Wang Yongjun: promoting development through poverty alleviation: theoretical interpretation and theoretical evolution of Phoenix model

 Wang Yongjun: promoting development through poverty alleviation: theoretical interpretation and theoretical evolution of Phoenix model

Wang Yongjun

The core of Chinas epic reform and opening up process is the process of promoting development through poverty alleviation and benefiting the people and enhancing national strength. As a classic condensed version of the Phoenix model, it mainly tells the story of how the leadership core plays the role of the first driving force to bring the people into the process of self-development, and finally achieve the material and spiritual poverty alleviation. Theoretically, the story can be interpreted as a 3 + 1 model based on game theory, that is, role (core leadership) + interests (poverty alleviation to promote development) + strategy (attraction and participation) + result (benefiting the people), which is expected to add a heavy color to the upgrading of development theory and development economics, and the Phoenix model can also be regarded as a mark of the Chinese story of poverty alleviation and development Standardized version.

Key words evolution and the core attraction of Phoenixs participation in poverty alleviation

1u3001 Introduction and summary

During the National Day holiday, the author went to Fenghuang County, Xiangxi, Hunan Province for on-the-spot investigation. Together with the current Secretary of the county Party committee and a deputy county magistrate, the author visited several poverty alleviation points, such as Changpu Tang Village (General Secretary Xi inspected), in order to obtain some inspiration to refine a local version of poverty alleviation for development, so as to make it reproducible and become a story of poverty alleviation for development with Chinese characteristics As a benchmark, it can also make contributions to fill the blind spot of contemporary development theory and enrich its key details. The brilliant success of Phoenix mode strengthens its reliability and credibility as a benchmark.

The most beautiful story of Chinas reform and opening up has been written. Since ancient times, few countries have lifted so many people out of poverty in such a short period of time and, to a large extent, brought them into the process of sustainable self-development. Whether compared vertically or horizontally, the success of the Chinese model is commendable in the history of human development, so it is widely interpreted at home and abroad. The focus is always on what is the core, characteristics and replicability of the Chinese model?

However, the response so far has not been satisfactory. The main reason lies in the failure to pay enough attention to the starting point problem and the inherent defects of contemporary development theory. Development economics is the core of development theory.

The starting point of Chinas reform and opening up is universal poverty. The vast majority of people belong to the proletariat, interwoven with absolute poverty and relative poverty. At this starting point, the desire of one heart and one heart points to a clear and clear single goal - to get rid of poverty. To eliminate poverty as soon as possible and remove poverty and hunger from the long historical memory and fear engraved in the heart of the Chinese nation has become the most powerful initial driving force of the Chinese model of development through reform and opening up. Throughout the history of evolution, human memory and fear of poverty and hunger are deeply rooted, just like a lack of security.

It is not surprising to combine the solution of poverty with the problem of development and interpret it as the core part of the Chinese model of reform and opening up.

To tell the core of the China model as the story of poverty alleviation and development is not only historical truth, but also in line with development logic.

The logic of development regards development as the eternal theme of human beings, and regards poverty alleviation as the first priority of development. If there is no development, there is no hope of getting rid of poverty; if there is no hope of getting rid of poverty, it also means that there is no development. Therefore, poverty alleviation and development are inseparable. But in developed countries, the bottom line goal of development is no longer poverty alleviation, because systemic poverty has been solved.

Promoting development through poverty alleviation is not only a national strategy, but also a key component of the local strategy linking the national strategy. Looking at the world, systematic poverty still plagues many countries. But how many of them have made great efforts and persevered in poverty alleviation for development?

However, the contemporary development theory does not provide appropriate insights into why China regards poverty alleviation so important. The most valuable part of a proper view is to define the three integrated goals of development: growth (bigger cake), equality (cake sharing) and stability (all sustainable). It is obvious that the goal of Poverty Alleviation (poverty eradication) is missing from the goal trichotomy.

