The next generation of us intercontinental missiles will be equipped with hypersonic warheads, or increase the risk of nuclear misjudgment

category:Military
 The next generation of us intercontinental missiles will be equipped with hypersonic warheads, or increase the risk of nuclear misjudgment


Land based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a landmark weapon for nuclear weapon states to demonstrate their strategic deterrence capability due to its high load, long range and fast speed. At present, China, Russia and the United States, the three legitimate nuclear powers in the world, are equipped with mature land-based intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems. Some countries that actually possess nuclear weapons, such as India and North Korea, are also actively seeking ICBM capabilities.

What is the strength of us land-based ICBM?

After the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union mainly rely on heavy strategic bombers as nuclear strike weapon platforms, such as the b-47 strategic bomber equipped with the US Army in 1948, and the tu-4 strategic bomber installed by the Soviet Union. However, with the increasing air defense capabilities of the United States and the Soviet Union, strategic bombers became more and more vulnerable. Ballistic missiles could not only avoid the enemys air defense weapons at that time, but also spent less time on attacking opponents than strategic bombers, which became the best choice of nuclear warhead vehicles at that time. In 1954, the Soviet Union developed the worlds first type of land-based intercontinental ballistic missile, namely R-7 missile (NATO code ss-6). Although this type of missile is complex in operation, high in cost, low in actual combat significance and quickly updated, it is at least a milestone in Soviet missile technology and an important change in nuclear combat vehicles. In 1957, the United States developed the first generation of intercontinental ballistic missile, namely the sm-65 cosmic God. In the early 1960s, the land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles with a range of more than 10000 kilometers between the United States and the Soviet Union became the main symbol of the strategic deterrence capability of the two countries.

The first generation land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles of the United States and the Soviet Union have some technical deficiencies. On the basis of summarizing the technical performance of the first generation land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, both countries have developed a new generation of land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles rapidly. At the same time, the United States carried out the research and development of Titan missile on the basis of summing up its technical experience, and equipped the U.S. military in the early 1960s. Since then, the hercules-2 missile has followed. At the same time, the research and development demonstration of the Minuteman missile was launched in the late 1950s. In the mid-1960s, the Minuteman missile was equipped with the U.S. military. Since then, the Minuteman missile has been developed and put into service.

After a series of life extension and upgrading, the militia - 3 missile has been in service for nearly 50 years. During this period, the United States has not considered its replacement. In the early 1970s, the United States launched the research and development of peacekeeper missile. Compared with the militia III, it has higher load, more homing warheads and higher hit accuracy. The peace guard served in the mid-1980s, aiming to continuously cope with the strategic confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1990s and even into the 21st century in the future. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war, the relationship between the United States and Russia slowed down at the beginning of the end of the cold war. After the signing and entry into force of start II in 1993, the United States gradually removed the peacekeepers and decided to reduce all peacekeepers during the Bush administration in 2001. Different from the Soviet Unions research and development of land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), the United States land-based ICBM of different models can be said to be developed simultaneously. In the process of use, it constantly eliminated, retired, upgraded and optimized, and finally formed the land-based nuclear strike force with the militia - 3 missile as the pillar.

The militia - 3 has been in service for nearly half a century. In the current situation that the United States is facing more and more fierce competition and confrontation among major powers, the proposal to upgrade the land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) also has obvious strength display significance. The U.S. Air Force stressed that the new land-based ICBM will improve accuracy, safety and reliability in response to current and future threats. People from the U.S. Air Force and Norge have said that the next generation of land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles will not use hypersonic vehicles as warheads in the early stage, but at the same time, they also mentioned that the missile will adopt a more flexible and open design and can carry a variety of warheads in the future. In fact, this kind of formulation may reflect the development of US nuclear strategy towards actual combat and realistic deterrence. That is to say, the option of carrying different kinds of warheads or even hypersonic vehicles will be adopted according to the different deterrence objects in the future, so as to maximize the deterrent effect.

The militia - 3 intercontinental missile in the launch well.

In recent years, Russia has increased investment in the research and development of new strategic weapons, such as the use of hypersonic technology in strategic strike weapons. Russia has frequently demonstrated the vanguard hypersonic missiles, and Russian President Vladimir Putin has personally inspected the tests of the vanguard missiles. Pioneer hypersonic missile system needs land-based intercontinental ballistic missile as boost. In early 2019, the launch test of pioneer missile carried out by Russia is using SS-19 intercontinental ballistic missile as boost carrier. Russia has realized the combination of land-based intercontinental ballistic missile and hypersonic missile. The emergence of hypersonic missiles has changed the original rules of the game of strategic attack and defense. The original missile defense system is difficult to resist hypersonic missiles. At present, Russia has realized the actual combat deployment of a variety of hypersonic weapons. For the United States, it is urgent to obtain the offensive and defensive capabilities to deal with hypersonic weapons.

