The main force of Qingma in Lanzhou is the 82nd army, which is subordinate to the 100th division, the 248 division and the 190th division. Among them, the 100th division was the starting force of Qingma and the core force when the West Route Army was besieged in 1937. In the Lanzhou campaign, most of the regiments were wiped out except for Tan Chengxiang, a division commander who rebelled and was later suppressed after his surrender to Xining), the heads of various regiments and a few remnants crossed the Yellow River. The other two divisions, which were formed after the Xifu campaign (Chiang called the Jingwei River Valley victory), were also annihilated.
He Bingyan, commander of the army, Liao Hansheng, political commissar and Zhang Guosheng, who witnessed the surrender of Qingma, have a lot of memories. The Qinghai daily in those days had a lot of reports, rich historical materials and clear details. In front of such a large number of facts, it was impossible for the Majiajun to surrender or revolt. It could only be a three noes without such characters, time and place, without exception.
In the process of marching into Xinjiang, it is a period of history that has a lot to say. Lanzhou locked the throat of entering Xinjiang and entering Tibet from Qinghai. Except for the Majia army, the other KMT troops in Northwest China were not very effective. Chairman Mao said that the northwest is basically a problem of walking and taking over. However, the issue of marching into Xinjiang was exactly what Chairman Mao attached great importance to. From strategic decision-making to the march of the army, everything was very detailed, which was clearly revealed in the messages of that time.
The deployment of the first field army to march into Xinjiang was not scheduled for the winter of 1949. In May 1949, a telegram was sent to the field armies, instructing them to occupy Lanzhou, Ningxia and Qinghai by the end of the year, and Xinjiang began to operate in the spring of 1950.. In June of that year, Chairman Mao called Peng Dehuai and said that if the fight went smoothly, he could occupy Xinjiang in spring or summer next year..
At that time, a field launched a chase battle in Eastern Gansu, and then attacked Lanzhou immediately. The troops were extremely tired. But after only five days of rest, they continued to launch the Hexi Corridor pursuit and annihilation battle, all the way through the great Gobi of thousands of miles, and drove nonstop toward Xinjiang. Lanzhou was liberated on August 26, 1949, and only two months later, on October 20, a field of vanguard chariot battalion arrived in Dihua (Urumqi). So what made chairman Mao change the original plan so quickly?
The situation in Xinjiang is quite complicated, and a new situation has emerged. In June 1949, a Chinese Communist delegation visited the Soviet Union in secret. At the first meeting between the two sides on June 27, Stalin put forward a question, suggesting that the occupation of Xinjiang should not be delayed, because the delay would lead to American and British interference in Xinjiang affairs.
Deng Liqun, the political secretary of the delegation at that time, recalled that one day, Wang Jiaxiang suddenly talked to me. He said that according to the original plan of the Party Central Committee, several secretaries of the delegation will stay to prepare for the Chinese Embassy in the Soviet Union after the completion of the visit. Now there is an urgent task to send people to Xinjiang to get in touch with the revolutionary government and the national army of Ili, Tacheng and Altay (hereinafter referred to as Xinjiang three regions). It is too late to send people from home. The Central Committee and the delegation have decided to send you with them One radio station and three radio operators went to Yili to set up Liqun radio station to carry out work.
The emergency was that the Soviet Union had a top secret intelligence. The United States attempted to instigate the northwest horses to withdraw their troops to Xinjiang, colluding with the ethnic separatist forces in Xinjiang to establish a so-called Islamic Republic of East Turkestan separated from China, which was recognized and supported by Britain and the United States. The Soviet Union informed the delegation of this information and suggested that we should find a way to liberate Xinjiang in advance. The Soviet Union believes that if this plot succeeds, the PLA will encounter obstacles in its entry into Xinjiang and the struggle for the liberation of Xinjiang will turn into an international problem.
If such a situation occurs, it will not only be unfavorable to our liberation of Xinjiang, but also to the Soviet Union, which will affect the security and stability of several Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union (see Deng Liquns the course of first arriving in Xinjiang). After Deng Liqun opened the radio station in Ili, his first task was to get to know the situation of Majiajun in Hexi corridor through the leaders of the three districts and report the situation to the Central Committee in time.
At this time, on the northwest battlefield, Qingma had not yet withdrawn to Lanzhou, but formulated a Guanshan battle plan to fight a decisive battle in Pingliang. There is a long-standing suspicion between the two horses in Qingning. Ma Hongkui was angry and ordered his troops to withdraw to Ningxia, which led to the abortion of the plan. After Ma Jiyuan ordered the 14th brigade to be cut off, the whole army retreated. The 14th brigade was annihilated by the PLA in Guguan. It was also the first cavalry brigade of Qingma to be destroyed since the fight between the two sides in the northwest battlefield.