The goal of poverty alleviation is different from the goal of equality. The goal of poverty alleviation focuses on the living conditions of the people at the bottom of the society, while the goal of equality focuses on the gap of wealth distribution. Therefore, the goal of poverty alleviation must be independent of the goal of equality. It is not only wrong in logic, but also harmful in practice.

The theoretical basis of the Chinese model of poverty alleviation and development also comes from the respect and protection of individual life dignity. The birth of life is a miracle, life is beautiful and fragile, life is short, life is only once. Are these not enough to arouse our sense of respect and protection for the dignity of life? Both the concept of rights, which has been integrated into the pedigree of western social and political thoughts, and the people-oriented view, which has long been rooted in Chinese traditional political culture, has its common source: respect for life and care for living conditions. Right path and people-oriented path are highly complementary and inseparable.

The Chinese model is also rooted in the idea that poor peoples lives are equal and priority. Compared with the rich, it is more difficult for the poor to resist their fate of impermanence of life by their own strength, so they rely more on collective strength. It is more priority for collective forces to target poverty alleviation. The goal of poverty alleviation is independent of the goal of growth and stability as well as the goal of equality. It should be pursued in a coordinated way.

The Chinese model is also rooted in the following ideas: under the appropriate institutional framework, the poor are not only the people who need to be helped or rescued, but also can make great contributions to development. Development is not only the cause and story of the rich, but also the cause and story of the poor.

Finally, the theoretical basis is closely related to Chinas political system which emphasizes active empowerment. Different from many countries, Chinas ruling party and government enjoy very broad and huge power and authority, and correspondingly assume unlimited responsibilities in a sense, including poverty alleviation, that is, to do what everyone needs and rely on their own strength to do bad or unwilling to do.

In addition to the failure to establish the development concept of poverty alleviation to promote development and relevant argumentation, the contemporary development theory has failed to give satisfactory answers to the first driving force problem of what drives development; it is particularly obvious that there is no place for the key role of leadership core in promoting poverty alleviation and development. In the investigation of Phoenix, the author found that in the specific political system environment of China, the first driving force of leadership core is crucial whether in the initial stage or in the further promotion stage, but it is ignored in the contemporary development theory.

In this paper, the core of leadership refers to the core team led by the top leaders of the party and government; the Secretary of the Party committee, as his soul, plays a unique key role in it, whether in strategy, decision-making, team division and cooperation, or collective leadership.

The key factors driving development are identified as capital (human and non-human capital), land, productivity and technological progress in contemporary development theory. The concept of leadership core has not even entered the legal eye. Although its real role is no less than these structurally measurable factors, it can be called conventional development factors.

In any case, a good development theory must set aside an appropriate position for the leading core of mystery and mystery, its infinite, especially under the specific national conditions of China. Conventional factors can not play their own role or achieve self-growth unless driven by some external force. The improved version of the contemporary development theory attributes it to the institution factor, but inadvertently omits the leadership core factor.

The Phoenix model shows that the first driving force of the leadership core is crucial in the relatively weak system environment, which can not be simply classified into the role of government role or human capital. The central point of this paper is: in the Chinese version of the story of poverty alleviation for development, the first driving force of the leadership core is decisive, so it should be examined separately. This decisive role is not only reflected in the formulation and implementation of specific strategies and policies, but also in the success or failure of the results and even in the collective destiny of the local people.

On the issue of how to promote development, the contemporary development theory has not refined two significant paths: the attractive path and the participation path, which are the main codes for the success of Phoenix model, and are likely to have universal significance (to be demonstrated later). The attraction path answers what does the development mainly depend on, and the participation path answers what does the self-development mainly rely on.

Self development is defined as non dependent development, that is, the people can control their own destiny; the help of the leadership core and the government is still important and essential, but only limited to help (rather than replace or lead). Fundamentally speaking, the fundamental role of the government and the core of leadership is to bring the people into the process of self-development and strive to create the key conditions on which the peoples self-development depends. Self development is the ultimate sustainable development.

