White paper on 30 years of Chinese military participation in UN peacekeeping operations (full text)

category:Military
 White paper on 30 years of Chinese military participation in UN peacekeeping operations (full text)


30 years of Chinese military participation in UN peacekeeping operations

(September 2020)

The Peoples Republic of China

Information Office of the State Council

catalog

preface

1u3001 Chinese army marches for world peace

uff081uff09 Monitoring the cease-fire

uff082uff09 Stabilize the situation

uff083uff09 Protection of civilians

uff084uff09 Security guard

uff085uff09 Support

uff086uff09 Spread hope

uff081uff09 Complete the establishment of the peacekeeping standby force

uff082uff09 Send more security personnel to UN peacekeeping operations

uff083uff09 Complete the task of training peacekeepers for all countries

uff084uff09 Military assistance to the African Union

4u3001 Chinese military actively promotes international cooperation in peacekeeping

uff081uff09 Strengthen strategic communication and build consensus on peace keeping

uff082uff09 Sharing experiences and practices and contributing Chinese wisdom

uff083uff09 Deepen joint performance and training to jointly improve ability

5u3001 Chinas armed forces serve and build a community of shared future for mankind

uff081uff09 Uphold the concept of a community of shared human destiny and work together to safeguard world peace

uff083uff09 Adhere to the principle of co construction, complementary advantages and build a new type of peacekeeping partnership

uff084uff09 Support the improvement of the UN Security Councils peacekeeping authorization and comprehensively enhance the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations

uff085uff09 Give full play to the role of capability standby mechanism and improve the level of rapid response

uff086uff09 Actively respond to various risks and threats and ensure the safety of peacekeepers

Appendix 2 UN peacekeeping operations participated by Chinese Army

Appendix 3 officers and men killed in UN peacekeeping operations

preface

This year marks the 75th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese peoples war of resistance against Japan and the world anti fascist war, the 75th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, and the 30th anniversary of the participation of Chinese troops in UN peacekeeping operations.

Peace is the eternal expectation of the Chinese people and a distinctive feature of Chinas development. Since the founding of the peoples Republic of China, China has unswervingly followed the path of peaceful development and made important contributions to world peace and development while realizing self-development. China has always firmly upheld the international system with the United Nations at its core, the basic norms of international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and, together with other countries, adheres to multilateralism and upholds fairness and justice.

China maintains world peace with practical actions and actively participates in UN peacekeeping operations. It is the second largest contributor and contributor to UN peacekeeping operations and the largest troop contributor to the permanent members of the Security Council. Over the past 30 years, the Chinese military has earnestly practiced the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. It has successively participated in 25 UN peace keeping operations, and has sent more than 40000 peacekeepers to faithfully fulfill its peacekeeping mission. It has made positive contributions to maintaining world peace and promoting common development, highlighting its image as a teacher of peace, justice and civilization.

Chinas armed forces have antithetical couplet and the commitments made by the Chinese armed forces at the UN peace keeping summit. The goal is to serve the destiny of the community of mankind and increase support and participation in UN peace keeping operations, so that Xi Jinping can bring more confidence and hope to the peaceful development of the conflict areas. The Chinese military in the new era has become a key factor and force in UN peacekeeping operations, injecting more positive energy into world peace and development.

Todays world is experiencing a great change that has not happened in a century. Peace and development are still the themes of the times, but they are facing increasingly severe and increasing risks and challenges. No matter how the international situation changes, China has always been a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development, and a defender of international order. The Chinese army has always been a just force for world peace and development.

This white paper is issued by the Chinese government to review the glorious course of the Chinese Armys participation in the UN peacekeeping operations in the past 30 years and to introduce the Chinese Armys ideas and actions to maintain world peace in the new era.

1u3001 Chinese army marches for world peace

UN peacekeeping operations are born for peace and exist for peace, and have made important contributions to the maintenance of world peace. In 1971, China resumed its legitimate seat in the United Nations and played a more active role in international affairs. After reform and opening up, China has gradually participated in UN peacekeeping affairs. In April 1990, the Chinese army sent five military observers to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, which opened the way for the Chinese army to participate in UN peacekeeping operations. Over the past 30 years, in UN peacekeeping operations, the Chinese military has always kept in mind the original intention and mission of fulfilling the responsibility of a great power, maintaining world peace, and serving the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind. Chinas blue helmets have become the key force of the United Nations in maintaining peace.

Chinas participation in UN peacekeeping operations stems from the peace gene of the Chinese nation. The culture of harmony of the Chinese nation contains the cosmology of the unity of man and nature, the international view of harmonizing all nations, the social outlook of harmony but not the same, and the moral view of human kindness. Peace, harmony and harmony are the most simple pursuits of the Chinese nation. The concepts of harmony and coexistence, harmony as the most precious and kindness to others are handed down from generation to generation in China. For thousands of years, peaceful integration into the blood of the Chinese nation, carved into the genes of the Chinese people, has become the unremitting pursuit of the Chinese army.

