Xi Jinping sauteed sweet corn with salted egg yolk, which is a black corn and a soybean town. The northeast is the three largest black soil area in the world. It is also a problem of land fertility and overdraft. Jilin is a golden corn belt and soybean town. We must take effective measures to protect the black soil, the giant panda in the cultivated land.
In the face of the severe situation of black land degradation, Jilin Province, Heilongjiang Province, Liaoning Province and other places have launched a defense war of black land, popularized agricultural science and technology, issued protection regulations, and built high standard farmland Through a series of targeted measures, we will add oil to the black soil and consolidate the foundation of the granary of a great country.
Start a defense war: protect giant panda in cultivated land
Keep the black soil without worrying about food. In Jilin, the hometown of black land, the area of black soil accounts for more than 65% of the total cultivated land, giving birth to the famous golden corn belt and golden rice belt. These days, Liu Chen, head of Yushu Chenhui planting professional cooperative association, is busy with field management. His familys corn field can yield 25000 Jin per hectare. Although he had confidence in high yield, Liu Chen was also worried. He said that the black soil layer has become thinner, and some plots are only 20-30cm thick.
It is imperative to defend the black land!
Since 2005, the relevant national departments have issued a number of measures to focus on the protection and rational development and utilization of black land resources. In 2017, the former Ministry of agriculture, the national development and Reform Commission and other six departments formulated a policy document, which required that the black land degradation be effectively curbed through restoration and governance and supporting facilities construction
As a pioneer area of black land protection, Lishu County of Jilin Province has carried out straw mulch no tillage sowing technology test since 2007, and has integrated 20 million yuan of funds each year for research, development, training and promotion of black land protection. In 2015, Lishu County established the first academician work station of black land protection and utilization in China.
The whole northeast is in action. In Heilongjiang Province, deep loosening and land preparation, fallow rotation and other measures were implemented in many places; in Liaoning Province, a series of measures such as high standard farmland, soil testing and fertilization were carried out orderly. More and more farmers in Northeast China are choosing straw deep ploughing, rice soybean rotation and increasing organic fertilizer application.
Win the battle of hard work: fight against the degeneration of black soil
After years of predatory farming, farmers have developed the farming habit of heavy chemical fertilizers and pesticides; the new method of black land protection that works in one place may be acclimatized in another; the decentralized and household agricultural management mode is still very common In the face of these challenges, how to win the tough battle of black land protection?
In recent years, the local government and scientific research workers have made concerted efforts to match the nutritious meal for the black land, to refuel the black land and let the black land rest.
In Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province, the hometown of Chinas corn, Gongzhuling Dele Agricultural Development Association explored a new mode of combining planting and breeding, that is, mixing cow manure with corn straw, then adding composting agent to compost and ferment into organic fertilizer. He Yu, chief of soil and fertilizer section of Gongzhuling Agricultural Technology Extension Station, introduced that this is equivalent to nutrition meal for black soil. After three or four years of adherence, the local black soil cultivation layer has gradually become thicker, which has exceeded 30cm. The organic matter content has increased by 3% and the yield has also increased by 5%.
For many old farmers, its hard to imagine that a satellite flying in nine days can become a guardian of the black land. This is a large area with a small elevation difference, so it can be planted in close planting, but pay attention to the depth of soil cultivation. In yungeng agricultural open office space in Jilin Province, engineers analyze sowing information by satellite remote sensing images on the screen.
The precise images taken by jilin-1 satellite are combined with soil and fertilizer measurement on the spot to provide a prescription for black soil farming. Today, this technology has been blooming in many parts of the province. It is said that it is the satellite that has opened the eye to the protection of black land.
The formation of the black land needs to accumulate over time, and the protection of the black land is not an overnight success. The defense war is destined to be a protracted war.
Walking into the farmland of Guijia village, Huancheng Township, Yushu City, more than 4000 mu of corn from the agricultural machinery planting professional cooperative has begun to ear. Ma possessor, head of the cooperative, said that after years of conservation farming, corn production has become more and more stable.
Fortunately, with the continuous promotion of new technology, farmers farming concept is changing. Nowadays, many large grain growers have begun to try conservation farming. After straw returning to the field, conservation tillage improved soil moisture conservation capacity and seedling emergence rate. Said Liu Guoquan, a farmer in Xiushui village, Shuangliao City, Jilin Province. After several years of promotion, more than 90% of the corn fields in Xiushui village have been under conservation tillage, with an average yield increase of about 50 kg per mu.
On the vast black land, many scientific research workers scatter their youth on the fields and strive to race against the degradation of black soil. Wu Chunsheng, a professor of Jilin Agricultural University, has been stationed in the west of Jilin Province for 19 years. He has experimented and popularized the integration of water and fertilizer and straw returning to the field. In the past ten years, China Agricultural University has set up experimental stations in many places in Northeast China. Every year, hundreds of scientific researchers take root in rural areas to study the no tillage cultivation technology system of corn straw mulching.
An effective practice of protecting giant panda in cultivated land is taking root and sprouting in the black soil, which is more and more sufficient to stabilize the granary of a big country and hold the Chinese rice bowl firmly.