Why did ancient Chinese generals not have eight abdominal muscles but rather generals belly

category:Military
 Why did ancient Chinese generals not have eight abdominal muscles but rather generals belly


Lu Bu in man, red rabbit in horse. When Lv Bu, who is brave and invincible, wants to fight in the war, the romance of the Three Kingdoms describes it as wearing a purple gold crown with three Trident hair, hanging a red cotton robe in Xichuan, wearing a beasts face, swallowing a chain armor, and wearing an exquisite lions belt; carrying a bow and arrow, holding a drawing halberd, sitting down with a red rabbit horse in the wind, a sense of British hegemony was on the paper.

You may think that the domineering Lu Bu in the romance of the Three Kingdoms should be like the Spartan warrior in the movie three hundred warriors of Sparta. He has developed muscles with clear lines, and his eight abdominal muscles can even make the golden light reflected by his abdominal armor pale. However, the depiction of war generals by ancient Chinese painters may disappoint you: in their works, from Hanxin, the Marquis of Huaiyin in the Han Dynasty, to Lin Chong, the leopard head in Outlaws of the marsh, it seems that they are all full of belly.

The image of Guan Yu, a martial saint, is clearly visible

Interestingly, in our impression, the muscular tough guys like Schwarzenegger, Stallone and stonejohnson in Hollywood movies seem to be the representatives of mens aesthetics and bravery. So, why are all the famous Chinese generals generals without eight abdominal muscles?

The abdominal muscles of Leonidas, the king of Sparta in the 300 warriors of Sparta, are clearly visible

A brief history of muscular men

Why do Hollywood movies have the aesthetic of muscle man? How do we accept this muscle man aesthetic?

Millon: discus thrower, 5th century BC

In the west, the preference for human muscle lines began as early as ancient Greece. For example, the discus thrower, written by the Greek sculptor MILON in the 5th century B.C., shows the power of youth and body building of the ancient Greeks through the description of muscle lines and body movements. Judging from Millons works, the description of body lines in ancient Greek art has been nearly completed, which is the result of inheriting the traditional Greek Art: Greek art preferred geometric figure when it was first created, and widely absorbed mathematical knowledge from all over the world in the ancient wind era around the 7th century BC, hoping to carry out art design on the basis of mathematical knowledge.

In order to show the human body better, the ancient Greek artists studied the human body through anatomy, on the other hand, they introduced the golden ratio to create the ideal human body image. Generally speaking, the creation of ancient Greek sculpture on human body is also idealistic. Its essence is to use scientific measurement, analysis and experiment to depict the perfect human body like mathematical model, so as to achieve aesthetic harmony. The art creation of ancient Greece was influenced by ancient Greek Philosophy (especially Platonism and Pythagorean School). It can be said that it was the ancient Greek philosophers thinking about the ideal world, the laws of the universe and mathematical geometry that gave birth to the perfect human body in art and inspired the ancient Greek peoples love for muscle lines.

Poluccrit: the spear bearer, 5th century B.C

However, the emphasis on human body muscle lines is not only the product of ancient Greek philosophy and artistic ideas, but also the direct embodiment of ancient Greek social life. As we all know, ancient Greece is also the birthplace of the Olympic movement, where there is a long-standing fitness culture. Sports competition is not only a way of offering sacrifices to gods, but also a unique way of social contact, which can help city states and individuals earn prestige in peacetime.

In the process of the prosperity and development of ancient Greek city states, there were not only races, discus, javelin, long jump, boxing, but also Stadion, Hippodrome and palestra. The word gym in modern English comes from the ancient Greek training ground, which originally means a place for naked physical training. It can be seen that the ancient Greeks have a tradition of showing their bodies naked in sports training. It is no wonder that they will carefully appreciate and deliberately shape perfect muscle lines.

Palestra, Pompeii, 75 A.D

Since then, with the development of fitness, the ancient Greeks began to regard the people with body-building as idols and models, and the bodybuilders were praised as heroes, whose status was no different from the gods in heaven. Contemporary artist Richard Hamilton simply believes that Hermes, the most perfect God in ancient Greece, was carved by ancient Greek artists by observing the athletes being trained.

