In 1500, the cathedral was turned into a mosque. How much is the feud between the two countries?

 In 1500, the cathedral was turned into a mosque. How much is the feud between the two countries?

This decision was condemned by the United States, Russia and the European Union countries led by Greece, and caused a great stir in Turkey. Turkey legendary striker and World Cup fastest goal maker Hakan Suk expressed his dissatisfaction with Erdogan in the ins live broadcast.

After retiring in 2008, Hakan Suk entered the political arena and joined Erdogans justice and development party. However, due to his disagreement with Erdogan, he became a traitor and was forced to exile in the United States, once relying on driving a car for a living.

(Hakan Suk and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan)

I am a 100% Turkish and Muslim, but converting the Cathedral of Santa Sophia back to the mosque will not solve any problems, but will intensify conflicts with Greece and the European Union. Young people need more stadiums, education and jobs, not mosques.

(Hakan Suk, an exile in the United States, once made a living by driving a car on the net)

In 1935, the father of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal, changed the Cathedral of St. Sophia (which was also a mosque at that time) into a museum. His practice was out of many considerations. In addition to letting Turkey get rid of the shackles of religious conservatism and move towards secularization and westernization, he also wanted to slow down its relations with Greece and other western countries.

On May 29, 1453, Muhammad II invaded Constantinople and conquered the Hellenized Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire). Since then, the Ottoman Empire began to rule Greece for 400 years. In 1821, Greece launched the war of independence with the help of Britain, France and Russia. From then on, it began its 100 year long land restoration movement.

(the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the fall of Byzantine Empire)

Following the idea of great ideal, the Greeks advocated the restoration of the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of a Greek state with Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the capital and Athens as the economic center, covering the territory of temena minor (now Izmir) and Trabzon (todays Trabzon), the native land of Bendu Greeks on the Black Sea coast.

After that, the Ottoman Empire gradually declined. After the end of the first World War, as the defeated countries, they signed the Treaty of sevre with the allies. The original 6.3 million square kilometers of territory was only 780000 after the war, and will continue to be divided up by Greece, France, Italy, Britain and Armenian.

On May 15, 1919, the Greek army landed at Smyrna, and the realization of the great ideal seemed to be within reach. At this time, the Turks ushered in the Savior, Kemal formed an interim government, and led the army to drive the troops out of Turkey. At this time, due to the intensification of internal contradictions and the loss of support from Britain, France and other countries, Greece continued to decline.

On September 13, 1922, the Turkish army recaptured Smyrna, set off a fire and began to massacre Greek civilians. The Smyrna fire became a catastrophe for the entire Greek nation, killing about 100000 people. Originally, there were more Greeks in Smyrna than in Athens. A fire set off by the Turks not only destroyed the last home of the Greeks in Anatolia, but also the great ideal disappeared.

On January 30, 1923, Greece and Turkey began to exchange population. Greece exchanged 400000 Turks and Muslims living in Greece for 1.6 million Greeks and orthodox Turks in Turkey.

(Kemal, father of Turkey)

After the population exchange, Turkey pursued a policy of reconciliation with Greece. Although a fire had just burned down Smyrna a year ago, Kemal took the initiative to talk to Greece. 1923 was the 470th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople. Under great pressure, Kemal banned the official and private celebrations on May 29, so as not to stimulate the feelings of the Greeks, so as to improve the diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Although the official ushered in a short honeymoon period, the hatred among the people can never be eliminated. Who would have thought that Turkeys first professional football club was neither Besiktas (1903) nor Galatasaray (1905), but AEK Athens (1875)!

In 1875, a group of Greek patriots set up the Constantinople Sports Federation in Constantinople, aiming to promote Greek nationalism in a peaceful way. Their official flag is the flag of the Greek Orthodox Church, which is the yellow background and black double headed eagle flag. After the Greek Turkish exchange of population in 1923, the Constantinople Sports Federation was dissolved, all its members were expelled and the property left in Turkey was confiscated.

On April 13, 1924, the Constantinople Sports Federation was rebuilt in Athens and renamed Athens AEK, which is the abbreviation of Constantinople Sports Federation in Greek. AEK Athens aims to tell future generations in this way not to forget Constantinople. For a long time since then, AEK Athens refused to recruit Turkish players and staff.

