General secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that history is the best textbook and the best sober agent. It is a compulsory course for Party members and cadres to study the four histories, namely, the history of the party, the history of new China, the history of reform and opening up, and the history of socialist development. After the first political keywords column was set up during the NPC and CPPCC sessions in 2019 and the second column was launched on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of new China, surging news continued to jointly open the key words of four histories with the Shanghai Federation of social sciences circles and the Shanghai political society.
Today, we have published 47 key words of four histories, the key word is two bombs and one star.
If you dont get bullied, you have to build an atomic bomb
In the confrontation between the two camps, new China has been repeatedly subjected to nuclear blackmail since the founding of the peoples Republic of China. In particular, during the Korean War, in response to a reporters question about whether the use of the atomic bomb was included, US President Truman publicly said that he has been actively considering the use of the atomic bomb.. Even the saying that Xiamen will be the second Hiroshima was once popular among the US military.
In the 1950s and 1960s, China was facing a severe international situation. In order to resist the threat of imperialist force and break nuclear blackmail and nuclear monopoly of nuclear powers, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decisively decided to develop two bombs and one satellite, and made a major decision of strategic significance for national security and development.
In 1956, the state formulated the first plan for the development of science and technology, of which the first item was the peaceful use of atomic energy, and two larger projects, namely, atomic bomb and missile, were deployed. In April, Mao Zedong said at the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee: we are now stronger than before, and will be stronger than now. We need not only more airplanes and artillery, but also atomic bombs. In todays world, if we are not bullied by others, we cant do without it. Shortly after that, Zhou Enlai presided over a meeting of the Central Military Commission to listen to Qian Xuesens ideas on developing missile technology. After the meeting, an aviation industry committee of the Ministry of national defense, headed by Nie Rongzhen, was established to be responsible for the development of missiles and the aviation industry.
In May of that year, Zhou Enlai once again presided over the Central Military Commission meeting to discuss the preliminary opinions on Establishing Chinas missile research work put forward by Nie Rongzhen. On the basis of scientific demonstration, the Central Committee made a decision to develop missile technology. In October, the Fifth National Defense Research Institute was established as the Missile Research Institute; in November, the third Ministry of machinery industry was established to organize and lead the construction and development of the nuclear industry.
In 1957, China began to develop sophisticated weapons including missiles and atomic bombs. In 1958, Chinese scientists put forward a proposal for the development of man-made earth satellites. On May 17 of that year, Mao Zedong proposed at the second meeting of the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China that we should also build some satellites.. The central government has decided to set up a special research and Design Institute with the Chinese Academy of Sciences as the main body, and allocate special funds to develop the man-made earth satellite, code named 581.
The difficulty of getting on or off the horse
Chinas two bombs and one satellite research and development has established the policy of adhering to self-reliance, striving for foreign aid and making use of the existing scientific achievements of capitalist countries. The work began with technical assistance from the Soviet Union. From 1955 to 1958, the governments of China and the Soviet Union signed six relevant agreements, in which the Soviet Union provided technical assistance to China. On October 15, 1957, China and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on new national defense technology, which determined that from 1957 to the end of 1961, the Soviet Union would provide China with technology in rocket, aviation technology and atomic bomb development. These aid plays an important role in the start of Chinas two bombs and one satellite development.
However, the Soviet Unions aid was conditional and limited from the beginning, mainly providing non military technology. On June 20, 1959, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union sent a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, announcing that it would stop providing China with relevant technical information on atomic bomb samples. On August 23, the Soviet Union unilaterally terminated the new national defense technology agreement signed by the two countries, decided to withdraw experts, not even a piece of paper, but also ridiculed that China could not produce an atomic bomb in 20 years without outside help. Just keep the scrap! In order to remember the day when the contract was torn up, Chinas first atomic bomb was named 596. On July 16, 1960, the Soviet government sent a note to the Chinese Ministry of foreign affairs and decided to withdraw all experts. From then on, the development of two bombs and one satellite can only rely on our own strength and enter a new stage of comprehensive self-reliance.
When the Soviet Union tore up the contract, Chinas national economy was facing unprecedented difficulties. As a result, people have different opinions on whether to start or dismount national defense cutting-edge science and technology projects. Mao Zedong clearly pointed out: we should make up our minds to engage in cutting-edge technology, and we should not relax. Chen Yi said: the waist of my foreign minister is not very hard at present. If you bring out missiles and atomic bombs, my waist will be hard. Nie Rongzhen also insisted that in order to get rid of the situation that China has been bullied and oppressed by imperialism for a century, we must do a good job in cutting-edge weapons marked by the atomic bomb, and at the same time, we can promote the development of other modern science and technology.