Chairman Mao called the delegation to Stalin: according to Comrade Peng Dehuais briefing, they were extremely aware of the shortage of cars and asked whether they could buy 1000-2000 vehicles for the transportation of troops in the Soviet Union. We believe that if we wait to buy cars from the Soviet Union and transport them to Gansu Province, and then our army pushes forward to Xinjiang, it will at least postpone our military operations until tomorrow spring or summer.
If it is possible for us to travel through the Soviet Union in Yining by car, and then ask if it is possible for us to travel through Yining by car. One field was not equipped enough, and the major field armies began to give full support. On July 30, the four fields deployed a chariot battalion to support the first field, with 550 personnel and 45 chariots. They started from Tianjin, first transported to Xian by railway, and then drove in by car. After driving day and night, before catching up with the Lanzhou campaign, they drove directly to the Hexi Corridor and quickly occupied the Yumen oil mine. The anti-aircraft guns of the local national army have been aimed at the oil wells. At that time, the annual output of Yumen oil mine was 520000 tons, which is not even a fraction now, but it accounted for 95% of the total production of the whole country in that year.
On August 3, Peng Dehuai wrote back: the total length from Pingliang to Dihua (Urumqi) is 2240 to 2300 kilometers. The walking day is 35 kilometers, and it takes 66 days. It takes every four days to rest. It takes three months to get to di. Among them, about 400 kilometers from east to west of Xingxing gorge, there is no smoke, water shortage, grain, firewood and water must be prepared for transportation. 3. April is the windy season. From Anxi to XINGXINGXIA, there are often cyclones. The Yellow whirlwind is slow and can be avoided, while the Black Whirlwind is fierce. If there is no preparation in advance, people can blow it away. From Jiuquan to Dihua, the temperature drops 30-50 degrees below zero in the severe winter, so it is difficult to survive the winter without fur hat and felt boots. At present, the main forces of the two horses have not been annihilated. Whether they can enter Hami and Dihua this year depends on the fact that Lanzhou and Xining are under attack before concrete plans can be made.
The four hundred kilometers from east to west of Xingxing gorge here is the moheyanqi, which Zuo Zongtang said when he recovered Xinjiang, only water springs are lacking. Although the water is dredged in many ways, it can not meet the needs of thousands of people riding one day, so it must be continued in stages.. This is a vast expanse of Gobi where no water can be seen. Zuo Zongtangs war strategy is slow advance and urgent war. Because the grain and grass have to be collected and transported, the army cant go fast at all.
On August 4, the first field issued a battle preparation order and decided to gather and annihilate Qingma in Lanzhou. On August 23, Chairman Mao called Peng Dehuai and Zhang zongxun in particular, after crossing the river from the upper reaches, Wang Zhens regiment seems appropriate to detour behind Lanzhou, that is, to cut off the road connecting Lanzhou to Qinghai and Xinjiang and take part in the attack. The main purpose is to cut off the road leading to Xinjiang, so as not to make Ma Bufang retreat to Xinjiang and cause endless harm.
Lanzhou was attacked on August 5 and conquered on August 26. When the news reached Xinjiang, Ma Chengxiang, commander of the Fifth Army of the Majia army, beat his feet on his chest and was extremely depressed. At that time, it was Tao Zhiyue who delayed the transfer of the Fifth Army to the East on the ground of promotion fee, and tried to do the work of horse. He advised Ma Chengxiang to see the situation clearly and would send him gifts if he decided to go. At that time, the fifth cavalry garrisoned around Dihua. Ye Cheng and Luo Shu, two other powerful factions, were close friends of Hu zongnan. Tao Zhiyue had no army of his own. If it was not for the peoples Liberation Army to move westward and Tao Zhiyue could not speak with his hand, these people would make trouble and let them leave the army. This is the most realistic way.
Ma Chengxiang is Ma Buqings son-in-law. He was the head of the pistol regiment of the fifth army when he besieged and suppressed the West Route Army. He always thought that the PLA would not let him go. In fact, when he learned that Ma Chengxiang was going, Chairman Mao said, let him go. The more you go, the better.. Wang Zhen even telegraphed to Xinjiang that if Ma Chengxiang and others had difficulties leaving the country from southern Xinjiang, they could be allowed to come to the East and go out through the liberated areas.