The practice of the United States is reflected in the development of attack and defense capability of hypersonic weapons and the attempt to restrict the opponents hypersonic weapons. On the one hand, at the policy level, the mission Defense Review released by the trump administration repeatedly mentioned the hypersonic missile weapons deployed by Russia. Different from the previous Obama administrations Ballistic Missile Defense Review, the word ballistic in the title has been cancelled, which shows that the United States is concerned not only with its opponents ballistic missiles, but also with its non ballistic missile capabilities. The layered homeland Missile Defense issued by the U.S. Department of defense also states that it is difficult for Russias hypersonic missiles to be intercepted by the missile defense system. It can be seen that the United States has realized the realistic threat posed by hypersonic missiles in the future. The adjustment of policy also means that the construction of US missile defense system will increase the content of defense against hypersonic missile weapons in the future. The development of missile defense capability of the United States has brought negative effects on strategic stability among major powers, regional and even global strategic balance. Expanding the scope of missile defense capability is actually expanding the defense capability against different missile weapons of the so-called adversary countries of the United States, on the contrary, it further reduces the crisis stability among major powers.

Russia tests the vanguard hypersonic missile.

On the other hand, at the level of arms control diplomacy, the United States seeks to include hypersonic weapons in its dominant control mechanism. On August 22, the United States proposed to Russia that the United States might agree to extend the new START treaty, but in exchange, the next phase of the START treaty hopes to include Russias hypersonic weapons and make the next phase of the START treaty more flexible. From Russias point of view, the premise for the United States to extend the START treaty is that Russia presents its own Assassins mace weapons, which is unreliable and unreliable. However, it also reflects that hypersonic weapons are regarded by the United States as one of the price tags for arms control among major powers, and the United States is paying more attention to its opponents hypersonic weapons.

In addition to seeking defense and control, another way for the United States to deal with hypersonic weapons is to develop similar weapons and develop attack capabilities. The U.S. Department of defense has recognized the importance of hypersonic weapon technology. The U.S. Army will take the lead in joint efforts with major U.S. military enterprises to conduct research on the common hypersonic glide body. This kind of general-purpose missile includes different ranges, including those that can be used for medium range missiles. According to the U.S. Armys plan, the U.S. Army will receive hypersonic land-based missile weapons before fiscal year 2023. The U.S. Air Force and navy are also developing hypersonic weapon systems for their respective services. For example, the air force announced in early September that it would jointly develop air launched hypersonic cruise missiles with DARPA.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u5811557,container:ssp_ 5811557, async:true }Northrop Grumman has not only won the order for the next generation of ground-based strategic deterrence weapons, but also the development order of the next generation stealth long-range bomber in the United States in 2015. General power electric ship company has obtained the research and development order of the next generation strategic missile nuclear submarine of the United States, and the next generation of three in one nuclear arsenal of the United States has appeared. With the development and popularization of hypersonic technology, hypersonic missile weapons of the worlds major military powers will become a trend. The application of hypersonic technology in strategic weapons will also increase the complexity of the strategic offensive and defensive game among countries, especially the nuclear frequent interaction of hypersonic weapons will become more prominent, which will easily increase the risk of nuclear misjudgment. In addition, the strategic influence of non nuclear military technologies such as hypersonic weapon technology, outer space, network, artificial intelligence and other non nuclear military technologies is emerging. In addition to the traditional nuclear arms control, some non nuclear but new military technologies that can bring strategic influence will become the new theme of the future security interaction game among major powers. (the author is a postdoctoral of the school of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, studying the direction of arms control and national security) (this article comes from the surging news, and for more original information, please download the surging news app) source: surging news editor: Yao Wenguang_ NN1682

Northrop Grumman has not only won the order for the next generation of ground-based strategic deterrence weapons, but also the research and development order of the next generation stealth long-range bomber in the United States in 2015. General power electric ship company has obtained the research and development order of the next generation strategic missile nuclear submarine of the United States, and the next generation of Trinity nuclear arsenal of the United States has appeared. With the development and popularization of hypersonic technology, hypersonic missile weapons of the worlds major military powers will become a trend. The application of hypersonic technology in strategic weapons will also increase the complexity of the strategic offensive and defensive game among countries, especially the nuclear frequent interaction of hypersonic weapons will become more prominent, which will easily increase the risk of nuclear misjudgment. In addition, the strategic influence of non nuclear military technologies such as hypersonic weapon technology, outer space, network, artificial intelligence and other non nuclear military technologies is emerging. In addition to the traditional nuclear arms control, some non nuclear but new military technologies that can bring strategic influence will become the new theme of the future security interaction game among major powers.

(the author is a postdoctoral student of the school of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, studying the direction of arms control and national security)

(this article is from surging news. For more original information, please download the surging news app)