To challenge China again, what is Indias mentality?

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 To challenge China again, what is Indias mentality?


On August 31, senior colonel Zhang Shuiyuan, spokesman of the Western Theater of war, delivered a speech on the Sino Indian border situation. He pointed out that the Indian army destroyed the consensus reached in the previous multi-level talks and held illegal cross-border occupation and control in the South Bank of Bangong Lake and near the reqin mountain pass, openly provoked and caused tension in the border.

Indias move has seriously violated Chinas territorial sovereignty, seriously damaged the peace and stability in the border areas between China and India, and betrayed its promise and betrayed its promise. China strongly opposes this.

Or be a big country with sound and color,

Or disappear

u00b7Nehru (1889-1964) is the first founder of Indias dream of great power, and also the longest serving Prime Minister of India. He has been in office for 17 years and has made a profound mark on Indias foreign policy.

Liu Zongyi, an expert on South Asia issues and an associate researcher at the Shanghai Institute of international studies, believes that the greater Indian Federation is blind chauvinism and blind self-confidence. Since its independence in 1947, India and its neighboring countries in South Asia have been in constant friction and conflict, which is closely related to this ambitious big country mentality. The root causes should be found and explored from Indias special culture, geography and the reality after independence.

From a geographical perspective, India is located in the center of the South Asian subcontinent, with the Himalayas as a natural barrier. Its neighboring countries are weak and do not border each other. They surround India like a crowd of stars. It is difficult to unite to form an effective control over India. More importantly, in South Asia, India is far ahead in terms of population, land and resources, scientific and technological strength, military strength and economic level. The joint action of these factors is the realistic basis of the emergence of Indian centralism.

Thats why Nehru would say, policies are not made by me. It came into being in Indias environment, in its consistent thinking, in its overall mental outlook, in its peoples psychology during the freedom struggle, and in todays world environment.

In the history of Indias pursuit of great power status, Nehru is a key figure that cannot be bypassed. On August 15, 1947, as the founding prime minister, he declared Indias independence in Parliament and delivered a speech: a long time ago, we had an agreement with fate, now the time has come to fulfill our oath When the midnight bell rings and the world is still asleep, India will wake up and welcome life and freedom. He was the first founder of Indias dream of a great power and the longest serving Prime Minister of India. He has been in office for 17 years and concurrently served as Minister of foreign affairs. He has great power, which has made a profound mark on Indias foreign policy.

In order to turn the ideal of a great power with sound and color into reality, Nehru government regarded itself as the natural successor of the British Empire, fully inherited the sphere of influence of the British colonists in South Asia, and began to play the role of British hegemony, suppressing and controlling the neighboring countries in South Asia. It can be said that Indias big power mentality also inherited from the British Empire, which regards the neighboring countries of the South Asian subcontinent as part of its own security system and tries to establish so-called strategic borders around it. Liu Zongyi told reporters of people around the world..

For example, for Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal, three small Himalayan countries called the chain of protectorate by former British Indian Governor George kowson, the Nehru government followed the example of Britain in signing so-called bilateral friendly treaties with them, but in fact used diplomatic and economic means to control them. In 1949, India and Bhutan signed the Treaty of permanent peace and friendship, which stipulated that Bhutan should accept the guidance of India in foreign relations. In the same year, India sent troops to Sikkim, and the next year forced Sikkim to sign the peace treaty between India and Sikkim. Since then, Sikkims national defense, diplomacy and economy were fully controlled by India. In 1950, India also signed the business trade with Nepal It is very easy for India to rely on the foreign trade agreement to determine whether it can kill the inland countries.

Outside South Asia, Nehrus most famous foreign policy is to advocate non alignment. Nonalignment is an important global foreign policy of Nehru. He is neither a small partner of the United States nor a small partner of the Soviet Union, but a third force between the two poles that can influence the world. Liu said. The non aligned policy has the positive effect of opposing the cold war, hegemonism and colonialism, but it also contains the side of Nehru pursuing the status of a great power in the name of non alignment. According to Nehrus plan, it will take at least 10-15 years for new India to carry out economic reconstruction and development. Therefore, it is particularly important to mediate between the United States and the Soviet Union to seek a stable surrounding environment. With Indias concentrated development of heavy industry, after completing the first Five-Year Plan in 1956, Nehru has been full of confidence in realizing the dream of a world power. Now looking around the world, in addition to the three big countries of the United States, the Soviet Union and China, there are many advanced civilized countries. Looking forward to the future, if there are no mistakes, such as war and other factors, it is obvious that India will be the fourth largest country in the world. .

The fifties and sixties of the last century can be called the golden age of Indias diplomacy, and its international reputation has greatly increased. Nehru can be seen and heard in almost all important international occasions and major international events. Former US President Nixon once commented on Nehru and the nonalignment policy: he claims to be the spokesman of the third world and the founder of the non aligned movement, but his every move shows that he wants the world to treat India as a great power.

However, the Sino Indian border self-defense counterattack in 1962 shattered the illusion that India had the status of a great power. This war is Nehrus biggest mistake. Liu Zongyi said, from 1959 to 1962, India has been implementing a forward policy , crossing the McMahon line unilaterally advocated by India in the east section, and constantly crossing the traditional customary line and establishing occupation positions in the west section. In 1960, Premier Zhou went to New Delhi for talks with Nehru, seeking a peaceful settlement of the dispute, but the negotiations failed. Combined with the domestic and international situation that China faced at that time, the Nehru government wrongly judged that China would further retreat on the border issue, so it did not want to negotiate or even compromise with China. This misjudgment eventually led to the outbreak of self-defense counterattack on the Sino Indian border and the defeat of India.