On the issue of how to benefit the people through development, there is a key gap in Contemporary Development Theory: the construction of missing link mechanism. Although the contemporary development theory adheres to the idea that development achievements benefit the people, it implicitly presupposes that to promote the three comprehensive objectives is to benefit the people. The three comprehensive objectives, namely, growth, equality and stability, are the comprehensive objectives of general economic policy (narrow development view), which restrict and guide all sectoral policies to be consistent with them. Sector policies are public policies corresponding to specific functional areas of the government, such as agriculture, environment, science and technology, health care and social security policies.

The irrationality of the above presupposition is that it ignores the link mechanism between development and benefiting the people. It is important to realize that there is often a gap between development and benefiting the people, because there are many cases of there is development but not (less) benefiting the people in the real world. The link mechanism between the two is a major blind area of contemporary development theory.

One of the main unique features of Phoenix model is also this: the link mechanism between the development of benefiting the people has a strong existence in the core of leadership, which is matchmaking , priority of capable people and help of capable people mentioned later. These mechanisms are both mysterious and mysterious because they are difficult to quantify, and infinitely wonderful because their real importance is beyond imagination. Contemporary development theory is dismissive of this, just as the core of leadership and its first driving force role.

From the perspective of Phoenix model, it is not difficult to find that the explanatory power and guiding role of contemporary development theory are actually quite limited, so at least six major amendments need to be made (see Figure 1)

Establishing poverty alleviation to promote development as the orthodox development concept of developing countries

Three essential elements to confirm the first driving force of leadership core

The two basic ways to complement each other are to create attraction and stimulate participation

Introducing two kinds of paths into industrial ties

Core leadership - creating attraction - stimulating participation as the first driving force of iron triangle

The ultimate goal of the orthodox outlook on development is to benefit the people

Figure 1 shows that it is appropriate to interpret the Phoenix model as a new development view based on Game Theory, which is expected to provide universal guidance for enriching contemporary development theory and promoting development by poverty alleviation.

Game theory, which seems to be complex and profound, is actually very concise and practical, especially when it is applied to interpret the code of development. Is it not the bounden duty of contemporary development theory to crack the code of development? Isnt it the shortcut that individuals and societies desire to control their own destiny?

The new development view based on game theory predicts and controls the outcome with three core variables. The first is the roles in the development game, the second is the benefits of each role, and the last is the tactics used to seek interests.

In the Phoenix model, we can find that the only most important role is the core leadership. The focus is the leader of the party and government as the leadership team, and the Secretary of the Party committee is the focus of the focus. The role of poverty alleviation for development is diverse, but the role of the core leadership in strategy, decision-making and organizational security is decisive, even in the final outcome.

The second key variable of game theory is interest -- the leadership core regards poverty alleviation to promote development and benefiting the people as the supreme collective interests. The essence of the government is to serve the people, but it is easier said than done, unless a leading core capable of being entrusted with heavy responsibilities by the people can effectively play the role of the first driving force, whether in the initial start-up stage or in-depth promotion stage.

The third key variable of game theory is strategy - the core of leadership regards shaping attraction and stimulating participation as the key path to promote development through poverty alleviation. Its importance and operational implications will be clarified in a later discussion.

The interaction of the above three key variables produced a happy ending in a short time: the great success of Phoenix model. Evidence and facts are the most convincing, but the success of argument is not the focus of this paper.

2u3001 Creating an attractive model

As far as the path is concerned, Phoenix model adheres to an old and enduring law of attraction - competition for attraction, which is the key fulcrum for the core of leadership to play the role of the first driving force. In this sense, Phoenix model has universality.

Development is the eternal theme of human beings, while competition and cooperation are the eternal themes of development. Both of them are much more important and effective than various specific methods. A large number of cases and empirical studies have proved this point. For example, the best way to develop Chinas new energy vehicle industry is to introduce international competition mechanism rather than provide huge financial subsidies and other preferential policies.

