CHENFENG: what is the level of Russias development of missile early warning system for China?

category:Military
 CHENFENG: what is the level of Russias development of missile early warning system for China?


Sergei Boyev, chief designer of Russian missile early warning system and CEO of vimpel company, revealed at the army-2020 forum that Russia has begun to study some components, which will be used in the missile early warning system made by Russia for China. In October 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that Russia was assisting China in building a missile early warning system.

In the past 30 years, China has imported a lot of military equipment from Russia, but it has gradually decreased in recent years, mainly due to the rapid improvement of Chinas military technology, which has surpassed Russia in some fields. However, even at the peak of Sino Russian military technology exchanges, strategic weapons technology is rarely involved. The cooperation between China and Russia in missile early warning is both unexpected and reasonable.

Even among the closest allies, offensive strategic weapons technology is not shared. Britain has obtained the US Trident submarine launched intercontinental missile technology, and has obtained the technical cooperation of the United States in the research and development of the next generation strategic missile nuclear submarine, provided that the UKs launch key is in the hands of the United States. So its not a sharing between allies, its Britain thats doing its own thing.

But defensive strategic weapon technology is different. Of course, this is still strategic, but even if there are differences between the allies, just stop cooperation, so as not to cause irreparable harm to themselves. Thats exactly what missile warning looks like.

Russia is a pioneer in missile defense. For a long time, Russia even deployed the worlds only A-35 anti missile system, which was replaced by an updated A-135 in the 1990s. Now it is developing the latest a-235 nudor River anti missile system. In terms of missile early warning and missile defense, Russia has a very strong technological accumulation, although its development has slowed down in the past 30 years due to economic difficulties and changes in the international environment.

But these may actually be secondary. What matters is the basic feature of ICBM: ballistic. Once launched, ICBM has very limited maneuvering ability. Therefore, the accurate detection of the ascending phase is particularly important. As long as the trajectory of the ascending phase is accurately measured, the midcourse trajectory and the terminal dead point can be accurately inferred. It is more difficult to calculate the terminal dead point of the mobile missile warhead, but before the mobile missile warhead is separated from the carrier, it still conforms to the simple trajectory.

Chinas missile warning has only one target: the United States. On a regular map, the closest distance between the United States and China is through the Pacific Ocean. But the earth is round, and the nearest distance between the United States and China is actually through the Arctic region. This is easy to see from polar maps.

In the picture, there are several major routes across the Arctic, including PEK for Beijing, Sha for Shanghai, Tai for Taipei, HKG for Hong Kong; NYC for New York, DC for Washington, tor for Toronto, DET for Detroit, Chi for Chicago, lax for Los Angeles, SFO for San Francisco, sea for Seattle

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In turn, central Siberia to East Siberia is an ideal base for China to intercept US missiles. For example, the lyakowski archipelago on the route from New York to Beijing is an ideal antimissile base. If a second antimissile base is set up in Kamchatka Peninsula, it will not only intercept missiles from the west of the United States to China, but also submarine launched intercontinental missiles launched in the North Pacific. The most ideal base for intercepting missiles launched in the western part of the United States is to establish an anti missile base directly in the Bering Strait.

But for Russia, the Kola Peninsula is the ideal anti missile base to defend Moscow and Europe. Therefore, the deployment requirements of China and Russia do not overlap, except that the anti missile bases are all located in the Arctic Sea coast of Russia. But the first step is missile warning.

Given the location of voronesh missile warning radar, the red one indicates that it has been operated; in blue, Orsk, Krasnoyarsk and Altay have been in operation; mormansk, Sevastopol and voltuka are under construction

The Soviet Union established a huge and complete missile early warning network, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union caused fatal gaps in the direction of Latvian, Ukrainian and Azerbaijani. The Dniester and Daliar radars in the Soviet era are also gradually decommissioned. The new generation of voronesh radar is a large fixed array active phased array early warning radar. There are four known types of voronesh-m, voronesh DM, voronesh VP and voronesh SM, which can track at least 500 targets at the same time.