Therefore, on July 16, 1961, the CPC Central Committee made the decision on Several Issues Concerning Strengthening the construction of the atomic energy industry, which pointed out that in order to be self reliant, break through the atomic energy technology and accelerate the construction of Chinas atomic energy industry, the Central Committee believes that it is necessary to further shorten the front line, concentrate efforts and strengthen the support of all parties to the construction of the atomic energy industry. Subsequently, under the direct leadership of the Central Committee, a special committee of 15 members headed by Zhou Enlai was formally established. Its main task is to strengthen leadership over the construction of the atomic energy industry, the acceleration of nuclear weapons development, testing and scientific and technological work. In 1965, the organization was renamed the central special commission, and the development of missiles and satellites was also unified under the leadership of the Committee.
Therefore, a large number of outstanding scientists, researchers, engineers, technicians and managers have been gathered in the development of two bombs and one satellite. They set up bases in the Gobi desert and deep mountain gorge. They worked hard and worked hard. In order to keep secret, they kept their names, cut off contact with the outside world, and made basic contributions to the national defense cutting-edge science and technology cause in obscurity, and even gave their precious lives. They cooperated with each other and constantly explored scientific research theories and methods The close cooperation and innovation between the departments of planning, experiment and engineering embodies the institutional advantage of socialist concentrating on major events.
History will not forget their contributions to the motherland. On September 18, 1999, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the Central Military Commission made a decision on awarding the two bombs and one satellite meritorious Medal to the scientific and technological experts who have made outstanding contributions to the development of the two bombs and one satellite. They highly appraised the great achievements in the successful development of the two bombs and one satellite project. 23 scientific and technological experts who made outstanding contributions were commended, awarded or awarded the two bombs and one satellite meritorious service He warmly praised the spirit of two bombs and one star of loving the motherland, selfless dedication, self-reliance, hard struggle, great cooperation and courage to climb.
The first hydrogen bomb model in China.
The big bang of the East makes China an influential power
On October 16, 1964, China successfully exploded its first original bullet. The East Bang shocked the world, and China became the fifth country with an atomic bomb. This represents the new level that Chinas science and technology can reach at that time, breaks the nuclear monopoly and nuclear blackmail of the superpower, and improves Chinas international status. Of course, the Chinese government has issued a statement: China has always advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons; China has been forced to carry out nuclear tests and develop nuclear weapons in order to defend and protect the Chinese people from the nuclear threat.
Undoubtedly, this day is unforgettable for hundreds of millions of Chinese. Mao Zedong Chronicle records that on the day when Chinas first atomic bomb was successfully exploded, Mao Zedong said, two sentences of conclusion: helpless flowers fall, helpless flowers have opened. The first sentence is about the fall of Khrushchev, the second is about Johnsons attack on Chinas development of nuclear weapons - whatever you say, China already has an atomic bomb!
On that night, the Central Peoples broadcasting station continuously broadcast news bulletins on the success of the atomic bomb explosion, and countless Chinese people poured into the streets, just like celebrating a grand festival. Tens of millions of Chinese people living abroad are also proud of it. An overseas Chinese who opened a restaurant in a Western European country once told his experience: before, neighbors often swept garbage to his door to show contempt for the yellow people; after the news of Chinas atomic bomb explosion, no one piled garbage in front of his door, and the police congratulated him and said, you have such a motherland, no one will trouble you in the future.
After the successful explosion of the first atomic bomb, the development of two bombs and one satellite continued. In 1965, the central special committee approved in principle the proposal on the work plan for the development of Chinas artificial satellite, which plans to launch Chinas first man-made satellite from 1970 to 1971, named dongfanghong-1. The satellite has entered the engineering development stage, code named 651 mission. At 8:00 a.m. on June 17, 1967, the first hydrogen bomb air burst test was successful; on April 24, 1970, at 21:00 a.m., the first man-made satellite was successfully launched, singing the Oriental red song in the universe, and China became the fifth country to launch a man-made satellite.
The brilliant achievement of national defense cutting-edge science and technology with two bombs and one satellite as the core is not only a great achievement of Chinas national defense modernization, but also an important symbol of the development of modern science and technology. It fills in the gaps in many disciplines, drives the development of modern science and technology, and accumulates valuable experience for the leap forward of Chinas technological development. Later, Deng Xiaoping once said: if China did not have the atomic bomb, hydrogen bomb and satellite launch since the 1960s, China could not be called a big country with important influence, and would not have such an international status. These things reflect the ability of a nation and are also a sign of the prosperity of a nation and a country.
(the author is a professor of Shanghai municipal Party School)