As early as the last century, the United States once suppressed its rival Japan, and the famous Toshiba incident occurred.
In the 1970s, Japans economy developed rapidly and its manufacturing industry surpassed that of the United States. Among them, Toshiba, Hitachi, NEC as the core of the semiconductor industry, products are sold worldwide. This is very worrying about Japans sanctions on the semiconductor industry.
From 1982 to 1984, Toshiba machinery, a subsidiary of Toshiba, exported 8 lathes to the Soviet Union, and provided the relevant lathes with numerical control devices and the required software. It should be noted that at that time, Western exports to socialist countries were restricted by the Paris Coordinating Committee, and Japan was a member of Batumi. The U.S. military found it difficult to trace Soviet submarines. Later, it learned that it was because of the import of Japanese equipment, and began to investigate Japanese enterprises.
In 1988, the United States finally ruled that Toshiba should not sell products to the United States for three years. At the same time, it put pressure on the Japanese government to acquire Toshibas military technology, which greatly damaged Toshiba.
In 1985, the U.S. government launched an anti-dumping lawsuit against Japanese semiconductor manufacturers, forcing the Japanese government to conduct semiconductor negotiations. In September 1986, the two sides reached the US Japan Semiconductor Trade Agreement, which restricted the export of Japanese semiconductors to the United States and encouraged Japan to increase the market share of American semiconductor products to 20%. Japanese semiconductor enterprises, which once dominated the world, declined rapidly.
ALSTOM, the French electric power company, once had several world first in the field of rail transit and power energy. Once there was a popular saying that in every four light bulbs in the world, the power of one bulb came from ALSTOM Technology.
Alstons delaying response to the Justice Department angered U.S. prosecutors. On April 14, 2013, Alstoms vice president of international sales, pierruzi, was arrested by the FBI at Kennedy International Airport in New York, USA, for bribing government officials through middlemen in the tarahan power station project on Sumatra island, Indonesia, in 2003.
U.S. prosecutors gave Mr. pieruzi two options. One is to plead guilty and go to trial, for which he may be sentenced to 15 to 19 years in prison, costing millions of dollars. Second, the choice is to plead guilty and cooperate with the U.S. authorities, and you can go out after just a few more months. Meanwhile, the U.S. Department of Justice issued a nearly $800 million fine against Alstom.
In the end, piyuzi couldnt resist the pressure to sign the plea agreement. However, the United States did not keep its promise, still imprisoned him for more than five years, and it was not until 2018 that piyuuzzi was freed again.
In 2014, the U.S. authorities arrested three more former colleagues of pieruzi. The day after the arrest of Lawrence Hawkins, Alstoms fourth executive, vice president of Asia, Alstom announced that it was ready to sell 70% of its energy business to its main competitor, General Electric.
The U.S. Department of justice can arrest, detain, prosecute, adjudicate and punish any foreign citizen at will, mainly because of an American law, the foreign corrupt act.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is a U.S. federal law that governs corporate bribery and false or untrue accounting records. It provides civil penalties and criminal liabilities for the responsible subjects. In 1977, it was passed by the U.S. Congress. In the following 40 years, the U.S. Congress gradually expanded the scope of application and jurisdiction of the act. In 1998, the U.S. Congress amended the law to make the FCPA extraterritorial and applicable to foreign companies.
The FCPA defines the United States as the global anti-corruption police, which empowers the U.S. government to pursue any company. As long as a foreign company trades in U.S. dollars or uses the servers mail system in the United States, the United States considers that they have jurisdiction over the company and its employees. Under the cover of morality, this law has changed dramatically. It has become a magic tool for the United States to intervene in other countries enterprises and launch economic war, and has become a real gold mine of the US Treasury Department.
Under the long arm jurisdiction of the FCPA, many foreign companies have paid a heavy price
In 2020, Airbus will pay nearly $4 billion in fines to the United States, France and Britain.
In 2019, Ericsson of Sweden paid US $1.06 billion in fines to the United States.
In December 2008, Siemens of Germany paid US $800 million in fines to the United States.
Among the huge fines issued by the FCPA, foreign enterprises make the most contribution. Between 1977 and 2014, 30% of the surveys (474) were directed at non US companies, which paid 67% of the total fines. Of the 26 tickets for more than $100 million, 21 involved non-U.S. companies.
It is worth noting that in the nearly 40 years since the FCPA was implemented, the U.S. Department of justice rarely finds fault in the transactions of its own business giants. When the respondents are foreign companies, especially multinational groups that have direct competition with American business giants, the FBI is as powerful as a mill.
Financial sanctions are an important way for the United States to implement long arm jurisdiction
The United States is the country that uses financial sanctions most frequently in the world, and has already formed a complete set of mature legal system. In addition to the overseas corruption Act (FCPA), the Patriot Act issued in 2001 gives us government departments the ability to monitor foreign enterprises and their employees on a large scale in the name of anti-terrorism.
Instead of international law, domestic laws are used to impose economic and financial sanctions on other countries, and executives are arrested to put pressure on enterprises of other countries, and then the pressure is transferred to other governments. American enterprises earn money, and the U.S. government collects fines and shows off its hegemony. Whether it is against Huawei, tiktok, wechat or other foreign enterprises, the United States has been playing with this long arm jurisdiction method for many years, and bullying countries is essentially an infringement of the judicial sovereignty of other countries. (source: CCTV news client)