There are also studies show that Plato himself is a sports enthusiast. He not only likes dancing and wrestling, but also vigorously promotes physical education, which is as important as knowledge education. Therefore, Akad u0113 m u00ed u0101, the place where Plato and his followers met in Athens, was a sports training ground where muscles could be trained. Later, the word simply evolved into academy, which generally refers to higher education institutions or organizations such as universities, research institutes and societies, which shows the status of sports and bodybuilding culture in ancient Greece.

Although in the later Middle Ages, the Christian doctrine of saving the soul once regarded the body as evil and decadent, which made the fitness culture disappear, but the Renaissance and the enlightenment regained Western interest in ancient Greek fitness culture. John Locke, a British philosopher and educator, repeatedly stressed the importance of fencing, boxing and dancing to education in his book some thoughts concerning education. Nietzsche, a German philosopher, hoped that Germany would not only become a spiritual ancient Greek, but also be physically strong and become a physical ancient Greek.

The ancient Greeks love for muscle lines did not disappear with the evolution of Western civilization. Instead, they were well inherited in the western world. In the 20th century Hollywood films, those stansons who were all over the world were the products of the continuation of the western traditional muscle aesthetics.

Jason stanson, a famous Hollywood movie star, has appeared in speed and passion

Unlike Westerners, Chinese people dont have a historical tradition of appreciating muscles. Once upon a time, the most popular men in the 1980s were Tang Guoqiang, Cai Guoqing and Su Youpeng.

Tang Guoqiang

It was not until the pursuit starred by Japanese movie star Takakura was released in mainland China that the brave and resolute men entered the aesthetic stage by importing.

Japanese film star Ken Takakura and his pursuit

Feng Shui turns around in turn. Today, all kinds of brothers who are crazy about it after 00 are far away from the image of muscle man, which shows that it is difficult for muscle aesthetics to take root in China.

In a word, when we ask why ancient Chinese generals are all generals without eight abdominal muscles, subconsciously, we have already equated eight abdominal muscles with the ideal male image. But in fact, the eight abdominal muscles is a genuine foreign product, which is rooted in ancient Greek culture and has influenced a generation through western film and television works.

However, even if the Chinese people did not worship muscles, why did ancient Chinese painters go to the other extreme and paint all generals with big bellies? How did the image of generals belly come from?

From the terracotta warriors to the outlaws of the marsh

A brief history of big belly men

Different from ancient Greek sculptures, terracotta warriors and horses, the early human body sculpture in Chinese history, paid more attention to depicting the human body image under realistic conditions. Before the Qin and Han Dynasties, the funerals of great figures in ancient China often needed to be sacrificed or sacrificed. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, this funeral custom was forced to suppress, with the rise of wooden figurines and pottery figurines to replace the burial of living people.

Terracotta warriors and horses with thousands of people and thousands of faces

The ancients paid attention to doing things to death is like doing things to live. In the tombs, the burial figurines mostly imitated the living peoples living conditions in reality. The terracotta warriors and horses, as the peak and model of the Qin and Han Dynastys burial figurines, are no less able to imitate reality: the characteristics of thousands of people and thousands of faces of terracotta warriors and horses is the proof that the statues of Qin terracotta warriors imitate real life.

Interestingly, there is a magic rule among the Terracotta Warriors: the higher the status, the bigger the belly. The clothes of the terracotta warriors and horses are carried from the upper part to the lower part. However, when it comes to the terra cotta generals of senior officers, the upper part of the clothes can no longer hold the lower part due to the enlargement of the belly of the general. So, why do people with high military value have big stomachs? Is it the same as todays beer belly, is it caused by drinking?

In the bamboo slips of Qin Dynasty discovered in Shuihudi, Yunmeng, Hubei Province, archaeologists have found records of drinking heavily before and after the war. It can also be understood that wine can ease the fear of soldiers and make the Qin army more brave in fighting; if they survive after the battle, it is reasonable to drink wine to celebrate the victory because the Qin people adopt the system of accepting nobility according to military merits.

Its not like the custom of the soldiers in Qin Dynasty, but its not the custom of the soldiers of Qin Dynasty to drink wine?

