Great! To Mars! Successful launch of tianwen-1 probe in Chinas first Mars exploration mission

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 Great! To Mars! Successful launch of tianwen-1 probe in Chinas first Mars exploration mission


Production of NetEase technology section state temperature column group (official account: tech_ 163uff09

u201cGOTOMARSTOGTHERuff01u201d Just now, the successful launch of Chinas Mars exploration mission tianwen-1 has opened Chinas first exploration tour of Mars, and Chinas deep space exploration has taken another step forward.

At 12:41 Beijing time on July 23, 2020, the long March-5 remote-4 launch vehicle lifted off at Wenchang space launch site, carrying Chinas first Mars exploration mission, tianwen-1.

After flying about 2167 seconds, the rocket successfully put the probe into the predetermined orbit, and started the Mars Exploration Tour.

Tianwen-1 is Chinas first autonomous Mars exploration mission and a milestone project for Chinas space exploration into deep space. Different from the first Mars exploration mission of any other country, tianwen-1 is the first time in the world to realize the mission of circling, landing and patrolling.

After the Mars probe is launched, according to the calculation, the optimal transfer orbit will take 203 days, that is, 6 months and 19 days, that is, it will be captured by Mars gravity on February 11, 2021.

According to the speed of the probe, the optimal deceleration orbit and the Mars exploration event are selected, and the Mars landing is expected to start on April 23, 2021.

After arriving at Mars, the design life of the rover is 90 Martian days. One day on Mars is a little longer than that on earth, which is about 24 hours and 37 minutes. 90 Mars days is more than three months on earth.

If tianwen-1 can successfully land on Mars, it will make China one of the elite powers in space and a leader in space exploration.

However, there is a long way to go, and I will search up and down.

Mars, the lonely planet, is waiting for our embrace.

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China for the first time! How did the most difficult Mars exploration in human history be completed? (source: reverse thinking)

The key to success or failure: seven minutes of terror

Throughout the history of human spaceflight, it seems that people have always been in love with Mars and the moon. There have been more than 40 Mars exploration activities in the world, but only 22 successful and partially successful missions have been carried out, with a success rate of about 40%. Therefore, Mars has a graveyard of spacecraft..

But Mars is too tempting for humans.

The pictures come from the Internet

In August 2010, eight academicians jointly proposed to the state to carry out a comprehensive demonstration of deep space exploration beyond the moon. Therefore, the State Administration of science, technology and industry for national defense immediately organized experts to carry out the demonstration of development planning and implementation plan.

Geng Yan, director of the General Department of deep space exploration of the center for lunar exploration and space engineering of China National Space Administration, once wrote that the first autonomous Mars exploration is the starting point and key point of deep space exploration. After three rounds of iteration and deepening, the implementation plan was officially approved and implemented in January 2016.

In August 2016, the global collection of Mars exploration mission names and graphic symbols was launched. After online voting, Tianwen ranked first with more than 317000 votes.

At the launching ceremony of China space day in 2020, the highly concerned appointment of Chinas first autonomous Mars exploration was officially announced as tianwen-1.

The pictures come from the Internet

According to the plan, Chinas first autonomous Mars exploration mission is very heavy. The mission consists of an orbiter, a lander and a rover. The goal is to complete the first three steps of circling, landing and patrolling through one launch mission.

This will be the first time in the world to explore Mars independently, that is, to complete a soft landing mission. Ji Jianghui, a researcher at the Zijinshan Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said in an interview with science and technology weekly.

Ye Peijian, chief scientist of deep space exploration and space science of the Fifth Academy of China Aerospace Science and technology group and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, once told the media that if China wants to achieve transcendence, it needs to use existing technology to achieve two steps and one step.

However, behind two birds with one stone, there are still higher challenges and greater risks. There are few international precedents.

The first is the rocket that will send the Mars probe into space.

This time, Tianwen 1 carries a long March 5 rocket, which is Chinas largest carrier rocket. Netizens love to call it fat five. In 2016, the first flight of the Long March 5 carrier rocket was successful. Up to now, it has been launched three times, and failed once.

The pictures come from the Internet

Compared with the moon, Mars is more distant from the earth, and the distance between Mars and the earth will change constantly: when the earth and Mars are on both sides of the sun, the maximum distance is about 400 million kilometers, while the nearest distance on the same side of the sun is 54.6 million kilometers (150 times the distance of the moon).

Tianwen-1 probe goes to Mars, not in a straight line, but through the rockets transport capacity to send the probe into an elliptical orbit. In this process, it will always be in a high-speed flight state, and it will take 10 months for the long-distance attack to reach Mars in 2021.

Second, after arriving on Mars, the probe will face the key challenge of success or failure.

The biggest difficulty in Mars exploration is 7 minutes of terror . In the process of entering, descending and landing, the speed of the probe should be reduced from 20000 kilometers per hour to zero within seven minutes. This requires the integration of a variety of deceleration means, including aerodynamic shape, parachute and backstepping, as well as autonomous navigation and control technology Zhang Wei, a researcher at the center for space application engineering and technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, told Science and technology daily.

It is understood that before landing, the probe needs to slow down from 4.8 km / s to 460 M / s, which is equivalent to a sudden brake.

From Netease Technology

The probe then opened its parachute and took 90 seconds to reduce the speed to 95 M / s.

From Netease Technology

Finally, enter the landing buffer section. At this time, the probe needs to hover to avoid obstacles and observe the surface of Mars to see if there are pits and large rocks on the ground to ensure landing safety.

