Seven non provincial capital cities counter attack
According to the data, among the 27 leading cities, 8 cities have GDP of more than trillion yuan, namely, Shenzhen, Suzhou, Chengdu, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Zhengzhou and Changsha. The provinces where these cities are located rank among the top ten provinces in China in terms of GDP. This also shows that the total amount of the head cities in the provinces with large GDP will be relatively large; conversely, the total economic volume of the head cities is large, which can better promote the economic development of the provinces.
In addition to these eight cities, Quanzhou, Hefei and Xian, the three leading cities, are in the echelon of 900 billion yuan and are about to enter the ranks of trillion yuan. Among them, Fujian, where Quanzhou is located, ranks in the top ten of the provinces total economic volume, Anhui is a province with a large population in the central part of China, and Xian is the leading city and regional central city in the northwest.
From the perspective of the 27 leading cities, 20 are provincial capitals, that is to say, seven non provincial capitals have surpassed the provincial capitals and become the leaders of their provinces. The seven cities are Shenzhen in Guangdong, Quanzhou in Fujian, Suzhou in Jiangsu, Qingdao in Shandong, Dalian in Liaoning, Tangshan in Hebei and Ordos in Inner Mongolia.
Six of the seven non provincial capitals are located in coastal areas. Niu Fengrui, a researcher at the urban development and environment research center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, analyzed the first financial reporter that the reason why the eastern coastal areas have become economically developed is that there are more economic agglomeration areas. Many coastal provinces have two sub provincial cities, forming a Twin Star model. Some provinces have not only two or even more than one. The total economic volume of coastal areas is also relatively large, and it is impossible to gather all of them to the provincial capitals.
For example, Guangdong, the largest economic province, has not only two first tier cities, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, but also two second tier cities, Foshan and Dongguan. Jiangsu, the second largest economic province, also has three second tier cities: Nanjing, Suzhou and Wuxi. Zhejiang, the fourth largest economic province, has three central cities: Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou.
Niu Fengrui said that the coastal multi center and multi center mode is caused by many factors, such as location, resource endowment and policy factors. Taking policy factors as an example, cities of special economic zones and 14 coastal open cities have great influence on the current urban pattern. At the same time, the cities with separate plans are also located in coastal areas.
Among them, the separate planning system has greatly affected the urban pattern of several coastal provinces. For example, among the five cities with separate plans, Shenzhen, Qingdao and Dalian have significantly surpassed the provincial capitals of their provinces in terms of economic aggregate and per capita income. Xiamen, as the only sub provincial city in Fujian, has surpassed Fuzhou in terms of per capita income and influence, although its economic aggregate is not as good as that of Fuzhou. Among the provincial capitals of the provinces where the five cities are located, only Hangzhou remains strong relative to Ningbo, which surpasses Ningbo in terms of economic aggregate and new economic development.
Peng Peng, executive chairman of the Guangdong Provincial Institute of structural reform, analyzed to the first financial reporter that there are two factors for the development of cities with separate plans. One is that these cities can become cities with separate plans, which means that their economic development is better. On the other hand, the system of separate planning has greatly promoted the development of these cities, which has been decentralized to some cities and enterprises Some autonomy will give them more room for development and help mobilize local enthusiasm.
Similarly, in the Beijing Tianjin Hebei Urban Agglomeration, Tangshan is a very prominent heavy industrial city. Peng Peng said that after the reform and opening up, the core urban agglomeration has a great impact on the city. Tangshan is greatly influenced by Beijing and Tianjin, and Suzhou is greatly influenced by Shanghai.
Although Quanzhou is only an ordinary prefecture level city, it is a famous commercial town in history. It is located in the south of Fujian Province with a strong commercial tradition. After the reform and opening up, the light textile, shoes and hats industry has developed rapidly. In addition, among the seven non provincial capital leading cities, the only one from outside the coastal areas is Ordos, which mainly benefits from the rapid economic development driven by the coal energy industry since the new century.
Ye Qing, a professor at Central South University of economics and law, analyzed the first financial reporter that developed provinces often have one political, cultural and educational center and one economic center, while the central and western regions often have these centers together. The resources in the central and western regions are relatively small, and the limited resources tend to be concentrated in the provincial capitals, while the resources in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are more and will not be concentrated in one point. In addition, the coastal developed urban agglomerations are very dense, and the resources are easy to disperse. We can develop together and have strong liquidity. One result of the two is that the cities in the central and western regions are quite different in terms of the concentration of talents, funds and industries.