Chinas participation in UN peacekeeping operations stems from the fundamental purpose of the peoples army. The Chinese army comes from and roots in the people, lives for and fights for the people. At any time and under any circumstances, the Chinese Army adheres to the fundamental purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, shares the same breath with the people, shares the same destiny, and connects heart to heart, and puts the interests of the people first. The Chinese peacekeeping forces cherish the great love of the world and uphold the humanitarian spirit to seek peace and happiness for the local people.

Chinas military participation in UN peacekeeping operations stems from Chinas great power responsibility. China is a founding member of the United Nations. It is Chinas duty as a responsible member of the international community to firmly safeguard the authority and status of the United Nations and actively participate in UN peacekeeping operations. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, Chinas active participation in UN peacekeeping operations is its due responsibility to fulfill its responsibilities as a major power. World peace is inseparable, and human destiny shares weal and woe. It is necessary for China to join hands with other countries to promote the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind.

The Chinese armed forces take the following policy positions in participating in UN peacekeeping operations:

u2014u2014Adhere to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. We will always adhere to the main principles of the United Nations, such as the sovereign equality of all Member States and the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means, respect the social system and development path independently chosen by all countries, and respect and take into account the reasonable security concerns of all parties.

u2014u2014Adhere to the basic principles of UN peacekeeping operations. We should always adhere to the basic principles of consent, neutrality, non self-defense or non use of force when authorized by the parties concerned, respect the territorial integrity and political independence of sovereign states, maintain a fair position, and accurately implement the authorization of the Security Council.

u2014u2014We should adhere to the global governance concept of CO discussion, co construction and sharing. We should always adhere to dialogue and consultation to build a world of lasting peace; adhere to co construction and sharing to build a world of universal security; adhere to win-win cooperation to build a world of common prosperity; adhere to exchanges and mutual learning to build an open and inclusive world; adhere to green and low-carbon to build a clean and beautiful world.

u2014u2014Adhere to the new security concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable. We should always respect and ensure the security of every country, maintain the security of both traditional and non-traditional fields, promote the security of all countries and the region through dialogue and cooperation, and attach equal importance to development and security to achieve lasting security.

u2014u2014Adhere to the peaceful settlement of disputes. We should always adhere to the peaceful settlement of differences and disputes between and within countries, enhance mutual trust through dialogue, resolve disputes through dialogue, promote security through dialogue, and resolutely oppose the frequent resort to or threat of force.

2u3001 The Chinese army is a key force in UN peacekeeping operations

Over the past 30 years, the number and types of peacekeeping officers and men dispatched by the Chinese army have developed in an all-round way, from the initial military observers to the engineering, medical, transportation, helicopter, security and infantry battalions, as well as the military professionals such as staff officers, military observers and contract officers. Chinas peacekeeping officers and men have traveled to more than 20 countries and regions, including Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Cyprus, South Sudan, Mali and Central Africa. They have made important contributions to promoting the peaceful settlement of disputes, maintaining regional security and stability, and promoting the economic and social development of the host countries.

uff081uff09 Monitoring the cease-fire

The purpose of monitoring the cease-fire is to ensure that the parties to the conflict implement the cease-fire agreement. It is the initial function of the UN peacekeeping operation and the first UN peacekeeping mission undertaken by the Chinese army. Since 1990, the contingent of Chinese peacekeeping military professionals, represented by military observers, staff officers and contract officers, has been growing steadily. Over the past 30 years, the Chinese military has sent 2064 peacekeepers to 25 peacekeeping missions and UN headquarters. So far, a total of 13 Chinese soldiers have held important positions such as special mission commander, deputy commander, theater commander and deputy commander. In August 2020, 84 peacekeeping military professionals are active in peacekeeping missions and the United Nations headquarters, mainly responsible for patrol and observation, monitoring of the cease-fire, liaison and negotiation, operational command, organizational planning and other tasks.

Military observers are deployed on the front line of conflict to provide information for the decision-making of peacekeeping operations, and are often threatened by armed conflicts. On July 25, 2006, during the conflict between Lebanon and Israel, Du Zhaoyu, a Chinese military observer, stuck to his post in the artillery fire and performed his duties. He gave his young life to the cause of peace. He was remembered as a first-class meritorious officer and was awarded the Hammarskj? LD medal by the United Nations.

uff082uff09 Stabilize the situation

Rapid stability of the situation is a prerequisite for promoting the peace process, is the main task of UN peacekeeping missions, and is also an important direction for the expansion of the functions of Chinas peacekeeping forces in recent years. The security situation in some peacekeeping mission areas is grim, various kinds of conflicts continue, and terrorist attacks and violent riots occur frequently. Among all kinds of peacekeeping units, the infantry battalion mainly carries out the tasks of armed patrol, separation of conflicts, stop violence and calm violence, guard and search. It is the main force of peacekeeping operations and the stabilizer of the security situation.