Voronesh-m is a meter wave radar, also known as a very high frequency (VHF) radar, with a detection range of 4200 km. It was first put into use in 2010. Voronesh-m radar is used in lektusi, Orsk and volkuta near St. Petersburg.

Voronesh VP is also a meter wave / very high frequency (VHF) radar, but voronesh-m has three antenna arrays, and voronesh VP has six antenna arrays. VP means high performance and was initially put into use in 2014. The voronesh VP radar is used in mishelevka near Irkutsk and olengelsk near Murmansk.

Voronesh - DM is a decimeter wave radar, also known as ultra high frequency (UHF) radar. The detection range is 4200 km, but the resolution is improved. It was put into use as early as 2009. The voronesh DM radar was used in amarville, peoneskoye (in Kaliningrad), yenissk in Krasnoyarsk and barnour in Altay.

The latest is voronesh SM, which is a centimeter wave radar, also known as ultra high frequency (SHF) radar, with unknown performance. The estimated detection range is greatly reduced, but the resolution is also greatly improved, and it is more suitable for tracking small and high-speed targets. This is the band of the fighter fire control radar. Its just a super large antenna. The lvsong radar used by Israels arrow anti missile missile missile is also centimeter wave, but voronesh SM is much larger. At present, only the Sevastopol base under construction uses the voronesh SM radar.

Voronesh-m meter wave active phased array radar with three arrays

Voronesh DM decimeter wave active phased array radar

Details of voronesh DM antenna

Israels lvsong cm wave active phased array radar, voronesh SM, is similar to this, but much larger

After the end of the cold war, the Soviet Union disintegrated, and Russia was on the brink of death, one kilometer from its recovery. Rebuilding military power has become an element of Putins legitimacy in power, but it is short of money. Russias countermeasures are as follows: the reconstruction of Conventional Armaments should be slowed down, nuclear armaments should be focused on, and missile early warning should be the key point, because Russia is still highly dependent on well launched intercontinental missiles, and it is impossible to guarantee mutual destruction if it fails to launch before landing.

However, the disintegration of the Soviet Union made Russia lose its early-warning radar in Latvian, Ukrainian and Azerbaijani areas. Lehtuxi is in the direction of supplementing Latvian, and amavel has two antenna arrays, one for Ukraine and the other for Azerbaijan. But it is also obvious that Russias missile early warning radars are also directed towards China. The radars of Irkutsk and amavel cover almost all of China from the East and the West. Of course, amaville and Irkutsk also cover the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean respectively, which is a warning for submarine launched intercontinental missiles.

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The new olengelsk and volkuta will cover the Arctic direction, especially volkuta, covering the main route of us shooting to China. This is also a useful coverage for China. But it is more ideal to add a radar station in the Bering Strait area or Kamchatka Peninsula, facing the sector between Greenland and Alaska, and complementing wolkutta. However, this is of little use to Russia. It is unlikely that US missiles will come from this direction. It depends on the extent of cooperation between China and Russia.

The coverage of several Russian missile early warning radars is the old radar of Soviet era in blue and the new generation radar in black

The United States, too, cannot rely solely on its own early-warning radar (lower 48 states). Alaskas position is good, but it is still not enough. Early warning radars need to be built in the Allies (Greenland and Britain) to provide a complete and advanced early warning system. North American air defense command also has a radar cordon in northern Canada, but it is not shown in the figure below.

The missile early warning radar system of the United States is more complete and rigorous than that of the Soviet Russia system. This is also polar coordinates, with the United States at the bottom, Russia at the top, Thule in Greenland and flingdales in the UK

Missile early warning includes land-based early warning radar and early warning satellite. Early warning satellite mainly uses infrared to capture the huge plume characteristics of intercontinental missile launching, but the early warning missile itself can only provide a rough indication, which is difficult to achieve accurate tracking and trajectory prediction, which requires land-based early warning radar.

Russias civil electronic technology has completely lagged behind that of China, but early warning radar and infrared early warning satellite not only involve general electronic technology level, but also involve highly specialized special technology. Russias technology accumulation in this respect still plays a great role in cooperation. It is difficult to say whether China or Russia is responsible for the early warning satellites, or each has its own set. However, it is reasonable for the land-based radar to be deployed in Russia and dominated by Russia. The important thing is to share information.

