ZTEs network equipment have been deployed in many countries. Huaweis mobile phones are popular all over the country. Xiaomi, oppo, vivo, Yijia, ZTE and other mobile phones are popular in the global market. Wechat, Taobao, tiktok and other applications have occupied the global app download list for a long time. China has achieved mobile historically Communication ecology: 1g blank, 2G follow, 3G breakthrough, 4G synchronization and 5g led leap forward development.
In the name of security, the encirclement of blocking China is forming
The development of global integration has lasted only one month. In May 2019, the first 5g security conference presided over by the Czech Prime Minister was held in Prague, the capital. 32 countries and 4 international organizations from the EU, NATO, the United States, Germany, Japan and Australia participated in the meeting.
On May 3, 2019, the Czech Prime Minister presided over the first 5g safety conference
Prague proposals were released. Although the proposal mentioned support innovation, security needs cost, and ensure supply chain security, for the first time, it systematically elaborated 5g security from four aspects of policy, technology, economy and security, privacy and resilience. It pointed out that digital security was not only a technical problem, digital security faced with technical and non-technical threats, and possible serious consequences caused by 5g network interference It is suggested that there should be national measures, appropriate and necessary safety assessment and more extensive security measures.
In view of the national security, economic security, other national interests and global stability, it is proposed that the security consideration of 5g network structure and system function should be focused. For the first time, government policy came to the front stage, and the international mobile communication standardization system with technology and economy as the core ushered in the biggest black swan incident.
What is particularly noteworthy is that Ajit Pai, FCC chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, disclosed the key points of us 5g regulatory policy at this meeting, releasing a strong signal to seize the commanding height of global 5g development. The main points of his speech include: 1. Release the spectrum as soon as possible, auction the 37, 39 and 47 bands of 28ghz, 24GHz and 3.4gh in 2019, and release 3.5GHz in 2020 (the auction was completed on August 27 this year); 2. Relax the installation application conditions and reduce the cost standard to ensure that a large number of 5g indoor micro base stations can be installed more conveniently. The Pisa box size base station should be easier to enjoy than the 60 meter high base station. Control policy . 3. Optimize regulatory policies to encourage the construction of 5g return optical fiber network.
Specifically, in addition to the strategic measures sm01 to strengthen national supervision and technical measures, TM01 to ensure the network bottom line security requirements, tm03 to ensure strict access management, TM11 to strengthen resilience and sustainability plan, the other 12 measures are in the low high region.
The assessment report requires EU to do a good job in standardization and certification, technology investment and evaluation in the next stage, and suggests that EU Member States should continue to strengthen supervision, safeguard key and sensitive networks, increase suppliers and make good use of investment and trade means to strengthen 5g network security. This means that the government directly through administrative means to intervene in 5g standardization work has been completely opened.
In May this year, at the request of the US State Department, CSIS organized a study of 25 experts from Asia, Europe and the United States, and put forward the standards for security and trust in telecommunications networks and services, and listed 31 standards full of political prejudice and geographical discrimination, including if the supplier is headquartered in a country with democratically elected government, etc.
In August this year, the official website of the US State Department updated the latest list of 5g clean networks including six major standards such as clean operators, clean application app, clean software store, clean cloud service, clean transmission network and clean submarine cable access. Verizon, at & T and T-Mobile are from North America and Europe There are 31 operators in Asia Pacific and Asia Pacific. They all promise to comply with the CSIS standard and do not use 5g system equipment from China such as Huawei and ZTE. This list is being updated in real time.
In the name of security and based on the blockade of Chinas mobile industry, the encirclement circle is forming, which has never appeared in the global mobile communication development for more than 40 years.
The current situation is that 5g is artificially divided into two parts: Using Chinese network equipment and not using Chinese network equipment. This will greatly hinder the development of 5g, make it more difficult for the world to bridge the digital divide, reduce the data gap, accelerate the digital transformation and promote the development of digital economy, and cast a heavy shadow on the just started 6G pre research.
What should China do?
The latest version of 5g standard R16 released in July this year defines the NC standard of 5g core network missing in R15. 5gs three revolutionary functions, super mobile broadband embB, ultra reliable low delay communication ulllc and ultra density mass access EMTC are all ready.
Telecom operators build new 5g core network NC and wireless network NR, that is independent networking SA, to meet the requirements of government, industry and public customers for bandwidth, delay, security, speed, access quantity, service quality and other general productivity performance requirements. 5g as a social information infrastructure platform has officially opened.
After the introduction of new technologies such as software defined network SDN, network function virtualization nfv, mobile edge computing MEC, network slicing ns and other new functions, 5g has indeed produced some new problems, such as the opening of network standardized interface API, the opening of network boundary, the sinking of core network and the protection of data privacy.
From 4G to 5g, is security retrogressive? Is 5g really safe?
From the perspective of technical standards, around standard security, deployment security, equipment security, operation security and data security, the security and privacy working group SA3 of mobile communication international standardization organization 3GPP has formulated 5g security standards.