In January 2015, the Chinese army sent an infantry battalion of 700 personnel to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (unss), which is the first time that the Chinese army has sent infantry battalions overseas to carry out peacekeeping missions. Over the past five years, the Chinese army has sent six batches of peacekeeping infantry battalions to South Sudan. Setting out in the morning glow, returning to the camp dressed in starlight, falling asleep in the sound of gunfire and waking up in the sound of gunfire are the true portrayal of the work and life of the officers and soldiers of the peacekeeping infantry battalion. As of August 2020, the peacekeeping infantry battalion has completed 51 long-distance patrols, 93 short-distance patrols, 314 armed escort missions, and more than 30000 hours of patrol in the restricted area of weapons, which has played an important role in stabilizing the local situation. In August 2018, a large-scale fighting bloody incident occurred in Juba, the capital of South Sudan. The Chinese peacekeeping infantry battalion was ordered to attack and deal with it decisively to quickly calm down the situation.

uff083uff09 Protection of civilians

The protection of civilians is an important part of UN peacekeeping operations, and it is also the unshirkable responsibility of Chinese peacekeeping officers and soldiers. Since modern times, the Chinese people have suffered a lot from war and chaos. Chinese officers and soldiers are well aware of the value of peace and the priceless value of life. In the war-torn peacekeeping mission areas, Chinese peace keeping officers and soldiers have watered the beautiful flowers of peace with sweat and youth, and propped up a piece of blue sky of peace with blood and life.

In July 2016, an armed conflict broke out in Juba, the capital of South Sudan. The government forces and the anti-government forces continued to fight fiercely. The two sides put in tanks, large caliber guns, armed helicopters and other heavy weapons, which seriously threatened the lives and safety of a large number of civilians in the area of exchange of fire. The Chinese peacekeeping infantry battalion and its friendly neighboring forces jointly undertake the security and protection of civilians in more than 100 villages in the urban and suburban areas of Juba. In the face of a barrage of bullets, Chinese peacekeeping officers and soldiers have built a defense line of life with their flesh and blood to prevent armed elements from approaching the civilian protected areas and protect the lives and safety of more than 9000 civilians. During the mission, Li Lei and Yang Shupeng sacrificed bravely and fulfilled their mission with their lives. They bravely and fearlessly fulfilled their solemn oath of protecting life and safeguarding peace. They were remembered as first-class meritorious and were awarded the Hammarskj? LD medal by the United Nations.

In December 2013, the Chinese army sent a 170 member security unit to the United Nations multidimensional integrated Stabilization Mission (UNMIL) to undertake the tasks of security alert and VIP escort of the East theater command of the United Nations. This is the first time that the Chinese army has sent security forces to participate in peacekeeping operations. Mali is one of the most dangerous peacekeeping mission areas of the United Nations, and terrorist attacks such as suicide attacks and roadside bombs occur frequently. Over the past seven years, the Chinese army has successively sent 1440 people to eight groups of security units and officers and soldiers to Malis peacekeeping mission area. On the southern edge of the Sahara desert, which is full of dangers, the security unit officers and soldiers have accomplished their tasks excellently. They have carried out more than 3900 armed patrols, guards and other operations, which are known as the trump card of the war zone in the eastern theater of the United Nations. On May 31, 2016, Shen Liangliang, a Chinese peacekeeping soldier, made a heroic sacrifice to prevent terrorist vehicles carrying explosives from rushing into the UN peacekeeping camp. He was remembered for his first-class merit and was awarded the Hammarskj? LD medal by the United Nations. On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the peoples Republic of China, martyr Shen Liangliang was awarded the national honorary title of peoples hero.

On March 12, 2017, a fierce conflict broke out in the border town of Yei in South Sudan. Seven United Nations civilian personnel were trapped in the center of the crossfire area, and their lives were under serious threat. Chinas peacekeeping infantry battalion to South Sudan dispatched 12 officers and soldiers to the rescue. On the way, the rescue officers and soldiers were fearless in the face of danger and fought bravely with the armed elements. They broke through the interception three times and successfully transferred all the trapped civil personnel. The rescue operation was timely and efficient, and was promoted by the mission as a successful example of rescue operations.

uff085uff09 Support

Logistics support units such as engineering, transportation, medical, helicopter, etc. play an indispensable and important role in UN peacekeeping operations, and are the main body of Chinese troops sending peacekeeping forces overseas. In each peacekeeping mission area, the officers and soldiers of Chinese logistics support team have created shining Chinese brands such as China Quality, China speed and China standard with excellent quality, exquisite skills and dedication.

In January 2020, more than 20 people were injured in a terrorist attack on the taisalit peacekeeping camp in the northern theater of UNMIL. The Chinese medical team deployed in the East theater rushed forward to take back seven wounded members of the Chadian peacekeeping force to the Chinese medical team. After full rescue, all the wounded were saved. Novel coronavirus pneumonia unit in May 2020 overcame the adverse factors of new crown pneumonia epidemic prevention and control pressure, severe security situation, and completed the construction of Thorpe bridge in Western Sultan by high standard and high quality, and won the high praise and praise of the local government and people through the route of the China to the Raja.