But China is not completely passive. In terms of electronic components, communication, network, data processing, computer, information visualization and large software architecture, China has taken the lead and is fully qualified to participate in cooperation as an equal partner. Chinas investment is equally important to Russia.

On April 15, 2019, Chinas Ministry of defense disclosed that according to the consensus of China and Russia, the third joint anti missile computer exercise between China and Russia will be held in Russia in 2019. This shows that China and Russia have begun to share information on strategic missile early warning.

The next step in intelligence sharing is the complementarity of anti missile missile bases. In this regard, China can help intercept US missiles from the Pacific Ocean and even the East Indian Ocean to Russia (especially the European part), while Russia can help intercept US missiles flying to China from the North American continent and the East Pacific Ocean. However, this is a relatively distant second step. Where we can go depends on how far the cooperation between China and Russia can go.

In the post Cold War era, there are continuous calls for warmth between China and Russia, and both sides have repeatedly promoted high-profile political promotion, but the road of cooperation is difficult and long. Russia is not only difficult to dispel its suspicion of China, but also has illusions about integrating into Europe and the United States. The former superpower complex also breaks out from time to time. It is particularly wary of Chinas possible anti guest cooperation. However, due to the pressure from Europe and the United States, the sluggish economic and social development at home, and the attraction of Chinas rapid economic development, Russia finally moved to the road of cooperation involuntarily. Beneficial and harmless cooperation such as missile warning is the beginning. The legendary conventional submarine cooperation may be more difficult, but the snowball has begun to roll. More importantly, the snowball has also begun to roll into the field of civil economy, which is more viscous than military technical cooperation.

In the early days of Putins era, the oil pipeline of Anda pipeline went up and down three times. Now, Russia and Chinas Amur natural gas chemical complex (AgCC) project has officially started. AgCC is located more than 150 kilometers north of Heihe River, with a design capacity of 2.4 million tons / year of polyethylene and 400 thousand tons / year of polypropylene. Polyethylene to the plastic industry is just like steel to the metallurgical industry. The application of polyethylene covers everything from plastic bags to mineral water bottles to toys to scratch proof gloves and even bullet proof vests. China is the worlds largest polyethylene market, almost equal to the sum of the United States and Europe. Russias natural gas production is second only to that of the United States. The future of natural gas development in Siberia and the Arctic Ocean is limitless. The win-win significance of relying on the Chinese market is self-evident.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u5811557,container:ssp_ 5811557, async:true }Just as Stalins victory in the Korean War finally made Stalin determined to help China and bring out the comprehensive aid and construction plan of the first five year plan, in todays Sino Russian relations, it is also because of Chinas new five battles in economy, science and technology, military and international politics that Russia really embraces cooperation. Times are different. China and Russia need to keep warm, but Russia needs more heat from China. The establishment of such a recognition is the basis for sustainable win-win and cooperation between China and Russia. This day may be quietly coming. This article is the exclusive contribution of the observer. The content of the article is the authors personal view, which does not represent the platform view. Without authorization, it can not be reproduced, otherwise legal responsibility will be investigated. Pay close attention to guanchacn, the wechat of observer network, and read interesting articles every day. Source: observer.com editor in charge: Yao Wenguang_ NN1682

Just as Stalins blood and flesh victory in the Korean War finally made Stalin determined to help China and bring out the comprehensive aid and construction plan of the first five years, in todays Sino Russian relations, it is also because of Chinas new five battles in economy, science and technology, military and international politics that won Russias real embrace of cooperation. Times are different. China and Russia need to keep warm, but Russia needs more heat from China. The establishment of such a recognition is the basis for sustainable win-win and cooperation between China and Russia. This day may be quietly coming.

This article is the exclusive contribution of the observer. The content of the article is the authors personal view, which does not represent the platform view. Without authorization, it can not be reproduced, otherwise legal responsibility will be investigated. Pay close attention to guanchacn, the wechat of observer network, and read interesting articles every day.