Since the reform and opening up, under the unified leadership of the central government, many local districts have launched fierce competition in the cause of promoting development through poverty alleviation, and attracting investment is the key aspect. However, the essence of competition is attraction. Competition is rarely realized, and there is no theory of poverty alleviation and development based on attraction. However, Phoenix model just provides a precious prototype.

In this paper, attractiveness is defined as the attractiveness of a specific region (such as Fenghuang County) to the outside and to the interior. External attractiveness refers to the ability to attract foreign market elements - production, investment, work and transaction - to flow into the local market, while local attraction refers to the ability to attract local market elements to stay at home. Under the mode of attraction, the investment attraction that local governments are used to is primitive, crude and outdated.

The trick of the attraction model is shaping.. Even in the most impoverished and backward areas, there are certain attractive elements, such as certain natural resources, landscapes, restaurants and even customs. However, in the natural state of not meticulously shaped, attraction is only potential rather than realistic, and recessive rather than dominant; metaphorically speaking, it is also a magnet, but the magnet losing magnetism can not produce the real magnet effect -- the attraction effect, unable to attract or retain anything.

Therefore, although the elements of attraction are born (there), they can only be formed by careful combination. The process of carefully combining the elements of attraction is the process of shaping the mode of attraction.

It can be analogized as follows: it is not uncommon for people with Star potential (attractive elements), but only star scouts with insight can discover and package them, and finally they can shine brilliantly on the screen and even circle fans countless times. Here, discovery and packaging embody the essence of the concept of shaping (attraction), and highly rely on the professional vision and professional standards of intelligent people. However, due to their mysterious and mysterious, mysterious and infinite characteristics, they have always entered the horizon of contemporary development theory.

The attraction model includes two sub models: (1) the location attraction model based on liquidity, and (2) the characteristic attraction model based on non liquidity. The Phoenix model focuses on creating characteristic attraction, which has become the focus of the leadership core in the past 10 years, and has finally achieved positive results.

In the story of poverty alleviation to promote development, it is very important to clearly distinguish regional attraction and characteristic attraction, which is of universal significance. The main difference lies in: the former makes money by occupying a good position, while the latter makes money by creating uniqueness.

The history of human economic development strongly proves that the factors of trade and production always flow to the potential location systematically, that is, the spatial location that earns higher expected return with relatively low expected cost and risk, making it a small number of growth and prosperity location.

Fenghuang County, which is located in the intersection of Hunan, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, has gained some congenital advantages because of its good space occupying. However, compared with coastal areas, these advantages are quite limited. In fact, Tuojiang River, which played an important role in trade in history, has long been abandoned and replaced by river landscape function.

Therefore, the success of Phoenix model is not mainly due to the success in the sense of occupying a good position. Historically, although the intrinsic value of the unique geographical location itself is immeasurable, it is not big enough to determine the fate.

The decisive force of destiny mainly comes from the internal cause, that is, how we treat and assemble our own characteristic attraction. Some feature attraction factors are there, others need to be added separately. Luoning County, located in the western mountain area of Henan Province, develops Alpine peony to promote poverty alleviation and development, which is a classic case of adding characteristic factors to create characteristic attraction.

Phoenix model is more representative. This ancient city of Southwest Chinas Pearl, which can be called the treasure of Chinese culture, has accumulated a heavy characteristic attraction factor in the history. However, it is still a step away to transform it into magnet effect, that is, the so-called everything has nothing but east wind. This famous last step problem (99 steps ahead) constitutes a high threshold for many poor areas. It is not uncommon to find examples of begging with a golden rice bowl.