Over the past 30 years, the Chinese army has successively dispatched 25768 engineers to eight peacekeeping missions in Cambodia, Congo (Kinshasa), Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Sudan, Darfur, South Sudan and Mali. The total number of new and repaired roads is more than 17000 kilometers, and more than 300 bridges are built and repaired. More than 14000 mines and unexploded ordnance have been removed. A large number of ground leveling, airport maintenance and construction have been completed We have sent 5164 person times of 27 transportation units to Liberia and Sudan, transported more than 1.2 million tons of materials and equipment, and transported more than 13 million kilometers of transportation mileage. We have sent 4259 medical teams to six mission areas of Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, South Sudan and Mali More than 246000 person times were used to treat patients and rescue the wounded; 420 people were dispatched from three helicopter units to Darfur, Sudan, with a total of 1602 sorties, 1951 hours, 10410 people and 480 tons of materials were transported.

uff086uff09 Spread hope

To live a happy life is the common expectation of the people of all countries. Chinese peace keeping officers and soldiers who have gone abroad have brought peace and hope to the people devastated by the war.

Actively assist in humanitarian relief. Over the past 30 years, Chinas peacekeeping forces, together with international humanitarian agencies, have actively participated in refugee resettlement, relief food distribution, refugee camp construction, emergency relief and relief operations, and have carried out a lot of fruitful work. In April 2020, a rare flood broke out in Uvira region in the eastern part of Congo (DRC). As a result, the safety of peoples lives and property was under serious threat. The Chinese engineering detachment was ordered to reinforce dykes and dams, repair damaged bridges, open channels for life, and effectively protect the safety of local people.

Extensive participation in post-war reconstruction. After a peace agreement is signed by a war-torn country or region, helping it to restore social order and improve peoples livelihood is a fundamental policy to prevent the recurrence of conflicts and achieve lasting peace and stability. Chinas peacekeeping forces have actively participated in the post-war reconstruction process of the garrison. They have undertaken the tasks of assisting in the construction of important infrastructure, assisting in the supervision of elections, training of medical personnel and environmental protection, and have been positively appraised by the governments and people of the host countries. Located at the edge of desert and with complex geological structure, Sudans Darfur region is one of the extremely poor water areas in the world. From 2007 to 2013, the water supply officers and soldiers of Chinese engineering detachment overcame many difficulties and drilled 14 wells in the local area, effectively alleviating the drinking water problem of local people.

Deliver warmth and love. Chinese peacekeepers are not only guardians of peace, but also disseminators of friendship. The Chinese medical team to Congo (DRC) formed a pair with the International Childrens village in Bukavu city to convey love and warmth with true feelings. Chinese female officers and soldiers are affectionately called Chinese mother by the children. This relay stick of love has lasted for 17 years and has been widely spread in the local area. Chinas peacekeeping forces in South Sudan have taught the local people agricultural technology, given agricultural tools and vegetables, and have been invited to offer Chinese culture and Chinese courses in local middle schools, which are welcomed by students.

Over the past 30 years, the Chinese military has participated in 25 UN peacekeeping operations, and has sent more than 40000 peacekeepers. 16 Chinese officers and soldiers have given their precious lives to the cause of peace. In August 2020, 2521 Chinese officers and men are on duty in eight peacekeeping missions and UN headquarters. Chinese women peacekeeping officers and soldiers have played an increasingly important role in peacekeeping operations. More than 1000 women officers and soldiers have successively participated in medical security, liaison and coordination, mine clearance and explosive disposal, patrol and observation, promotion of gender equality, and protection of women and children, demonstrating the heroism of Chinese women. The outstanding performance of Chinas peacekeeping forces has been highly recognized by the United Nations, widely appreciated by the international community, and won honors for the country and the army. On October 1, 2019, Chinas peacekeeping forces were inspected by the motherland and the people for the first time during the National Day parade.

3u3001 China fully implements commitments made at UN peace keeping Summit

On September 28, 2015, Chinas president Xi Jinping attended the UN peace keeping summit and announced support for the 6 commitments of UN peacekeeping operations. Chinas government and armed forces have resolutely implemented the decision and deployment of President Xi Jinping, said the words and deeds, and fulfilled the relevant commitments with practical actions, and achieved a series of important achievements. Over the past five years, the composition of Chinas peacekeeping forces has expanded from a single service to a multi service and arms, its mission type has transformed from support support to comprehensive multi-functional, its operational objectives have extended from preventing armed conflicts to building lasting peace, and its peacekeeping capacity has further improved.

uff081uff09 Complete the establishment of the peacekeeping standby force

The rapid deployment of peacekeeping operations can win opportunities for peace and win time for life. Chinas armed forces strongly support the establishment of the UN peacekeeping capability standby mechanism and enhance the rapid deployment capability of peacekeeping operations. In September 2017, it completed the registration of the 8000 person peacekeeping standby force in the United Nations, including 28 units of 10 categories of professional forces, including infantry, engineers, transportation, medical, security, fast reaction, helicopter, transport aircraft, UAV, surface warship, etc. In October 2018, 13 peacekeeping standby units were promoted to the level II standby force through the inspection and evaluation organized by the United Nations. From 2019 to 2020, six maintenance and standby units will be promoted from level 2 to level 3. Chinas peacekeeping standby force is a well-trained, well-equipped and well disciplined professional force that strictly trains in accordance with United Nations standards and always remains on standby. China has become the country with the largest number of UN peacekeeping standby forces and the most complete types of units. In addition, the Ministry of public security of China took the lead in establishing the worlds first established standing peacekeeping police force in June 2016, which was promoted to the rapid deployment level in October 2019.

