Neither 985 nor 211, second rate universities can also counter attack the first-class.
With the recent double first-class construction self-evaluation reports of colleges and universities have been published, the goal has been directly pointed to the next round of double first-class. Who will get on the bus means who will get off.
Discipline is king. In the university rankings, many second rate universities have reached the top of the academic rankings in China.
To see whether a university is good or not, the standards are diverse, and the university rankings have become the most intuitive basis in the eyes of the public.
In the past, the rankings used to use quantitative indicators, emphasizing the scale or volume. The merged aircraft carrier universities such as Zhejiang University and Wuhan University are more advantageous. Today, only one third of the 39 985 universities have not been merged.
In recent years, University Rankings such as USNEWS are popular, and some subject ranking indicators such as ESI have also been introduced into China.
ESI, the basic scientific index database, is a yardstick for evaluating the influence and academic level of colleges and universities in the world. It is considered that the disciplines that can enter the top one thousandth of the world have reached the international top level. Chemistry of Nanjing University and engineering of Southeast University were once listed.
On October 20, USNEWS released the 2021 World University list, in which Tsinghua University ranked 28th in the world. Although there is still a gap with Harvard University and other world-class universities, Tsinghua University again ranks first in the engineering sub list.
Looking at domestic colleges and universities, on October 15, 2020, the ranking of Chinas best soft subjects was released, with the top 2 or top 2% of Chinas top disciplines as the standard. A total of 236 disciplines from 90 universities were selected.
Among them, a total of 225 disciplines from 79 double first-class universities have been selected. In addition, 11 ordinary universities and top-ranking universities are hard and hard, with one discipline reaching the top of the discipline ranking.
For example, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies and foreign studies is neither 985 nor 211. Its foreign language and literature leapt to the fourth place, ranking the top 2% of the country.
It seems that Guangwai alone can not evoke any impression. What about Beiwai, shangwai and Guangwai together? These three foreign language colleges and universities are the top three in China.
Another example is Xian University of architecture and technology, a plain ordinary university, whose architecture is second only to Tsinghua University in China.
Western construction alone cant recall anything. What about Tsinghua, Southeast, Tongji and Xijian? Xijian is one of the eight old architectural schools in China.
From university ranking to discipline ranking, the development of colleges and universities has changed from focusing on scale to focusing on quality, with more emphasis on highlighting discipline characteristics.
In the early 1990s, the 211 project was launched to concentrate resources and give priority to the development of a number of colleges and universities. Among the 100 or so universities in the 211 project, another batch of colleges and universities should be given special support, which is the 985 project.
The central finance has provided support for the universities affiliated to the Ministry of finance, while the local colleges and universities are not so lucky. After the Southwest University of political science and law, formerly affiliated to the Ministry of justice, was put under the jurisdiction of Chongqing Municipality, the aura of Huangpu Military Academy in the legal field has gradually disappeared.
In 2020, Southwest University of political science and law ranked fourth in the list of Chinas best soft subjects, ranking the top 2% with China University of political science and law, Renmin University of China and Wuhan University.
In recent years, some CPPCC members have suggested that the first-class discipline of law in Southwest University of political science and law should be listed as the national double first-class construction discipline. Once the proposal was put forward, it was seconded by many members.
Discipline construction is the main keynote in the future. Since the implementation of double first-class construction in higher education, that is, the main evaluation object is transferred from universities to disciplines.
Different from 211 and 985, the double first-class emphasizes discipline construction, and the funding is based on discipline departments rather than schools.
This great turn is related to the historical stage of the development of higher education. In 2002, the gross enrollment rate of higher education was 15% in the popularization stage, and now it has entered the popularization stage, and the gross enrollment rate has reached 50%. The pursuit of running a school is different from that in the past.
The Ministry of educations opinions on the establishment of institutions of higher learning during the period of the 13th five year plan proposes that colleges and universities should be guided to devote their energy and resources to the construction and connotation development of characteristic disciplines and specialties.
University funding has a great impact on the ranking. First class universities have first-class funds and first-class disciplines are the same.
Jiangsu Province, which has a strong strength in higher education, has the largest number of universities with top disciplines. Jiangsu ranks the second in terms of the number of subjects in the top 10% and the top 50% in China, next only to Beijing.
In the late 1990s, the management of colleges and universities was adjusted, and a large number of colleges and Universities under the Ministry were decentralized to local governments. The level of economic and social development determines the amount of funds that local governments can provide for universities. Jiangsu, Guangdong and other local colleges and universities have risen against the trend.
The financial resources of universities in Jiangsu and Guangdong are beyond the reach of many subordinate universities. The funding of Shenzhen University in 2018 is close to 5 billion, while that of 985 University Lanzhou University is only 4 billion.
Shenzhen University has been ranked 18th in the times list, 32nd in QS and 48th in USNEWS in 2020. The discipline ranking is also eye-catching. Shenzhen University is the non double first-class university with the largest number of disciplines on the list in 2020.
In addition to financial resources, the geographical advantages of the southeast coastal developed provinces are the capital for the development of local colleges and universities. With the change of the times, the geographical location of the university has become more important than the university itself.
985, who lived in the interior, left one after another. It has been 100 years since the founding of Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). It has gone south to Shandong and Guangdong, leaving the pattern of one school, three districts in Harbin, Weihai and Shenzhen. Lanzhou University failed to catch up with the train of running schools in other places. This year, it accelerated the establishment of research institutes in Shanghai and Shenzhen.
Double first-class is different from 211 and 985 in that there are in and out. Some second rate universities that are not even 211 can attack 985. Some of the original 211 or even 985 will be withdrawn. Yu Yang
Can these double non break through double first class with top discipline? October 16, 2020, soft science
Can Tsinghua University afford to be a world-class university? On September 28, 2020, Chen Zhiwen observed