Why were the US artillery not the opponents of the volunteers in the Changjin Lake campaign?

category:Military
 Why were the US artillery not the opponents of the volunteers in the Changjin Lake campaign?


Speaking of the battle of Changjin lake, friends who understand this period of history will surely think of xinxingli battle. In this battle, the main force of the 80th and 81st divisions of the 27th army of the Chinese peoples Volunteer Army annihilated the polar bear regiment of the 7th Division of the US Army in the xinxingli area, killing 2807 US troops, capturing 384 US troops, and killing Colonel McClain, commander of the 31st regiment and commander of the 1st Battalion of the 32nd regiment. This was the first time that the Chinese peoples Volunteer Army annihilated the US Armys regiment level troops in the war of resisting US aggression and aiding Korea.

During the whole battle, the 27th Volunteer Army emerged many heroes, heroes and heroes, as well as honorary collectives. The most famous one was the xinxingli combat model company. After the battle, the Political Department of the PLA headquarters awarded the honorary banners of the 4th company (Changmo company) of the 239th regiment of the 80th division and the 4th company of the 240th Regiment (Gushan company), model company of Xinxing Li fighting against US aggression and aiding Korea. This article is mainly about the heroic deeds of the fourth company of the 239th regiment of the volunteer army.

In November 1950, the second campaign of anti American aid to the DPRK began. In the eastern battlefield, the 27th army of the volunteer army, as the first echelon of the ninth corps, took the lead in the Korean War. According to the combat deployment of the military command, the 79th division attacked liutanli, the 80th division and the 81st division (under the 243 regiment) 16389 attacked Xinli, and the 94th division was the 27th Army Reserve. The enemy troops stationed in Xinli area are about 3300 members of the 31st group combat team of the 7th Division of the United States Army (4100 are judged by the volunteer forces), and the volunteer forces are about 5 times as large as those of the US military. However, the logistics support capability of weapons and equipment is far less than that of the US military.

In terms of weapons, for example, the 81st division only had 2169 Japanese made 38 6.5mm rifles, 67 Zhongzheng 7.92mm rifles, 424 semi-automatic rifles, 907 submachine guns, 284 light machine guns, 49 heavy machine guns, and 6 92 type 70mm infantry guns except for mortars. There was no truck in the division, only 512 horses. The divisions rifles are mainly 38 type rifles seized from the enemy in the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation. The number of suppression weapons, such as heavy machine guns, is only 49. You should know that during the Anti Japanese War, an adjustment division of the national army had 72 imitation markqin heavy machine guns, and a Japanese infantry regiment had 24 92 type heavy machine guns. The 27th volunteer army was the trump card unit of the third field army of the PLA. As a result, the division level weapons were not as good as those of the national army and the Japanese Army during the Anti Japanese war.

There were only 29 75mm medium caliber guns in the whole offensive force, including nine 75mm field guns of the 16th regiment, nine 75mm mountain guns of the division and 11 75mm field guns of the division. It looks like a lot of artillery, but shells are extremely scarce. At that time, due to the lack of shells during the attack, the six 75mm mountain guns attached to the 240th regiment of the 80th division withdrew from the battle because there were no shells, and there were only more than 400 field shells. At the same time, the volunteer army has no aircraft, and the air supremacy is in the hands of the US Army. More importantly, the logistics support capability of the volunteer army is far less than that of the US military, which is not a dimensional one at all.

As for the U.S. military, although there are only over 3000 troops in Xinxing, they are well-equipped. The US military has 22 medium-sized tanks, 4 M19 crawler self-propelled anti-aircraft guns equipped with dual 40mm machine guns, and 4 M19 semi tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft guns equipped with quadruple 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine guns. The 57th battalion of field artillery (lacking C company, D company of the 15th battalion) is equipped with 105mm howitzers (12 howitzers for a company with full personnel). In terms of ammunition, it is far more abundant than that of the volunteer army. Moreover, the US military has a strong logistical support capability. During combat, the US air force can air drop supplies to ground forces at any time, and the US military has absolute air control power. Therefore, the volunteer army is only superior to the US Army in terms of military strength.

It is precisely because of the huge gap in the logistical support of weapons and equipment. As soon as the battle in xinxingli started, the volunteer army planned to send surprise troops to destroy the US artillery positions.