uff082uff09 Send more security personnel to UN peacekeeping operations

Logistics support forces such as engineering, transportation and medical services are important support for peacekeeping operations. They not only effectively improve the performance efficiency of special missions, but also play an important role in the post-war reconstruction and improvement of peoples livelihood of the countries stationed. The Chinese army has the tradition and advantage of sending support units to peacekeeping operations. Since the 2015 UN peace keeping summit, the Chinese military has actively responded to the needs of UN peacekeeping operations in terms of engineering support, medical treatment and other aspects. It has sent 25 batches of peacekeeping engineers and medical teams, totaling 7001 people, to participate in peacekeeping operations in Congo (DRC), South Sudan, Sudan, Darfur, Mali and Lebanon. In August of 2020, there are 1186 Chinese medical detachment of the United Nations peacekeeping force. They have successfully completed the tasks entrusted by the United Nations, made positive contributions to the local peace process and established a good image of the United Nations peacekeeping force.

uff083uff09 Complete the task of training peacekeepers for all countries

In the spirit of resource sharing and win-win cooperation, the Chinese military has actively helped other troop contributing countries to improve their training level, enhance their ability to cope with complex environments, and better carry out UN peacekeeping missions. Over the past five years, 20 batches of professional training have been held, including the protection of civilians, senior officials of peacekeeping missions, peacekeeping instructors, peacekeeping military professionals, and female peacekeeping officers. More than 1500 peacekeepers have been trained for more than 60 countries. The Chinese army has carried out mine clearance assistance projects and trained more than 300 mine clearance personnel for Cambodia, Laos, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In addition, Chinas Ministry of public security has trained more than 1000 peacekeeping police personnel.

uff084uff09 Military assistance to the African Union

The main needs of peacekeeping operations are in Africa. In order to support African countries to improve their peacekeeping and stability maintenance capabilities and solve African problems in an African way, the Chinese military has actively implemented US $100 million of military assistance to the African Union, and supported the construction of the African standing army and the rapid response force for crisis response. So far, the Chinese army has delivered the first batch of military aid equipment and materials to the African Union, dispatched a military expert team to train African personnel, and reached an agreement with the African Union on military assistance arrangements for the next stage.

uff085uff09 Dispatch the first maintenance helicopter unit to carry out the mission

Chinese warhawks soar for peace. In August 2017, the Chinese army sent the first 140 member helicopter unit to the African Union united nations hybrid operation in Darfur (AMIS) and deployed four medium-sized multi-purpose helicopters, mainly responsible for the tasks of troop delivery, operational support, personnel search and rescue evacuation, and logistics supply. Chinas peacekeeping helicopter unit has completed a number of high-risk tasks in an unfamiliar and complex overseas environment. It has become an important military aviation force for UN peacekeeping operations in the Sudans Darfur region.

uff086uff09 Establishing the China UN peace and development fund to support UN peacekeeping operations

In order to better support the UN peace cause and promote multilateral cooperation, China has established the China UN peace and development fund. From 2016 to 2019, the China United Nations peace and development fund has carried out 52 projects in the field of peace and security, with an investment of about US $33.62 million. Among them, 23 projects involved in supporting UN peacekeeping operations, with funds of about 10.38 million US dollars, including the overall planning of UN peacekeeping operations, African peacekeeping capacity-building, security of peacekeepers, livelihood projects in Sudan, Darfur and Mali.

4u3001 Chinese military actively promotes international cooperation in peacekeeping

World peace needs to be jointly maintained by all countries, and peacekeeping operations need to strengthen cooperation from all sides. The Chinese armed forces have successively carried out peace keeping exchanges and cooperation with more than 90 countries and more than 10 international and regional organizations. They have enhanced mutual understanding, exchanged experiences and practices, strengthened practical cooperation, strengthened bilateral and multilateral relations, and continuously improved peacekeeping capacity through the forms of group visits, expert exchanges, joint exercises and training, and personnel training.

uff081uff09 Strengthen strategic communication and build consensus on peace keeping