With regard to the armed forces of the three districts, they did not agree to their request for sending the national army to follow the retreat of the national army to receive defense. Tao Zhiyue was told that his troops were still stationed in the original defense and should not be mobilized and concentrated. They should wait for the peoples Liberation Army to change their defense and reorganize them in a unified way. Chairman Mao, who has always been making strategic arrangements in the telegram, called Peng Dehuai on September 10: concentrate on striving to march from Yumen to Xinjiang in the early and middle November, and specially reminded: you should make preparations by yourself. Besides tents, water bottles and grains, you have not mentioned leather clothes, leather hats and felt shoes. These are very important and must be prepared immediately If you need our help, please let us know how much leather clothes you want.
According to the instruction of looking forward to occupying Xinjiang as early as possible, Wang Zhens regiment immediately left the first army stationed in Qinghai, led the second army to cross the Qilian snow mountain, and went straight into Zhangye, firmly controlling the main road to Xinjiang. On September 24, the first field army issued the political mobilization order to continue to forge ahead bravely and liberate the whole northwest, which comprehensively opened the curtain of the March.
On the same day, Gaotai was liberated. In January 1937, the main force of Qingma attacked the county, including the cavalry brigade of the Fifth Army. Dong Zhentang, head of the fifth Red Army, died here. On the same day, Ye Cheng, commander of the 78th division, Ma Chengxiang, commander of the 1st Zhengqi division, and Luo Shuren, brigade commander of the 17th brigade, handed over their troops and left for India through southern Xinjiang.
On September 25, Tao Zhiyue, commander-in-chief of the Kuomintangs Xinjiang garrison, electrified the uprising, which was the anniversary of Xinjiangs liberation. On October 12, Wang Zhen, commander and political commissar of the first corps, commanded the 70000 troops of the second and sixth armies to move westward. In order to enter Xinjiang quickly, all the resources that could be mobilized were used at that time. Of course, the fastest way was to transport air by air.
In addition, all the vehicles that could be mobilized were transferred to a field. The North China military region supported one automobile regiment, and the East China military region supported two automobile regiments. In addition, the capture of the eighth joint service supply area of the Kuomintang army, and the requisition of civilian commercial vehicles, a total of more than 700 vehicles could be used to transport them back to Xinjiang troops. At that time, the transport capacity was quite large. When the volunteers entered the DPRK, only 800 cars were used. Soon, most of them were destroyed by us air raids. Even so, when the second army entered Southern Xinjiang, most of its vehicles broke down and all the fuel was exhausted, so they could only continue to march on foot. It was at this time that the Fifth Division Army (the famous 359 brigade) created the miracle of crossing the Tarim desert on foot.
The most difficult thing is that the mule and horse brigade of each army and division has to catch up with the herds and walk for more than two months before arriving in Northern Xinjiang.
On October 20, the chariot battalion of the first corps, led by Hu Jian, first arrived in Dihua. Then, the air force flew down to Urumqi diwobao airport and quickly took over the city defense. On December 1, the second military headquarters led the fourth division to Kashgar, an important town in southern Xinjiang. By March 1950, all 70000 troops had entered Xinjiang.
The BEITASHAN incident was a battle between the fifth cavalry and the Outer Mongolian army in 1944. Wang Zhen has the side of thunderbolt means, and has a fairly high level of policy. Otherwise, how can he quickly enter Xinjiang and stabilize the situation in Xinjiang. If the Majia army was not allowed to revolt, as some Xinkou made up, the Fifth Army was stationed in Dihua at that time. Where would the plane land?
The Ministry has accepted the peace agreement and is forced to fight again. The PLA is thousands of miles away, and only foot attack is left for all maneuvers. How many casualties will military settlement have to pay? Can avoid the fire of war, can let already full of holes in the place quickly recuperate, these are ignored, let the people of all nationalities in Xinjiang see? Is it a chance for other separatist forces to create chaos?
At the time of the founding of new China, one sixth of Chinas territory was liberated, but it was still at war. What kind of high-level theory can you think of? Its a joke. Fortunately, history is not like this. Later, the Qiqi division was reorganized into the 10th agricultural division. During the same period, other units of the former Central Department of the Kuomintang, as well as most of the national armies in the three regions, were also reorganized into the production and Construction Corps. Most of the troops of the PLA entering Xinjiang were also changed into the Construction Corps, including the famous 359 brigade.
The liberation of Xinjiang is the result of both military and political efforts and the correct implementation of the national unity and united front policy. This is the history of the commander-in-chiefs farsightedness and the officers and mens efforts to serve the country, which is magnificent and has spread to future generations.