Nehru died in 1964. His political ambition and Indias international reputation in the non aligned movement made a generation of Indians full of pride. Since then, successive governments have never given up pursuing the ideal of a big country in terms of Governing Strategies and foreign policies. However, as Stephen Cohen, a famous American scholar in South Asia, pointed out: Nehru is a powerful power, and has been committed to creating opportunities for India to show its splendor in the international diplomatic arena He is compared to a leafy bodhi tree, which provides shade for people under the tree, but it also hinders their growth in the long run.

From Indira doctrine to gujaralism,

Swing between toughness and kindness

After Nehrus death, there was no leader who enjoyed the same high prestige as him in the National Congress Party (Congress party) and the ruling elites of India. The domestic economic situation continued to deteriorate. The food crisis became a long-term problem for the government. Local nationalist separatist movements were surging, and the second India Pakistan war followed. India ushered in the era of Indira Gandhi in 1966, after a short transition period of prime minister RAH Bahadur xiastri.

As Nehrus daughter, Mahatma Gandhi continued to consolidate Indias dominant position in South Asia and continued Nehrus diplomatic philosophy. During his 15 years in office, he strongly annexed Sikkim and dismembered Pakistan in the third India Pakistan war, making East Pakistan independent as Bangladesh. Since then, the power gap between Pakistan and India has further widened, and Indias regional hegemony has been further consolidated.

In 1983, Mahatma Gandhi issued a statement declaring that India strongly opposed the interference of big powers outside the region in the internal affairs of other countries in South Asia, especially those considered harmful to Indias interests. Therefore, South Asian countries should not ask for assistance from any outside country. If they really need help, they should only seek help from India. This is the famous Indira doctrine. It reflects the traditional concept of India, that is, South Asia is a cultural and geographical unity with India as the center. Meanwhile, it emphasizes Indias willingness to dominate South Asia and will never allow foreign powers to have a foothold in the region. Indira doctrine has been called the peak of regional power politics by scholars. Since then, the relationship between India and its neighboring countries has become tense.

After Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in 1991, the political fate of Nehru family and Congress party gradually declined, and the Indian peoples party began to rise. At the end of the cold war, the great changes in the world pattern and the trend of economic globalization have made India realize that it is necessary to change its traditional diplomatic thinking and implement all-round diplomacy, and improving its relations with neighboring countries in South Asia is a key step.

In 1996, indr Kumar gujaral, then Minister of foreign affairs of India and then prime minister in 1997, proposed a good neighbourly policy, which was later called gujararianism. This policy contains five basic principles: India does not ask for reciprocity to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, but sincerely gives trust and help; never allow any South Asian country to conduct acts within the territory of any South Asian country that is detrimental to the interests of other countries in the region; non-interference in each others internal affairs; mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereign independence; and South Asian countries should Settle disputes through bilateral peaceful negotiations.

Indias policy, too, often wavers between toughness and benevolence. For example, during his term as prime minister, atar Bihari Vajpayee first talked about power diplomacy. In 1998, under the pretext of China Threat Theory, he conducted five nuclear tests in two months, with the purpose of improving relations with the United States and deterring neighboring countries. Later, in February 1999, he took a bus from Delhi to Lahore, Pakistans border city, creating a famous bus diplomacy; but soon after that, he took a bus from Delhi to Lahore, Pakistans border city A large number of fighter planes and helicopter gunships were sent out during the Kargil conflict in Indian controlled Kashmir, claiming to eliminate armed infiltrators supported by Pakistan.

u00b7Vajpayee pursued power diplomacy and conducted nuclear tests many times during his term of office.

The provocation of neighboring countries is to shift domestic conflicts

Novel coronavirus pneumonia is the most serious problem in India. Novel coronavirus pneumonia in India has been diagnosed in more than 560 thousand cases by June 30th, and more than 16 thousand cases have been accumulated, according to the official website of the Ministry of health of India.

New outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia has novel coronavirus pneumonia in India.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia is also a heavy blow to Indias great power dream. In recent years, Indias economic reform measures have always been difficult to promote due to economic nationalism and the inherent interests of the ruling class. Before the outbreak of the epidemic, many political elites and people of insight in India still had an expectation that as long as reform was promoted, India would become a big country on an equal footing with China. However, after the outbreak of the epidemic, a considerable number of elites were frustrated and completely disappointed. Liu Zongyi believes that the serious epidemic situation, economic hardship and strong disappointment are intertwined, which has stimulated India to once again provoke and transfer contradictions.

Liu pointed out that the gradual expansion of Indias Anti China sentiment was not the result of Indias increasingly strong anti China sentiment, but from the increasingly strong Indian nationalism and nationalism.

Last year, modis government proposed a new goal: to make Indias economy reach 5 trillion US dollars (about 34.6 trillion yuan) by 2024, and become the third largest economy in the world by 2030. Under the guidance of this goal, Indias attitude towards China is expanding day by day. In terms of China strategy, Indias strategic suspicion and anxiety are also growing day by day.

At the same time, the popularity of the Indian party in recent years has promoted the rapid rise of Hindu nationalism. Previously, the neighbor first policy advocated by modi government in South Asia was gradually submerged by the call of India first by Hindu nationalists. Liu Zongyi observed that some extreme Hindu nationalists were confused by their own nationalist sentiments, which had developed into adventurism.

In addition, Indias strategy of containing China with the help of the west is also taking shape. Although China has always hoped to guide Sino Indian Relations to win-win cooperation, some western countries have always been increasing their efforts to discredit and interfere in the bilateral relations between China and India, hoping to lead the relations to competition and conflict.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u5811557,container:ssp_ 5811557, async:true }This article is from Li Chao, editor in charge of global characters_ NB12814