We should strengthen bilateral and multilateral communication and enhance understanding and mutual trust. Chinas armed forces actively carry out exchange visits with the armed forces of Russia, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, France, Germany, Britain and the United States in the field of peacekeeping, strengthen policy communication, plan peace keeping cooperation, and boost the development of friendly relations between the two armed forces. In May 2010, the first Sino US consultation on peacekeeping affairs was held in Beijing. In April 2015, defense ministers of China and Vietnam signed a memorandum of understanding on peace keeping between the two defense ministries in Beijing; in the same year, China held the first BRICs peace keeping consultation with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa. In February 2017, the first Sino British peace keeping consultation was held in the UK. In April 2018, Russian, French, British and US military representatives from the United Nations Military Staff Committee visited China to conduct extensive exchanges with China on peacekeeping operations; in May, China and Pakistan signed a peace keeping operation policy cooperation protocol; in October, the German defense minister visited the training base of the peacekeeping affairs center of the Ministry of defense of China, and the peacekeeping delegation of the Ministry of defense of China visited the United Nations Center of the German defense force.

uff082uff09 Sharing experiences and practices and contributing Chinese wisdom

Learning from each other and carrying out experience exchange are effective ways to improve UN peacekeeping operations. Chinas armed forces have actively carried out international exchanges in the field of peacekeeping, sending professional peacekeeping missions to visit military peacekeeping training institutions in Argentina, Finland, Germany and other countries. It has received more than 180 visits from various countries and international organizations such as the United Nations and the African Union. More than 10 large-scale international peace keeping seminars were held, including Sino British peace keeping seminar, International Seminar on challenges facing peace operations in the 21st century, China ASEAN peace keeping seminar, 2009 Beijing international peace keeping seminar. Chinese peacekeeping forces in Mali, Sudan, South Sudan, Congo (DRC), Liberia and Lebanon have exchanged experiences and practices with peacekeeping forces of France, Senegal and Spain.

Chinas military has extensively participated in the UN peacekeeping special review and policy formulation, contributing wisdom to the development of peacekeeping operations. He actively participated in the UN General Assembly Special Committee on peacekeeping and the conference on self carrying equipment of troop contributing countries, invited the high-level review expert group of UN peacekeeping operations and the delegation of the Security Council to visit China, and made suggestions and suggestions on the reform of UN peacekeeping operations, improvement of the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, and safeguarding the safety of peacekeepers; and organized experts to compile and review the manual of UN peacekeeping engineering units and UN peacekeeping military intelligence manual At the international conference, experts were sent to participate in the preparation and revision of UN peacekeeping manuals on infantry, security, aviation, transportation, health service and civil military cooperation.

uff083uff09 Deepen joint performance and training to jointly improve ability

To carry out joint training and training in the field of peacekeeping is an important measure to enhance the ability to carry out the tasks of UN peacekeeping operations and to train and reserve peacekeeping personnel. Through various forms, the Chinese armed forces carry out peace keeping exercises and training activities with the United Nations and relevant countries and regional organizations, so as to learn from each other and improve together. From June to July 2009, China and Mongolia held peacekeeping mission - 2009 joint training in Beijing; in February 2014, China sent personnel to the Philippines to participate in the ASEAN 10 + 8 Multi Country peace keeping tabletop rehearsal; from 2015 to 2019, it sent actual soldiers to Mongolia to participate in the Khan exploration Multinational Peace Keeping exercise; in March 2016 and September 2019, they sent actual troops to India and Indonesia to participate in ASEAN 10 + 8 peace keeping and peace keeping In May 2016 and may 2018, personnel were sent to Thailand to participate in multi-national peace keeping tabletop exercises; in April 2018, personnel were sent to Brazil to participate in the Viking multinational simulation command post rehearsal.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia is a major global change. The global security situation has accelerated. The uncertainty of international security situation has increased. The world peace is facing multiple threats. UN peacekeeping operations are facing multiple challenges and tests due to increasing constraints, increasingly onerous functions and tasks, and increasingly complex security environment. China will continue to play its role as a permanent member of the Security Council, firmly support and participate in UN peacekeeping operations, actively respond to the UN initiative of operation for peacekeeping, support the reasonable and necessary reform of UN peacekeeping operations, and make due contributions to building a world of lasting peace, universal security, common prosperity, openness, inclusiveness, cleanliness and beauty.

uff081uff09 Uphold the concept of a community of shared human destiny and work together to safeguard world peace

uff082uff09 We will promote the improvement of the system of peacekeeping operations, address both the symptoms and the root causes of conflicts

Peace can only be sustainable if we attach equal importance to development and security, address both the root causes of conflicts and address the root causes of conflicts. Peacekeeping operations should not only be vertically linked with preventive diplomacy and peace maintenance, but also horizontally coordinated with political mediation, promoting the rule of law, national reconciliation, and improving peoples livelihood. China supports the United Nations in building a more perfect system of peacekeeping operations. While focusing on the fundamental tasks of peacekeeping operations, China will invest more limited resources in the field of development, fully respect the right of the governments concerned to choose their own social systems and development paths in accordance with their national conditions, and respect the rights of the people of the countries concerned to live and develop, so that the countries concerned can concentrate their efforts on development, reconstruction and consolidation Peace results and sustainable peace. In peacekeeping operations, the Chinese military will, as always, create a safe and stable environment for countries and regions in conflict, actively participate in medical and health care, humanitarian relief, environmental protection, peoples livelihood development and social reconstruction, provide more public service products, and strive to make the local people enjoy the dividends of peaceful development.