In the actual combat of combat, the strength of the human body in combat is related to the maximum muscle mass, which means that under the same body fat rate, the higher the body weight, the more muscle, the greater the strength, and the stronger the combat effectiveness. Therefore, in the case of little difference in body fat rate, heavy weight in close combat often means dimension reduction, which is the reason why most combat competitions should be divided into lightweight, middleweight and heavyweight in order to maintain fairness. For example, due to limited muscle gain, Japanese sumo wrestlers even deliberately put on weight to gain advantage.

Similar to Japanese sumo wrestlers, the abdomen of ancient Chinese generals is not a beer belly made up of lazy and enjoyable fat, but a generals belly wrapped in thick muscles. In ancient wars, the long-distance March of the army was a great test for both the general and the soldiers, which meant that the sergeant must have a certain amount of fat reserve, otherwise the physical endurance would be very difficult.

The Dagao Guan Sheng in the portrait of outlaws of the marsh has a clear and visible belly of the general

During the Warring States period, the elite soldier Wei Wuzu trained by Wu Qi, a famous general of the state of Wei, had repeatedly broken the Qin armys division of tigers and wolves. When going out to war, Wei Wus soldiers needed to wear armor of three genera, hold a crossbow of twelve stones, bear 50 arrows, place a dagger on it, wear a helmet with a sword, win three days of grain, and move toward a hundred Li in the middle of the day. this means that Wei Wu soldiers should wear three layers of heavy armor and bow every time they go out to battle The crossbow, which has reached the strength of twelve stones, is armed with a long halberd and an iron sword hanging on its waist. It carries fifty crossbows and arrows, carries three days of grain, and marches one hundred miles in half a day. This level of weight-bearing March, without a lot of fat as energy reserves, is unimaginable.

Similar to Wei Wu soldiers, Chinese ancient war generals need not only enough waist and abdomen strength to bear the weight of armor and weapons, but also a certain amount of fat reserves to cope with the consumption of long-distance March. Therefore, ban overtime, a famous general of the Han Dynasty, is mentioned in the book of the later Han Dynasty. It is described as swallowing a tigers neck, flying and eating meat. This is to say that ban Chaos neck is as thick as a tiger, which implies that ban Chaos body is very big and magnificent. In fact, similar to swallows jaw and tigers neck, the tigers back bears the bears waist and the five big and three thick (originally a commendatory term, five big refers to big hands, big feet, big ears, wide shoulders and fat buttocks; three thick refers to waist, leg and neck, ox is tall and horse is big and waist width is ten circumference, which are all the ideal body standards of ancient soldiers. Considering the practicality of marching and fighting and fighting in close combat, although this figure is far away from the eight abdominal muscles, it is the template for ancient Chinese painters to depict the image of a military general.

The strongest man in the world, Martin licis,

Weighing 350 pounds (about 160 kg), the typical representative of swallows jaws and tigers neck

In the picture of four generals of Zhongxing written by Liu Songnian in the Southern Song Dynasty, Yue Fei is a classic image of a big belly.

The painting of four generals of Zhongxing, Liu Songnian (Southern Song Dynasty)

Not only that, this kind of military general template is also far away from the ocean, affecting Japan and other places. For example, in the Japanese ukiyo version of the Water Margin painting spectrum, Lin Chong, the 800, 000 forbidden army coach, is also a classic image with a big belly.

(Japan) Kawakawa Guofang: painting of the water margin, Qing Dynasty

Leopard head Lin Chongs belly is clearly visible

Although the belly of a general in ancient China looks similar to todays beer belly, it is a typical fat coated muscle, which is the representative of combat strength and durability. For these generals, from the actual combat point of view, training muscle lines is no cost-effective behavior, while increasing weight is beneficial to enhance combat effectiveness; from the perspective of social ethos, ancient China also lacked the aesthetic culture of ancient Greek society which preferred muscle lines.

Therefore, due to practical considerations and aesthetic habits, the image of ancient Chinese military generals can not be eight abdominal muscles, but big belly. As the saying goes, the prime minister can support a boat in his belly, the ancients did not deceive me.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u5811557,container:ssp_ 5811557, async:true }Source: Daodao history editor: Li Xi_ NN2587