From Netease Technology

Landing on Mars is one of the most challenging tasks. Since Mars has an atmosphere, it is necessary to prevent the lander from overheating during the descent process. Moreover, only parachute falling cannot slow down the lander, and deceleration rockets are needed. Of the 18 previous Mars landing missions, only 10 were successful.

From Netease Technology

Schematic diagram of Mars probe on Mars surface (from Science)

On the rover, the square device on the top of the mast at the front end is like the head of a robot, with a panoramic camera for real-time detection, which can help the rover avoid obstacles. In addition, the rover also has four large solar panels, as well as detection radar, magnetic field detector and meteorological instrument, which can carry out all-round exploration of Mars.

According to the plan, the life span of Mars probe is only 90 Mars days, which is slightly longer than one day of earth, which is 24 hours and 40 minutes, that is, three months.

So far, tianwen-1 Mars probe can complete its mission.

Human second home

As mentioned above, it is still difficult for human beings to land on Mars. Why?

As one of the planets in the solar system, Mars and earth are similar in environment, which makes people have a strong interest in Mars exploration.

Experts say Mars has not only an atmosphere, but also a suitable temperature, and has a similar rotation cycle with the earth. The study of Mars can bring us a lot of enlightenment and valuable basic research.

Foreign media have published articles saying that scientists have found evidence of the existence of liquid water under the Martian Antarctic ice sheet. This discovery has aroused peoples enthusiasm for exploring Mars.

Mars is the closest planet in the solar system to the earth, and is the first choice for human migration in the future. Zhang Wei said in an interview with the media.

This means that Mars will be the second home of mankind. Scientists have even come up with plans to transform Mars.

This time, in addition to Chinas tianwen-1 probe, the US perseverance Mars rover and the UAEs Hope Mars probe are scheduled to be launched in July. However, the cooperation between Europe and Russia, which was originally scheduled to explore Mars this year, has been postponed to 2022.

Why do countries choose to launch at this time?

From Netease Technology

It is understood that every two years, the world will usher in a high tide of Mars exploration, because of the relationship between the earth and Mars. Every 26 months, Mars will have a chance to be closest to the earth, with a distance of only 55 million kilometers. This is also the best time window for launching Mars probes.

At this time, Mars exploration will take the shortest route and save fuel. If the launch is missed, it will take 26 months to wait, and the next launch window will wait until September 2022.

How long will it take to immigrate to Mars?

Since Mars is the second home pursued by human beings, when will human beings be able to immigrate to Mars?

Musk, the founder of SpaceX, a commercial Rocket Company, once proposed a Mars migration plan: he hoped to establish communities on Mars. He also called out that if the cost of a persons migration was controlled at around 200000 dollars, at least 20000 people on earth would be willing to emigrate to other planets.

The pictures come from the Internet

Beidou goddess Xu Ying, a guest on the program open bars bar created by Netease technology and Geely icon, once said that Mars is our neighbor, and Mars is also our nearest dream from space. But if humans really want to immigrate to Mars, there is still a lot to do. For example, to solve the problems of the physical layer, to solve the environmental problems of Mars, including the Mars atmosphere.

In fact, some scientists have put forward the overall transformation plan of Mars immigration. I think this unit should be measured in thousands of years. Xu Ying thinks.

Hugo prize winner and science fiction writer Hao Jingfang also said in the program open bars that in the foreseeable future, even if human beings immigrate to Mars, they must survive in a closed environment with limited resources.

This means that life on Mars cant be very free, it must be to bind everyone in a limited space. In this way, we can ensure that we can breathe and air, distribute food, energy and the most efficient way to allocate materials.

The picture is from the imagination of online Mars life

Therefore, the living space and society created in this way are very different from the extremely rich world resources on our earth, and will operate in a very economic and effective way. The society on Mars is almost certainly created by scientists, engineers and senior intellectuals, and it must also be a very information-based society. According to Hao Jingfang.

If you could immigrate to Mars in your lifetime, what would be your choice?

reference material:

Tianwen No.1: a late start, first come on the road of exploring fire

The first Mars exploration mission will carry out Tianwen No.1 on Xinhua news website, and a round and landing Tour will be realized. The success rate of science and Technology Daily is less than half. Why do human beings explore fire in thin ice? China Youth Daily: tianwen-1 will go to Mars, why is Chinas first exploration of Mars shell: do you know how hard tianwen-1 has made in order to go to Mars? CCTV news client Chinas first Rover came China Aerospace Technology Group official account NetEase technology reverse thinking Tenth phase of the small rocket public Mars exploration timing and arrival time chart to extend the reading of astronomy one to Mars foreign media: if successful will win the prestige of 5 Nobel Prize winner Mars question: is life the universe inevitable? Reporter hit Tianwen No.1 flying into the sky, cheering: never so proud. Source: state u2103 editor in charge: Qiao JunJing_ NBJ11279

The first Mars exploration mission will carry out tianwen-1 and realize round and landing Patrol on Xinhua news website

Science and Technology Daily less than half of the success rate, why do human beings explore fire in thin ice

China Youth Daily: tianwen-1 will go to Mars

Do you know how hard tianwen-1 is to go to Mars?

CCTV news client Chinas first Mars rover comes

Official account of China Aerospace Science and Technology Group

Netease technology reverse thinking issue 10

Calculation chart of launch time and arrival time for human exploration of Mars