uff083uff09 Adhere to the principle of co construction, complementary advantages and build a new type of peacekeeping partnership

Both troop contributing countries and contributing countries are important contributors to peacekeeping operations. All countries should shoulder their respective responsibilities in the field of peacekeeping, and form a joint force with complementary advantages in accordance with the principle of joint consultation and co construction. China supports the United Nations to actively build a partnership for peacekeeping, strengthen coordination between the Security Council and the Secretariat in peacekeeping operations with troop contributing countries and countries concerned, and strengthen the division of labor and cooperation with regional and sub regional organizations in peacekeeping. The Chinese military will actively respond to the tripartite cooperation mechanism advocated by the United Nations and provide support to other troop contributing countries and regional or sub regional organizations in terms of technology, equipment, personnel and funds.

uff084uff09 Support the improvement of the UN Security Councils peacekeeping authorization and comprehensively enhance the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations

The Security Councils authorization is the basis and guide for peacekeeping missions to carry out operations, and is a key factor in determining the legitimacy and effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. To formulate and update the authorization of peacekeeping operations, we should take into account the national conditions and actual needs of the countries concerned, as well as the capabilities of the troop contributing countries, and constantly adjust the priorities and priorities of each stage according to the changes in demand. China supports the establishment of a performance accountability mechanism by the United Nations to economize on the use of resources, strengthen the use of high and new technologies, improve the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, and ensure that peacekeeping operations play their due role. China supports the United Nations in taking various measures to help developing countries strengthen their capacity for peacekeeping and stability maintenance, improve the quality of personnel and equipment, and enhance the ability of peacekeeping forces to perform their duties. The Chinese army will continue to train more outstanding professionals for all countries.

uff085uff09 Give full play to the role of capability standby mechanism and improve the level of rapid response

The UN peacekeeping capability standby mechanism is an important guarantee for rapid response to crisis and conflict. China supports the United Nations in promoting the establishment of a standby mechanism for peacekeeping capabilities and giving priority to the selection and deployment of standby forces that meet the UN standards. In accordance with the requirements of the relevant mechanism construction, the Chinese army will continue to strengthen the construction of a 8000 strong peacekeeping standby force and maintain a high level of readiness. It can send surface vessels, rapid response and other types of troops to participate in peacekeeping operations as required.

uff086uff09 Actively respond to various risks and threats and ensure the safety of peacekeepers

The environment of peacekeeping operations is deteriorating and complex. Only by ensuring the safety of peacekeepers can the UN Security Council mandate be implemented more effectively. China maintains that peacekeeping operations should systematically respond to the growing number of traditional and non-traditional security threats, support the United Nations in comprehensive policy-making, strengthen information collection and sharing, improve early warning and threat perception capabilities, improve security equipment and facilities, improve the level of medical care, strengthen the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and ensure the safety and health of peacekeepers in an all-round way.

Conclusion

Seventy five years ago, the people of the world won the anti fascist war through bloody struggle, paying huge costs and sacrifices, and established an international system with the United Nations as the core. Looking back on history, we can feel the hard won peace and the difficulty of safeguarding peace. At present, mankind is standing at the crossroads of where to go. Peace or war, cooperation or confrontation, progress or retrogression are major issues that all countries need to face.

Peace needs to be fought for and maintained. China firmly adheres to the path of peaceful development and hopes that all countries will follow the path of peaceful development. Only when all countries follow the path of peaceful development can we develop together and live in peace, and the world can truly achieve peace. The Chinese army will, as always, support UN peacekeeping operations, fulfill its solemn commitment to safeguard peace, bring more confidence to the conflict areas and let the local people see greater hope. China is willing to work with all peace loving countries to firmly defend and practice multilateralism, firmly safeguard the international system with the United Nations as the core, firmly uphold the basic norms of international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and promote the construction of a community of common destiny for mankind and work together to build a better world.

Appendix 1 memorabilia of Chinese military participation in UN peacekeeping operations

In April 1990, the Chinese army sent five military observers to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (untso), marking the beginning of Chinas military participation in UN peacekeeping operations.

In April 1992, the Chinese army sent a peacekeeping Engineering Corps composed of 400 officers and soldiers to the United Nations Interim Authority in Cambodia to participate in the United Nations peacekeeping operation for the first time.

In September 2000, Chinese President Jiang Zemin attended the UN Security Council Summit and delivered a speech on the role of the Security Council, UN peacekeeping operations and African issues.

In December 2001, the peace keeping Affairs Office of the Ministry of national defense of China was established to coordinate and manage the peacekeeping work of the armed forces and carry out exchanges on peacekeeping affairs with foreign countries.

In April 2003, the Chinese army sent a peacekeeping unit to the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including a 175 man-made unit and a 43 person medical unit.

In December 2003, the Chinese army sent a peacekeeping force to the United Nations Mission in Liberia, including a 275 man-made unit, a 240 person transport unit and a 43 person medical unit.

In April 2006, the Chinese army sent a 182 man-made unit to the UN Interim Force in Lebanon.