The key to the success of the Phoenix model lies in the leadership cores role of the first driving force, which is first locked in recognizing and assembling Phoenix characteristics to shape the attraction of characteristics, rooted in four simple and profound cognition

For the poor and underdeveloped areas, what is really lacking is not resources and money, but the characteristic attraction that can lead resources and money to local areas;

Even if elaborately shaped is likely to fail, a large number of man-made ancient towns (engineering buildings, etc.) are classic examples;

Therefore, the core of leadership should be awed by what is the real characteristic attraction, and take excellent strategic vision and professional intelligence as the best guarantee.

The theoretical interpretation of attraction model is shown in Figure 2

If it is not for in-depth observation and in-depth communication, it is difficult to understand the subtleties: how the strategic vision and professional wisdom of the leadership core have been gradually transformed into bricks and tiles, steles, pavilions, mountains and rivers, and one person, one story in Fenghuang ancient city, so as to produce irresistible magnet effect in part and in the whole.

In the first driving force, these development factors, which are difficult to be measured and structured, have become the most important development factors in Chinas current context because they control the specific development factors including capital, production and technological progress, but they are rejected by the development theory that tells the development story.

3u3001 Stimulate public participation

The second pillar of the Phoenix model is to stimulate participation, which is another key aspect of the first driving force of the leadership core, which is different from the attractive mode as the first pillar mentioned above. It is based on the following cognition: in the cause of promoting development through poverty alleviation, the core leadership can effectively shoulder the responsibility of shaping the attraction of characteristics and stimulating the participation of the people, which is better than anything else.

In the past decades, the concept of industrial poverty alleviation has been developed and widely practiced in China. However, the objective results are mixed and quite different. What makes these differences?

The answer extracted from the Phoenix model as a prototype is participation, that is, the two hands of the core of Leadership: in the cause of poverty alleviation and development, we should try our best to stimulate the participation of the people as a pillar as important as shaping attraction. This is rooted in the following cognition: success or failure depends on attraction + participation; without the extensive participation of local people, attraction is not enough to lead to success.

Here, the focus is on the public participation that connects the industrial ties at the action level, which is different from the mode of public discourse expression + government response at the discourse level. In view of the fact that the public is not only the object of poverty alleviation for development, but also the main body of self poverty alleviation and development process, and its decentralized specific knowledge and information can make a significant contribution to poverty alleviation and development, it is appropriate and necessary for the leadership core to stimulate participation as the second pillar parallel to shaping attraction.

The link of action level participation is industry in broad sense. Fenghuangs leading industry is tourism, and the trick lies in how to integrate tourism with other related industries to form an industrial cluster that can accommodate enough local people. Two complex and intractable challenges need to be addressed here: industrial integration and personnel placement. Both of them are highly dependent on the strategic vision of the leadership core, but more importantly, professional wisdom.

Personnel placement refers to the insertion of a sufficient number of local people (the poor are preferred) into the appropriate positions in the industrial cluster and industrial chain, which highly depends on the careful design and implementation of the participation mechanism.

In this way, the concept of industrial poverty alleviation in Phoenix model is refined into three sub key concepts

Characteristic industry integration based on complementarities

Personnel placement

Priority to the poor

The first one focuses on the attraction of industrial poverty alleviation. A typical example is the development of Fenghuangs Alpine rice, which has attracted a large number of buyers, including foreign tourists to buy locally, with additional planting equivalent to five times that of ordinary rice. The second and third focus is on participation. In this way, Phoenix model endows industrial ties and even crucial characteristics: integrating attraction and public participation. Many local industrial poverty alleviation failure or effect is more from the failure or effect of participation, and its cognitive root can be traced back to the misunderstanding of peoples ability by the leadership core.

It is self-evident that market failure is particularly common and serious in the early stage of development and backward areas. The lack of public capacity and the consequent coordination failures of the private sector are the key aspects. However, they are often misunderstood, and it is difficult for many regions to solve the two problems of participation in industrial poverty alleviation, namely, personnel placement and priority for the poor u3002

The reason why Phoenix model has universal benchmarking significance is that the leadership cores realistic cognition of peoples ability is particularly important. The essence of its concept is the conviction that we are made of nature and we will be useful.

