4 case analysis and discussion (on-site activities)
Clarify the nature of anxiety
Although anxiety is a common emotion, it will cause different damage to peoples mood because of its nature and degree.
There are three conditions for the definition of anxiety in clinical psychology
(1) anxiety is a kind of irritable, anxious, nervous and uneasy state of mind;
(2) anxiety is often accompanied by symptoms of autonomic nervous dysfunction;
The nature and types of anxiety
It is still the basic means of explaining, reconstructing and analyzing anxiety.
The task of clarification is to present anxiety and prepare for defining the nature of anxiety.
According to the form of anxiety, it can be divided into: 1
(1) chronic generalized anxiety disorder: there is no definite object of anxiety, mainly characterized by impatience, irritability, impatience and anger;
(2) acute panic disorder: sudden palpitation, syncope and frequent sense of death occur without any inducement.
According to the direction of anxiety motivation, they were divided into three groups
(1) real anxiety, also known as real anxiety: external danger or threat;
(2) survival anxiety, also known as automatic anxiety: originated from the process of biological evolution, there is no need to explain why anxiety (a kind of unpredictable and uncontrollable unpleasant emotion). It begins with the traumatic experience in childbirth - fear of losing the object of love - fear of losing the object of love - moral (superego) anxiety;
(3) signal anxiety: an acquired anxiety related to past traumatic experience and traumatic memory.
(4) neurosis anxiety: it comes from the experience of insurmountable psychological conflict, and comes from the opposition of many incompatible ideas of self. Anxiety is persistent, or paroxysmal.
Horney, an expert on neurosis and a representative of the new psychoanalysis school, divides anxiety into three types
(1) Primitive anxiety - the separation between children and their parents;
(2) Panic anxiety - sudden accident, strange environment, horror caused by the movie.
(3) Expectation anxiety - anticipation in stressful situations.
Parents abuse, tyranny, doting and so on, will make children have a kind of hostility to the world and others, and the suppression of this hostility produces basic anxiety. People with basic anxiety think they are small, insignificant, helpless and helpless, and feel that they are living in a world full of absurdity, deception, jealousy and violence. Since then, the child takes the alleviation of basic anxiety as the main life goal. He will use four methods to escape anxiety: concealing anxiety, denying anxiety, self anesthesia, and self escape. This kind of defense forms different neurosis tendencies, and these neurosis tendencies are incompatible and cause great inner conflicts. (Horney,1950)
Others include: interpersonal anxiety, victim anxiety, depression anxiety, conscience anxiety (guilt), responsibility anxiety, and so on.
As for the formation and nature of anxiety, there are too many different types of psychological schools.
(if an individual does not have the ability to react to anxiety, he will become helpless in various crises. To determine whether a situation is dangerous and to respond appropriately is an act of trying to be highly organized. This depends on the self of the mental central organization, which has a higher organizational anxiety tolerance. It takes a long training process).
u25cf what are the risks associated with anxiety
Neurotic anxiety is a sign of danger. Through the feeling of anxiety, we need to distinguish the nature of danger
Fright - is the state of being in danger without any mental preparation. Too strong shock stimulation, easy to form traumatic neurosis;
Fear - a state of extreme tension that has a definite object of fear and poses a threat to human life or mood. Excessive or persistent high tension can easily lead to social disorder, phobic neurosis, etc;
Worry - is a psychological premonition of danger. As for what danger is, we dont always know, but we always feel alert and alert when we feel danger. Common in anxiety disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hypochondriac neurosis and so on.
If the clinical symptoms with anxiety as the main manifestation, it is called anxiety neurosis;
If neurotic anxiety is targeted at certain certain objective objects, it is called phobia.
2. Experience and understand anxiety (including treatment outlet)
Anxiety is the feeling of annoyance in peoples heart, which is the most basic and common emotion of human beings.
u25cf understanding of anxiety by historical representatives of anxiety research:
Rogers: anxiety originates from the fact that the individual did not receive the unconditional and active attention of the caregiver when he was young. In response, the individual will put forward too high demands on himself, and such a person will develop a set of strict self-evaluation criteria, called value condition when he grows up. In order to reach the value condition, people constantly distort and deny their real experience, so that even when they succeed, they still feel anxious.
The way of treatment is to develop sincere and unconditional positive attention, empathy, give up demanding and accept the real self.
Kierkegaard: anxiety is an inevitable psychological experience in the face of free choice. In the face of danger, for children, there is only fear but no anxiety. When self-awareness is formed, children will have an independent tendency and have the willingness to choose their own life path, and anxiety will appear. All people, without religious belief as a support and let the spirit sublimate, then its essence is anxiety and despair. People either lose their spirits or sublime their spirits, which must be one of them.
There is only one way of treatment, that is to sublimate the spirit.
Rolome: anxiety is the basic reaction of a person to his existence and value, and a sense of uncertainty and helplessness. Anxiety crisis is the core of personality. It can not only affect the normal function of physiological system, but also attack peoples psychological structure, distort peoples consciousness and adopt morbid defense mechanism.
Frankel: anxiety comes from the exploration of meaning and value. Peoples basic motivation is to seek meaning, and neurosis is precisely lack of this will.
Treatment direction: through meaning therapy, that is to help people understand their own life topics, find out the meaning of life, and stimulate their potential.
Freud: the representative of psychodynamics, the core idea of anxiety is: the dwelling place of anxiety is self. Anxiety originates from the conflict between the superego and ID, which is a sign of danger in the subconscious. In response to this signal, the self will use a series of defense mechanisms to prevent those unacceptable impulses and desires from entering the consciousness level. If anxiety as a signal cannot stimulate self defense or defense failure, then there will be persistent anxiety state, or neurosis symptoms.
Therefore, anxiety is not only the product of conflict, but also represents the selfs efforts to eliminate conflict.
Treatment direction: dynamic analysis.
Your understanding of anxiety and your ability to deal with it in your life
(role play, interactive communication: feelings and reactions to anxiety)