In May 2006, the Chinese army sent a peacekeeping force to the United Nations Mission in Sudan, including a 275 man-made unit, a 100 person transport unit and a 60 person medical unit.

In January 2007, the Chinese army sent an additional 60 medical team to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and expanded the engineering unit to 275.

In February 2007, during his state visit to Liberia, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited and expressed sympathy to Chinese officers and soldiers on peacekeeping missions there, and wrote an inscription: faithfully fulfill their mission and maintain world peace..

In September 2007, Major General Zhao Jingmin was appointed commander of the United Nations mission for the referendum in Western Sahara, becoming the first Chinese soldier to serve as a senior commander of the UN peacekeeping force.

In November 2007, it became the first UN peacekeeping force to send a multi-functional contingent of 315 workers to the UN peacekeeping operation in Darfur.

In June 2009, the peacekeeping center of the Ministry of defense of China was established to undertake the tasks of peacekeeping training, theoretical research, international cooperation and exchange of the Chinese armed forces.

From June to July 2009, the Chinese army and the Mongolian army held the first joint Peacekeeping Training code named peacekeeping mission - 2009, which is the first time that the Chinese army has carried out joint Peacekeeping Training with foreign troops.

In September 2010, the office of peacekeeping affairs of the Ministry of defense of China and the Department of peacekeeping operations of the United Nations jointly held the international training course for senior officials of UN peacekeeping missions in Beijing, China. This is the first time that the Chinese military has held advanced peacekeeping training.

In March 2011, the office of peacekeeping affairs of the Ministry of defense of China and the Department of peacekeeping operations jointly held the international training course for UN peacekeeping instructors for the first time.

In July 2011, Chinas peacekeeping engineering team and peacekeeping medical team of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan were transferred to the newly established United Nations Mission in South Sudan, and the peacekeeping transportation unit returned home after completing its mission.

In June 2013, UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon visited the peace keeping center of the Chinese Ministry of defense during his visit to China.

In December 2013, the Chinese army sent a peacekeeping force to the United Nations multidimensional integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali, including a 155 man-made unit, a 170 member security unit and a 70 member medical unit.

In October 2014, the peace keeping Affairs Office of the Ministry of defense of China, the China Institute of international strategy, and the Bernadette Institute of Sweden held the 2014 annual meeting of the Forum on challenges in peace operations in Beijing. A total of 86 representatives from the United Nations and 19 countries attended.

In January 2015, the Chinese army sent a 700 member peacekeeping infantry battalion to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan for the first time.

In April 2015, defense ministers of China and Vietnam signed a memorandum of understanding on peace keeping between the two defense ministries in Beijing.

In May 2015, the Chinese army sent an additional 200 member construction engineer team to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon.

In June 2015, for the first time, the Chinese army sent real troops to Mongolia to participate in the Khan exploration multinational peacekeeping exercise.

In June 2015, the peacekeeping Affairs Office of the Ministry of defense of China and the UN womens Office jointly organized an international training course on the protection of civilians.

On September 2015, Chinas president Xi Jinping attended the UN peace keeping summit and delivered a speech. He put forward Chinas 4 points and 6 commitments to support and improve the UN peace keeping operations.

In November 2015, the Chinese army held a coming for peace - the 25th Anniversary Photo Exhibition of Chinese troops participating in UN peacekeeping operations at the UN headquarters.

In July 2016, during his visit to China, UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon visited the first peacekeeping helicopter unit of the Chinese army to Sudan.

In January 2017, Chinas president Xi Jinping attended the high-level conference on building a community of human destiny at the headquarters of the United Nations in Geneva. The keynote speech entitled building a community of human destiny was published in a high-level, comprehensive and systematic way to explain the common destiny of mankind.

In June 2017, the Chinese army sent a 140 member peacekeeping helicopter unit to the African Union united nations hybrid operation in Darfur for the first time.

In September 2017, Chinas 8000 member peacekeeping standby force was registered with the United Nations.

In December 2017, China, as vice president, presided over the preparation of the UN peacekeeping military intelligence manual.

In May 2018, China and Pakistan signed a protocol on policy cooperation in peacekeeping operations in Islamabad.

In June 2018, the peacekeeping Affairs Office of the Ministry of defense of China was reorganized into the peacekeeping affairs center of the Ministry of defense of China, and the peacekeeping center of the Ministry of defense of China was reorganized as the training base of the peacekeeping affairs center of the Ministry of defense of China.

On September 2018, representatives of the Chinese peacekeeping forces were invited to attend the Beijing summit of China Africa Cooperation Forum.

In October 2018, Chinas 13 peacekeeping and standby units were upgraded to the level II standby level through the United Nations inspection and evaluation.

In December 2018, China, in its capacity as vice president, presided over the revision of the manual of UN peacekeeping engineers.

From 2019 to 2020, China has successively upgraded six level II peacekeeping standby units to level III standby level through UN audit.

In October 2019, the general assembly to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the peoples Republic of China was solemnly held in Beijing, and the peacekeeping forces were reviewed for the first time in the National Day parade.