Advantages of provincial capitals
Although seven non provincial capital cities have become the first economic cities in their provinces, in recent years, as the economy has entered a new stage of transformation and upgrading, the advantages of provincial capital cities such as transportation hub and higher education are gradually emerging. Even if they are surpassed by non provincial capital cities, these cities are gradually narrowing the gap.
Taking Fuzhou as an example, the data shows that in 2019, the GDP of Fuzhou reached 939.2 billion yuan, equivalent to 94.4% of Quanzhou, the leader. In 2016, the ratio was only 86%. Ding Changfa, associate professor of Economics Department of Xiamen University, believes that Fuzhou, as the provincial capital, is the political, cultural, educational, medical and other centers of the province. It has concentrated the best factor resources in the whole province, and has obvious advantages. In the future, the total economic volume of Fuzhou will exceed that of Quanzhou.
In Jiangsu, for a long time in the past, the GDP of Nanjing was not only inferior to Suzhou, but also inferior to Wuxi, which was jokingly called Su Xiaosan. However, in 2014, Nanjing surpassed Wuxi and rose to the second place in Jiangsu Province. In recent years, the gap between Nanjing and Suzhou has been narrowing.
From the perspective of the second city in the total economic volume of 27 provinces, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Ningbo have exceeded the trillion yuan mark, while Jinan and Fuzhou are in the echelon of 900 billion yuan. In addition, it is worth noting that although Guangzhou, Nanjing, Fuzhou, Jinan, Shenyang, Shijiazhuang and Hohhot lost the first place in the province, they all ranked second in the province. At present, no provincial capital has slipped out of the top two provinces.
Judging from the cities with the third largest economy in each province, Foshan and Wuxi still exceed the trillion yuan mark. In other words, Guangdong and Jiangsu, the two provinces with the largest economic aggregate, have entered the ranks of GDP trillion club. It is worth noting that Xiamen, the only vice provincial city in Fujian Province and a city with separate planning, ranks the third in the total economic volume of Fujian Province.
At present, there are different calculation dimensions for the primacy of a city. Generally speaking, the ratio of the second largest city to the first largest city in a region can be regarded as the primacy degree of the first largest city. This index can also reflect the strength of the largest economic city in its region.
In terms of the ratio of the second city to the first city in the total economic volume of each province, two provinces are more than 90%, namely Fujian and Liaoning; four provinces are between 80% and 90%, namely Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei and Shandong; in addition, Zhejiang, Inner Mongolia and Jiangsu are all over 70%. It can be said that the gap between the first and second cities in these provinces is small.
From the regional perspective, seven provinces that have become the largest economic cities by the counter attack of non provincial capitals are all among them. It can be seen that in these provinces, although the provincial capital cities are overtaken by other cities in the province, the overall gap is not big, and the provincial capital cities still have the possibility of accelerating the catch-up in the future.
In 16 provinces, the ratio is less than 50%, that is to say, the total economic volume of the second largest city is less than half of that of the first city. These provinces are mainly from the central and western regions, and all of them are the leading provinces in the provincial capital economy. The ratio is less than 40% in eight provinces, namely Sichuan, Jilin, Gansu, Hubei, Ningxia, Hunan, Anhui and Xinjiang. Among them, Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, is only 16.8% of Chengdu; Jilin City, the second largest city in Jilin Province, is only 24% of Changchun, the capital of Jilin Province; Xiangyang, the second largest city in Hubei Province, is less than 30% of Wuhan, the provincial capital. It can be seen that in these provinces, the primacy of provincial capital cities is very prominent. Niu Fengrui said that Chengdu and Wuhan, including Chengdu and Wuhan, are sub provincial cities and regional central cities in the central and western regions. There are many university resources gathered, and the agglomeration effect formed by various policies is particularly prominent. In the western region, the objective conditions of economic development in many provinces are relatively poor, such as less plains, barren land, backward transportation infrastructure, etc., so the provincial capital city is the main platform for economic development. In the northeast region, due to the single industrial structure of most ordinary prefecture level cities, the downward pressure is great in recent years, and the gap with the provincial capital cities will be greater. Source: editor in charge of Finance and Economics: Zhong Qiming_ NF5619
Niu Fengrui said that Chengdu and Wuhan, including Chengdu and Wuhan, are sub provincial cities and regional central cities in the central and western regions. There are many university resources gathered, and the agglomeration effect formed by various policies is particularly prominent.
In the western region, the objective conditions of economic development in many provinces are relatively poor, such as less plains, barren land, backward transportation infrastructure, etc., so the provincial capital city is the main platform for economic development. In the northeast region, due to the single industrial structure of most ordinary prefecture level cities, the downward pressure is great in recent years, and the gap with the provincial capital cities will be greater.