Please turn my property into a fund and use the interest of this fund as a bonus every year to reward those who have made outstanding contributions to mankind in the previous year. More than 100 years ago, the Swedish chemist Nobel made a will to establish the Nobel Prize.
Photo: Alfred Nobels will manuscript is on display at the Nobel Museum in Sweden.
Although the Nobel Prize almost died in the field of science a hundred years ago, it was criticized by people.
At the beginning of the publication of Nobels will, Swedish public opinion was denounced. Nobel was labeled as unpatriotic because he did not donate his huge legacy to Sweden.
Fortunately, thanks to the unremitting efforts of the executors of the Nobel will, the Swedish king finally declared the Nobel will into effect in 1898, and the Swedish Parliament later passed the constitution of the Nobel Foundation. On December 10, 1901, the fifth anniversary of Nobels death, the first Nobel Prize was awarded.
Growing up record: Why are the winners more and more accomplished late?
From 1901 to now, the Nobel Prize has a history of nearly 120 years. It has been awarded 597 times. 919 individuals and 24 organizations have won the Nobel Prize and 54 times have been awarded to women.
Photo: at noon local time on October 9, 2019, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry to John goodinaf, Stanley Whittingham and Yoshino in recognition of their contributions to the development of lithium batteries.
Among them, the oldest winner is one of the winners of the 2019 chemistry prize, American scientist goodinaf, known as father of lithium battery, at the age of 97. Faced with this late glory, goodinaff said: you can do anything by living to be 97. I feel honored and flattered to win the Nobel Prize.
From the 1950s to the present, there is an interesting trend in the field of traditional natural science that Nobel Prize winners are getting older and older.
Gustav karlstrand, senior director of the Nobel Museum, explained that a hundred years ago, there were only about a thousand physicists in the world. Today, the number has risen to about one million.
Scientists may have made important discoveries at a young age. However, there are tens of thousands of scientists who have made outstanding achievements, and the Nobel Prize Committee is increasingly demanding the reliability of scientific achievements, so it may take many years for the Nobel Prize Committee to win the prize.
Initially, Nobels legacy was only SEK 31 million. Since 1901, the total amount of the Nobel Prize has been far more than this number, but there is still money to pay, which is due to investment and financial management.
Photo: Canadian scientist Donald Strickland, Nobel Laureate in physics, presented the laboratory to the media in October 2018.
The Nobel Foundations money has been invested in treasury bonds, real estate and the stock market. However, financial management can not always be smooth. In 2011, due to the sluggish global stock market, the Nobel Foundation lost more than 19 million SEK in stock investment.
In 2020, each Nobel Prize will amount to SEK 10 million, an increase of SEK 1 million over 2019.
After getting the huge prize money, many of the winners spent their money on the follow-up research, and others donated the prize money.
Of course, some scientists choose to buy, buy.. Paul Nash, a British cell biologist, decided to buy an upscale motorcycle after winning the prize. Economist Franco Modigliani used part of the prize money to upgrade his sailboat. Philip sharp, one of the winners of the 1993 medical prize, bought a house with a history of 100 years. He said frankly, the prize money is really a good part of the Nobel Prize.
Social circle: no more toasting under the epidemic situation
After enjoying the delicious food feast with Swedish characteristics, guests can also participate in the ball held in the golden hall. Yoshino Chang, one of the winners of the 2019 chemistry prize, said after attending the dinner, I finally have the real feeling of winning the prize..
Photo: Stockholm City Hall hosting the Nobel dinner.
However, the winners of 2020 may not be able to express the same sigh.
The traditional Nobel prize awarding ceremony will no longer be held in December 2020. The award ceremony held in Stockholm and Oslo will be broadcast live through television and the Nobel Prize official website, and the number of live viewers will be reduced. The winners will be awarded Nobel medals and certificates at the Swedish embassies in the relevant countries or their research universities.
Sad thing: 155 runs with someone
Photo: Swedish king Kar XVI Gustav (front right) presents a prize to Jean Pierre sawari (front left), one of the Nobel Prize winners in chemistry, on December 10, 2016 local time.
As the founder of psychoanalysis school, Freud, an Austrian psychologist, has been nominated for 33 Nobel prizes, including 32 Nobel prizes in physiology or medicine. In 1936, Roman Roland, a famous French writer, also nominated Freud as the winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
Although Freuds regret did not receive a Nobel Prize, he was not the most injured compared with French biologist Gaston Raymond.
From 1930 to 1953, Raymond was nominated for the Nobel Prize 155 times. He developed a vaccine against diphtheria in the 1920s, when diphtheria was the main cause of death.
In the face of the rising voice and expectation of the outside world, Murakami Haruki said frankly: it is the works, not the awards, that will last forever.
The 2020 Nobel Prize will be announced from October 5 to October 12. Photo source: screenshot of Nobel Prize official website
Timetable: who will win the 2020 awards?
On September 23, the list of citation laureates, known as the barometer of Nobel Prize, was announced, and 24 scientific research elites were selected, including Dai Hongjie, a Chinese scholar and professor of Chemistry Department of Stanford University.
The opening week is about to begin. Lets take a look at the release dates of the 2020 Nobel Prizes (all in Beijing time)
Physiology or Medicine Award: no earlier than 17:30, October 5;
Physics prize: no earlier than 17:45, October 6;
Chemistry Award: no earlier than 17:45, October 7;
Peace Prize: no earlier than 17:00, October 9;
Economics award: no earlier than 17:45, October 12