It is based on this belief that even those who may be regarded as nothing, including the elderly, children, even the illiterate and the disabled, can be appropriately placed in the appropriate position in the characteristic integrated industrial cluster, and then there are jobs and income sources that can be settled down, and the spirit of poverty and ambition is short is completely upgraded to high spirited On the spiritual outlook.

In the broadest sense, poverty alleviation is not only material poverty alleviation, but also spiritual poverty alleviation. After all, the highest ideal and ultimate value of human beings are not defined by material conditions, but by spiritual outlook; moreover, spiritual poverty alleviation plays a wonderful and infinite role in promoting material poverty alleviation, although it is rarely recognized.

Such participation mechanisms involve a lot of mysterious and mysterious details. Being familiar with and skillfully using these details has become the key component of the first driving force of the leadership core in Phoenix mode, and plays an immeasurable role in promoting development by poverty alleviation, but it is ignored in the contemporary development theory.

Public companies established and controlled by the government lead the development and operation of industries, so as to make full use of a series of comparative advantages of government power over the private sector, including public infrastructure construction (relying on overall planning and centralized investment), handling the interest conflicts between investors and local people, and ensuring that public assets (different from commercial assets) are held, preserved and increased Identify the main body of responsibility, as well as support participation (personnel placement and poor priority).

Separation of two rights

Phoenix model abides by the separation principle of asset ownership and dividend right (virtual equity): the ownership of public assets is permanently owned by the public company (the property rights are held by the government), but the companys employees (participants) enjoy the fixed dividend right of the companys profits - at present, the standard dividend is 2000 yuan * 8% per capita per year.

Government lease

The government leases the right to use the landscape house of the local aborigines, so as to bring it into the unified corporate development and operation, but the ownership and use right of the indigenous people remain unchanged. This ingenious mechanism of mutual benefit and win-win enables participants to obtain a rental income (5% increase based on the current 3000 yuan per year) in addition to salary and dividend income.

The theoretical interpretation of participation mode is shown in Figure 3

Promoting development through poverty alleviation is one thing, and making it truly benefit the people (sense of gain) is another. Another important characteristic of Phoenix model is to establish a link between the two, as the third pillar of the core leadership to play the first driving force. The first two pillars are creating attraction and stimulating engagement.

The importance of intermediary link can be traced back to a major defect of contemporary development theory, that is, the unrealistic presupposition that development is equal to benefiting the people. Under this implied presupposition, the contemporary development theory has never looked at the intermediary link, although it is crucial to promote development by poverty alleviation and return to the essence of development.

To a large extent, the success of Phoenix model can be attributed to the leadership cores recognition of the unique three types of intermediary link mechanism and its importance, thus avoiding the trap of more development but less benefit to the people.


With its unique authority, resources and information advantages, the leadership core brings its well-known external opportunities (such as local golden tea hot sale in other places) to the specific individuals and poverty alleviation points they know well. High value opportunity information is of great significance to be transmitted by leaders.

Capable people first

The opportunity information is given priority to capable people in a certain field, such as professional tea growers and rice wine brewing families. There are various kinds of opportunity information, many of which can only come from the core of leadership. At the same time, the leadership core also provides various support for capable people to help them develop and utilize opportunities successfully.

Capable person assistance outsources or entrusts government responsibility to capable person, but capable person must help a certain number of participants to help them get rid of poverty and become rich. In this way, a significant but often overlooked multiplier effect is established. For example: suppose that each of the five leadership cores is 20 capable people each year to transmit the opportunity information and help them succeed. If each able person helps 100 participants, if it lasts for 10 years, there will be a multiplier effect of 5 (leadership core) * 20 (capable people) * 100 (participants) * 10 (years) = 100 (10000 people).