On the basis of fully inheriting the 4G security standard system, R15 standard in 2018 added security specifications such as service domain security, enhanced user privacy security, enhanced integrity protection, enhanced inter network roaming security and unified authentication security framework. In July 2020, R16 standard further improved the security of 5g in many aspects such as security mechanism design, business security capability and security guarantee requirements The whole standard has been improved and improved to fully meet and guide the global operators demand for network deployment. 5g is the most secure mobile communication standard so far.
From the perspective of network application, as the upgraded version of mobile communication international standard, 5g has been independently tested by dozens of operators, international organizations, governments, universities and companies in the process of standardization for nearly ten years, and its security has been fully verified.
Since South Korea took the lead in commercial use, some 5g networks in the world use Huawei and ZTE equipment at the same time, and some only use Ericsson, Nokia and Samsung devices. From the performance of the existing network system, whether it is a multi supplier or a single supplier 5g network, its security performance fully meets the international standards and the national regulatory requirements of the host country, and there is no system level hidden danger accident. In terms of security, 5g is the most robust and resilient network.
Just in late August this year, GSMA, the global mobile operators Industry Association, announced that Huawei, ZTE, Ericsson and Nokia have all passed the independent security audit on the development and life cycle process of the network equipment security assurance scheme nesas mobile communication equipment, which also provides the latest authoritative and objective answer to the 5g security threat theory.
The most secure 5g network in terms of standards and applications, why is the security controversial? The global game on a specific topic is the optimal reflection of each participants strategy to the strategies of other participants.
In the game of international political, commercial and technological development, how can Chinas 5g security strategy and strategic interaction reach consensus with international stakeholders, build mutual trust, and finally achieve Nash equilibrium of digital transformation?
Pay attention to data governance and develop national top-level design. 5g brings explosive sensing, explosive acquisition, explosive transmission and explosive application of data. Data is the fuel of digital economy and the most spillover effect of new production means.
In 2019, the scale of added value of Chinas digital economy has exceeded 3.58 billion yuan, accounting for one third of GDP. At present, there are many organizations related to data management in our country. They have done a lot of effective work in their respective fields, and have initially established a data management framework with function orientation and hierarchical responsibility.
However, there are still many gaps and contradictions in the formulation of data laws and regulations, the construction of ethics and ethics, the implementation of government supervision and industrial policies, and the demand of international ecological construction. Starting from the strategy of building a data power, China urgently needs to establish a comprehensive data governance decision-making and coordination mechanism at a higher level, so as to achieve clear objectives, clear planning, moderate implementation and orderly coordination of national level data governance strategy. It must be emphasized that the full and in-depth participation of stakeholders, especially the introduction of social think tanks and international brains, is indispensable.
The rules of the game of some international organizations have been finalized for many years, and their leadership selection mechanism and discussion mechanism also have established inertia. It is very difficult to break the shackles, optimize the rules and build a more inclusive mechanism in a short time.
We should see that although there are many associations related to Internet and mobile communication in China, most of them are working around domestic policies and industry development. Organizations focusing on international industrial collaboration, such as GTI, a global TD-LTE development initiative initiated by China Mobile, are still small in number and have limited influence. Therefore, a new institutional design is imperative.
While further strengthening the cooperation with ITU, GSMA, NGMN, 3GPP, IEEE and other international organizations, it is suggested to launch a new international organization, digital society consortium, to build a global association of associations, to promote the development of digital economy as a mission, to build a global consensus for 5g development as a vision, and to aggregate the global mainstream politics, business, industry and commerce With the decision-making resources of universities, international organizations and industries as the starting point, a new international dialogue, coordination and win-win mechanism will be constructed for the digital economy era through cross regional, cross industry and cross-cultural communication and coordination, digital insight research and guidance demonstration fund. The rapid development of 5g has sounded the clarion call of the fourth industrial revolution. At the critical moment when human civilization is entering the digital era, we must return politics, commerce and technology to technology. Demonizing 5g security threat will never win. The global mobile communication industry has taken 41 years to do the right thing, and it must not go back wrong for no reason. One earth, one moving, 5g must not have Achilles heel. The author is a senior expert in Chinas communications industry, former senior executive of China Mobile and GSMA, editor: Xie Lirong, original edition of financial Yearbook: 2021 forecast and strategy_ NF5619
While further strengthening the cooperation with ITU, GSMA, NGMN, 3GPP, IEEE and other international organizations, it is suggested to launch a new international organization, digital society consortium, to build a global association of associations, to promote the development of digital economy as a mission, to build a global consensus for 5g development as a vision, and to aggregate the global mainstream politics, business, industry and commerce With the decision-making resources of universities, international organizations and industries as the starting point, a new international dialogue, coordination and win-win mechanism will be constructed for the digital economy era through cross regional, cross industry and cross-cultural communication and coordination, digital insight research and guidance demonstration fund.
The rapid development of 5g has sounded the clarion call of the fourth industrial revolution. At the critical moment when human civilization is entering the digital era, we must return politics, commerce and technology to technology. Demonizing 5g security threat will never win. The global mobile communication industry has taken 41 years to do the right thing, and it must not go back wrong for no reason. One earth, one moving, 5g must not have Achilles heel.
The author is a senior expert in Chinas communication industry, former senior executive of China Mobile and GSMA, editor: Xie Lirong