What are the challenges for Japan to explore Phobos by bypassing Mars own planet?

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 What are the challenges for Japan to explore Phobos by bypassing Mars own planet?


2020 is undoubtedly a Mars year, with UAE, China and the United States launching exploration missions successively. Japans sword is out of the way, announcing that it will challenge two Mars satellites in 2024 and return after landing on Phobos.

The German Space Center (DLR), which cooperates with the Japanese aerospace research and Development Agency (JAXA) and is responsible for the development of rover structure and mobile system, recently disclosed that engineers have developed the first version of the rover model and are conducting initial landing tests in Bremen.

The two moons of Mars, Phobos is on the inside, with a large volume, about 27 km x 22 km x 18 km; Phobos is on the outside, with an average radius of 6.2 km.

What is the detection value of the little dots in the two solar systems? The German Space Center says their origins are a scientific puzzle. The two satellites may be asteroids captured by Mars, or they may be formed by a collision between a larger body and Mars. The formation mechanism of Mars, Phobos and Phobos will help us understand the origin of planets in the solar system.

As part of Japans MMX Mars exploration mission, the Mars rover is planned to be launched into space in 2024 and enter Mars orbit in 2025. The rover will land at the end of 2026 or early 2027. After landing, it will take about 100 days to analyze the surface characteristics of Phobos in detail.

The gravity of Phobos is only two thousandths of that on earth, and the 25 kilogram Rover lands in a free fall at an altitude of about 40 to 100 meters. Engineers at the German space center say a particular challenge is that a free falling Rover may land in any direction, and the exact location of its landing is full of chance, and it may hit a rock.

In addition, the extreme temperature difference on Phobos is a challenge. Phobos circles Mars three times a day, and its surface temperature drops from 50 degrees above zero to 150 degrees below zero every day and night. The internal temperature of the detector must be kept relatively constant to ensure the quality of scientific measurement.

After the Soviet Union and the United States, Japan was the third country on earth to launch an impact on the red planet. In 1998, Japan launched the nozomi Mars Orbiter, which planned to long-term investigate the Mars upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind, and track the escaping gas. However, due to the failure shortly after launch, the Hope did not have enough fuel to enter the target orbit. In 1999, hope passed Mars by. In 2003, Japan officially gave up repairing Hope.

In the past five years, the process of trying to adjust, hoping and then disappointed was undoubtedly tiring. In February this year, Japan bypassed the Mars home planet and announced that it would explore its two satellites Phobos and Deimos.

If successful, Japan will be the record breaker on this track. As early as 1988, the Soviet Union launched two Phobos orbiting probes in succession, both of which ended in loss of contact. In 2011, Russia tried again to challenge Phobos, but failed in orbit transfer, and paid for the first Mars probe Yinghuo-1 launched by China. This time, Japan put forward the sampling and returning plan, which was inspired by the success of Hayabusa 2. The probe successfully landed on the asteroid Dragon Palace about 340 million kilometers away from the earth in February 2019, collecting surface samples and discovering hydrated minerals. In April of the same year, falcon No.2 fired a metal bullet at the Dragon Palace to knock out the underground materials. It then landed again on the asteroid and collected underground samples. The samples are expected to return to earth in December this year. It is worth mentioning that the cooperation team of Japans fire protection exploration program is the same as that of Falcon 2, with the participation of German Space Center, CNEs and NASA. Source: surging news editor: Wang Fengzhi_ NT2541

If successful, Japan will be the record breaker on this track. As early as 1988, the Soviet Union launched two Phobos orbiting probes in succession, both of which ended in loss of contact. In 2011, Russia tried again to challenge Phobos, but failed in orbit transfer, and paid for the first Mars probe Yinghuo-1 launched by China.

This time, Japan put forward the sampling and returning plan, which was inspired by the success of Hayabusa 2. The probe successfully landed on the asteroid Dragon Palace about 340 million kilometers away from the earth in February 2019, collecting surface samples and discovering hydrated minerals. In April of the same year, falcon No.2 fired a metal bullet at the Dragon Palace to knock out the underground materials. It then landed again on the asteroid and collected underground samples. The samples are expected to return to earth in December this year.

It is worth mentioning that the cooperation team of Japans fire protection exploration program is the same as that of Falcon 2, with the participation of German Space Center, CNEs and NASA.