The intermediary link mechanism including the above three elements can be regarded as the counterpart support led by the leadership core. Interestingly, this kind of institutional innovation, which is crucial to promoting development through poverty alleviation, is precisely based on the non institutionalized daily operation. Due to the lack of standard answer, daily operation highly depends on three outstanding characteristics of leadership core

rategic insight

Professional intelligence

Be compassionate

So far, the theoretical interpretation of the third pillar (intermediary connection) of Phoenix model is shown in Figure 4

Figure 1-4 shows the three outstanding characteristics of the leadership core, driving the process of poverty alleviation for development through three kinds of paths. As the key elements of the first driving force, the three characteristics, namely strategic vision, professional wisdom and compassion, are introduced into attraction path, participation path and intermediary link path respectively, and finally transformed into the core strength of development and benefit the people. This is the most wonderful and gorgeous chapter in the development story told by Phoenix mode, which has deep vitality and reproducibility.

Each country, region, organization and individual has its own development story. The most haunting thing for us is to accurately identify and lock in the key factors that determine success or failure, which stems from the human nature of pursuing success and rejecting failure.

The key factor is nothing more than fate, which is decomposed into life class factor and operation class factor. The former is an uncontrollable factor, and we have no choice, such as parents, birth time and blood type; the latter is a controllable factor, and we can make our own choices, such as choosing to work hard rather than being lazy, choosing to engage in politics rather than doing business, choosing to invest rather than saving, and choosing to benefit others rather than others, etc.

Every day we have to make choices, big or small. There are good and bad choices, good and bad, accumulated over time will determine the different fate of different people. Fundamentally speaking, choice determines fate, individual choice determines individual fate, and collective choice determines collective destiny; therefore, fate is determined by our own choice, and human beings can not be subject to the arrangement of destiny is determined by heaven.

In this way, choice is the key to decode the secret of development. As long as we continue to make good and good choices, especially those of great importance, destiny will not tease us. So is the individual, so is the society.

In Chinas vast territory, we can see a development story map interwoven with success and failure. Some areas are developing well, others are developing poorly; some are rapidly emerging from the development story, and some are still struggling for the essentials.

Behind all this, the decisive force is the quality of collective choice. Collective choice refers to public choice or social choice, which is mainly manifested in the agency decision-making under the principal-agent relationship, that is, the public decision-making made by the agent in the name of the principal (taxpayer and Society). In the context of Chinas political system, the core of leadership is the most important agent, whether at the central or local level.

To meet these standards, it is necessary to establish two kinds of best guarantee mechanisms -- responsibility construction and capacity building, which are two kinds of epoch-making social engineering under the current background of China. Both of them focus on the huge public officials with the largest energy (power and resources), and the focus is the core of leadership which is repeatedly emphasized in this paper. Only the agency decision-making of the leadership core is the most decisive force in the development story of contemporary China.

Because of this, the construction of responsibility and capacity at the core level of leadership, especially the responsibility and capacity building of county-level leadership core, fundamentally determines the quality of agency decision-making and development. For more than 2000 years since the Qin Dynasty, the governance and stability of a country largely depends on county governance and stability. In this sense, the core of county-level leadership plays a key role in national governance, and it is also the front line to face and solve the increasingly complex and intractable governance problems in contemporary China.

Therefore, the quality of agency decision-making of county-level leadership core is just the key to solve the secret of development. This is true at the local level and to a large extent at the national level.

The three reflect the outstanding characteristics of an excellent and competent leadership core. Because its value rank is far higher than other characteristics (such as dedication), it can be regarded as outstanding quality; because its contribution potential is far higher than the conventional development factors (capital, land, labor force, etc.), it can be regarded as super development factor. Therefore, it is appropriate and necessary to bring it into the evolution direction of contemporary development theory.

Like other developing countries, in the early and mid-term stages of economic and social development, the accountability system is relatively weak, which needs to make unremitting efforts to achieve success, and ultimately turns into a key factor to ensure the quality of agency decision-making and development. In contrast, the capacity-building path is more likely to produce low-key and pragmatic results, especially in the short term. Short term is no less important than long term in development stories, especially at the level of politics and international competition. Development is mostly a business that cant afford to wait.