At 24:00 p.m. on November 27, 1950, the 80th division of the 27th volunteer army and the 242 regiment of the 81st division (only one regiment force was invested at the beginning) launched an attack on the US troops in Xinxing Li. According to the requirements of the higher authorities, the 4th company of the 239th regiment of the 80th division made a search from east to west along the narrow gauge railway and the mountains to its south on the 27th. When advancing to the east side of shan1455.6 highland in the northwest of Xishui, we found open fire in the North Bank of fengliuli River and Dongshan District. According to this situation, the commander of the fourth company thinks that the high ground 1100 and 1300 may be the enemys outposts in xinxingli.

After the fourth company reported this situation to the superior, the superior asked the fourth company to search and reconnoiter forward, and after finding out the specific enemy situation, they met the main force of the 238th regiment to cross the river. In order to prevent the enemy from fleeing eastward and ensure the safety of the division headquarters and logistics, the company is required to obtain fighters to annihilate one enemy unit in advance.

After the fourth company took over the task, company commander Li Changyan and company instructor Zhuang Yuandong immediately convened the Party branch committee, with all company cadres and combat backbone (Party members) attending the meeting. At the meeting, we studied the deployment of troops and firepower, made clear the method of fighting and distinguished the tasks. The first row and the second row are deployed, each row is equipped with a heavy machine gun, and then the triangle formation is adopted, and the wide front side by side reconnaissance and search along the mountainside is carried out, and the attack advances. The third row is the company reserve team, followed up after the second row.

At the meeting, several contingency plans were designated to deal with the possible situations

1. The first platoon is under the command of instructor Zhuang Yuandong. If any enemy situation is found, attack while launching immediately, and then report to the company headquarters, and pay attention to get close contact with the 238th regiment. The second row made a detour from the flank of the enemy and attacked from the mountainside. The third row is responsible for the left side guard of the company to ensure the safety of the wings of the first row and the second row.

2. The second platoon is under the command of company commander Li Changyan. If he finds out the enemys situation in front of him, he will immediately launch a battle formation to attack the enemy. The third row immediately sent a squad to control the left peak and attack downward. The first row attacks the enemy from the right.

After the deployment, the soldiers of the whole company drove into fengliuli at 16:00 p.m. on the 27th, advanced to the combat position at 19:00 p.m., and began to move along the foot of the mountain at 22:00 p.m., and arrived near the small iron bridge at the mountain corner of 1200 highlands at 24:00 p.m. Company commander Li Changyan ordered the eighth group to go out to investigate the situation of 1100 highlands. After taking over the task, the group touched the area of 1100 highlands by the moonlight and found no enemy information.

After that, the company continued to march forward. The first platoon under the command of Zhuang Yuandong was in the front. When arriving at the east side of 1100 highland, the eighth team in charge of reconnaissance did not report the situation ahead. The company commander sent the second platoon deputy commander and the fourth team to control the highland.

At that moment, the battle started unexpectedly. At that time, when the first platoon under the command of Zhuang Yuandong advanced to the vicinity of 1100 highland, he ordered the third shift of the first platoon to control the whole highland without contacting the company commander, and the first and second shifts continued to advance along the railway.

Song Baocang, the leader of the first shift, divided the team members into several combat groups. After clearly explaining the combat tasks, he took the first group as the leader. When the troops crossed the mountains along the forest on the left side of the road, they found that there were American sentinels in the concealed Department 20 meters away. Sheng Yubo, the leader of the first group, and Su Liangao, a soldier, slowly approached the US Army from behind. Suddenly, a surprise attack captured a US sentinel alive, and then sent the prisoner to the instructor Zhuang Yuandong, who then transferred it to the superior.

However, Sheng Yubo and Su Liangao continued their reconnaissance and found that there were two American tents in the concave part in front of them. Without saying a word, the two soldiers directly and resolutely moved in the direction of the U.S. Army. Taking advantage of the enemys unprepared, they occupied the entrance of the enemys tent with heroic and indomitable spirit, and started shooting with rifles and submachine guns. Song Baocang, the monitor of the first shift in the back, erected the machine gun on the left side of the tent, and cooperated with the two men team that rushed into the tent to shoot the US Army violently.