The above discussion highlights the special importance of the outstanding characteristics of the county-level leadership core in the development story. Each has its exact and rich meaning and supports different functions in driving the development of benefiting the people.

Strategic vision is crucial to correctly and clearly establish the sense of goal and direction of development. In the Phoenix model, the protection, development, construction and operation of the ancient city are intertwined with conflicts among multiple objectives, especially the conflicts among cultural objectives, economic objectives and poverty alleviation goals There are many cases of exploitative destruction, but the excellent strategic vision of the leadership core ensures that the Phoenix model sets aside such traps, and makes these seemingly conflicting goals coordinated and pursued in an all-round way.

Instead of relying on strategic vision to support doing the right thing, doing it right relies more on professional intelligence. It is professional intelligence that ensures that the core leaders know what to do, regardless of economic, political, social or cultural matters. Even if they dont know what to do in a certain field, the core leaders can make up for the deficiencies by letting competent people do it.

Be compassionate and support doing things responsibly.. In an ideal situation, responsibility depends on institutional protection, but even a perfect system is not omnipotent and cannot replace the compassion of the leadership core. In the Phoenix model, compassion for the mind gives priority to the concern for the living conditions of the people at the bottom of the society or the poor, a kind of concern internalized in the heart and externalized in the form, a kind of mysterious but mysterious but other concern, and many high-level emotions and even democratic decision-making ideas have risen from it, and finally transformed into a powerful force driving the development of benefiting the people u3002

At this point, the relationship between the excellence (Leadership) characteristics of the leadership core and the development of benefiting the people can be shown in Figure 5.


The theoretical interpretation of Phoenix model in this paper can initially show that the model has universal benchmarking significance, and also shows that contemporary development theory needs to be evolved to systematically strengthen its ability to explain, predict, guide (current practice) and lead (medium and long-term wise action). These are the four essential functions of all scientific theories.

In order to strengthen these functions systematically, the contemporary development theory needs to first evolve towards including the neglected key development factors. The core of leadership is one of the most important, and the three key secondary factors attached to it are strategic vision, professional wisdom and compassion.

Each sub factor includes several subordinate factors, namely attraction and participation as path factors, foreign attraction and local attraction as attraction factors, public company, separation of two rights and Government lease as participation factors, and matchmaking, priority of capable persons and assistance of capable persons as factors of benefiting the people u201du3002

These neglected super development factors surpass the capital, productivity and scientific and technological progress as conventional development factors, and play a unique role in controlling and leading conventional factors in the real world. Their prominent characteristics are unstructured mysterious and mysterious and infinite mystery that is difficult to quantify. In this sense, the evolution of development theory requires that super development factors be brought into view and structured, and their relative contributions should be quantified appropriately.

The second direction that development theory needs to evolve is to clearly distinguish two complementary development paths, namely attraction path and participation path. This is crucial to correct the development disease of developing countries, which is with development without participation. The main negative consequence is that the development achievements can not really benefit the people at the bottom of the society.

The third direction in urgent need of evolution is to establish poverty alleviation for development as the core development concept of developing countries, and the concept of poverty alleviation should also be expanded into the organic combination of material poverty alleviation and spiritual poverty alleviation.

The theoretical interpretation of Phoenix model in this paper is rooted in the cognitive concept that human power (leadership core) may play a decisive role, which is especially suitable for the environment and development stage with relatively prominent institutional vulnerability. It is self-evident that its correctness and degree of correctness are probable, but three obvious advantages are definite: (1) it can be supported by a large number of empirical cases; (2) it has a high degree of replicability; (3) it helps to lock in key development factors.

Field trip pictures

[special thanks: Secretary Yan Changwen of Fenghuang County, who accompanied the author on-the-spot investigation, made an important contribution to the source and conception of this paper.

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