At this time, due to the sound of gunfire, three US troops appeared more than 40 meters away from the tent, and they directly rushed to monitor song. When song Baocang found out, he killed two American soldiers, and the remaining one rushed forward to grab the gun of monitor song. After a fight, the gun was thrown out directly. Song Baocang wrestled with the enemy. At this time, Sheng Yubo heard the direction of the squad leader to fight with the enemy. He first threw a grenade into the tent of the U.S. Army to help monitor song fight with the enemy with a quick and flexible movement. He went up to the enemys head directly with the butt of his gun, smashed the enemy on the spot, and then song squad leader picked up the enemys carbine gun and continued to look for the enemy.

In the course of their advance, the class met three more enemies, who did not hesitate to fight the enemy with the heroic spirit of overwhelming all the enemies. Leader song first shot and killed one of the enemy. Unfortunately, he was shot and seriously injured, and the instructor who was commanding the first platoon was also killed. Su Lian, a soldier, rushed forward to fight with the enemy, killing and capturing one enemy.

After the death of instructor Zhuang Yuandong, the first platoon lost command (the platoon leader had already led the third shift to control 1100 Highlands), while the second team following up was fired by the enemy due to the poor evacuation and concealment of the first shift, resulting in only one combat group and one firepower group left in the class.

At 2:15 a.m., company commander Li Changyan learned that the first platoon had been inserted near the enemys tent and exchanged fire with the enemy, and immediately led the second and third platoons across the mountain and highlands. The fifth and sixth squads continued to advance along the attack line of the first and continued to attack the enemy. The fifth team attacked the enemy on the left and the sixth on the right. After a fierce battle, volunteers found that this is the US artillery position, and the front is a command post of the US Artillery Force.

In the face of the brave volunteers, the US artillery was no match for the volunteers. The volunteers quickly occupied three houses and a command post (command post of the 31st regiment). Then it continued to develop westward, and the US troops, who were not good at night warfare, fled after dropping their 105mm howitzers. After daybreak, the volunteers occupied the US artillery positions and seized 12 105mm howitzers. Subsequently, the 60mm mortars and heavy machine guns were deployed near a small house in the northeast of the artillery position occupied by the 6th shift to prevent the US Armys counter attack.

In terms of organization and command, the fourth company can move forward slowly while searching for the enemys information in the movement, and there are several plans for the companys command to predict the disposal situation. When attacking the enemy, it can organize the existing firepower in time to keep up with the pace of infantry attack and continuously cover the infantry attack. The infantry can get the support of machine gun and mortar fire from the beginning to the end.

At the same time, the soldiers individual combat ability and quality are very high. When the whole company moves to the enemys position, it is necessary to maintain the three elements of silence, secrecy and quickness. When approaching the enemy, the big enemy is unprepared and suddenly fires to annihilate the enemy. The first group captured the enemy sentinels quickly. After the Sentinels were captured, the enemy was not aware of it. When occupying the enemy artillery positions, most of the enemy were sleeping in the bunkers and positions. In the battle, the formation is evacuation, flexible and flexible, giving full play to the power of weapons in hand. Each team covers each other and advances alternately to attack. For example, after the fifth and sixth teams broke through the enemy command post, the two teams cooperated with each other and immediately occupied the enemy artillery positions.

During the National Day parade in 2019, a hundred banners and squadrons lined up in order and passed through the square to be inspected by the party and the people. Among the 100 honorary battle flags, there is an honor flag of xinxingli combat model company.

The Political Department of the fourth company (constant model company) of the 239th regiment was named xinxingli combat model company for resisting US aggression and aiding Korea

The Political Department of the 4th company (Gushan company) of the 240th regiment was named xinxingli combat model company of resisting US aggression and aiding Korea

The Political Department of the first platoon command of the first company of the 240th regiment was named xinxingli combat model platoon

The Political Department of the Fifth Army headquarters of the 7th company of the 240th regiment named xinxingli combat model class

The Political Department of the 4th Army headquarters of the 7th company of the 239th regiment named xinxingli combat model class

reference material:

2. [war history of the 27th army of the Chinese peoples Volunteer Army

3. [history of the 27th group army of the Chinese peoples Liberation Army

4. [selected cases of war] (27th Army)

5. [report on the second campaign of the 80th division

6. [Korean War enemy data collection

7. [history of the 81st division of the Chinese peoples Volunteer Army