In 2017, AEK Athens built a new stadium in Athens under the sponsorship of the Onassis family, the ship king. The name of the new stadium is the stadium of the Cathedral of Saint Sophia. The stadium itself can only accommodate 33000 people, but it has all kinds of supporting facilities. However, compared with the commercial facilities, the most attractive one is the Greek refugee Museum in the stadium. The stadium is scheduled to be completed in 2021, when the museum will show visitors how cruel the Ottoman Empire and Turkey used to treat Greeks in the past. The news also triggered protests from the Turkish government.

(St. Sophia Cathedral Stadium)

At the club level, Turkey is so hated, not to mention the national team. The first decade of the 21st century is the best one for Turkey and Greece. However, as long as the Turkish and Greek football teams meet in the game, the audience can only hear boos. Especially in the European Cup qualifier on March 24, 2007, the Greek team played Turkey in Athens. In the process of raising the national flag and singing the national anthem, there was no music at all, only hiss. Either the Greeks booed the Turks or the Turks booed the Greeks. The game ended in Turkeys 4-1 away win over Greece.

Today, the Turkish Football Association and the Greek Football Association have been established for nearly 90 years, but in these 90 years, Turkey and Greece only played 14 games. The former Turkish national, Ridwan Dilman, took part in three of the 14 games, all of which were won by Turkey because of his outstanding performance. He is also regarded as a national hero by the Turks.

After retiring, Dilman joined the Turkish Football Association. He once recalled: since we were young, we have been taught that the Greeks are our natural enemies.. I think it is difficult to play against them because they are enemies. I have read the communication records of the football associations of our two countries. The number of games cancelled by the two teams is far more than the number of matches completed

On October 17, 2007, Greece beat Turkey 1-0 in Istanbul, winning again after 55 years, which made countless Greek fans cry with joy. When they returned to Athens, the Greek players were treated like heroes. Giannacopoulos, a Greek player, said with emotion: every time we played turkey before, they looked at us like prisoners, but today its all over. We won and we are finally free.

Although Greece and Turkey exchanged a large number of main ethnic groups in the population exchange in 1923, there are still many people who have a stronger sense of identity with each others countries and refuse to return to their motherland. Although Turkeys football level today is slightly better than that of Greece, at that time, many of the top players in the Turkish national team were Greeks, including left kuchuk antonyadis, known as one of the greatest forwards in Turkish history.

The year after the Greek Turkish exchange, left was born in Turkey. His original name is left antonyadis, because he is relatively short, Turks always ridicule his body, called him K u00fc? K (Turkish meaning thin and small). In 1934, Turkey promulgated the name law, which stipulated that the Turks surnames were inherited from then on (Turks had no surnames at all), and other nationalities must change their names to Turkish names. Left added K u00fc? K to his surname and changed his surname to kuchuk antonyadis.

(left played for Fenerbahce for 11 years, scoring 323 goals in total)

The antoniatis family originally flourished in Turkey, but when Turkey began to commit genocide against the Greeks and Armenians, his relatives began to flee to Greece or emigrate. Lefts father was just a fisherman, and he had ten children to raise. In addition, most of the Greeks in Turkey were intellectuals or upper class at that time. He felt that returning to Greece was no different from that in Turkey, so he did not take his family back.

In Turkey at that time, the civil rights of Greeks could not be guaranteed. On November 11, 1942, Turkey implemented the wealth tax act against non muslims. Armenians in Turkey had to pay 232% tax, Jews and Greeks needed to pay 179% and 156% tax, and Muslims only needed to pay 4.94%. If they cant pay, they will be sent to the concentration camp to serve as prisoners. Lefts father went into exile and his whereabouts were unknown.

Left showed outstanding football talent at the age of 16. After his fathers disappearance, he had planned to play football to support his family, but even if he became a professional player, he had to get permission from the Turkish authorities. Left was told he would have to serve in the Turkish national army for three years before he could become a professional.

In 1944, left was drafted into the army and sent to serve in the mountains of the Caucasus, where he was not even a gun high. It was not until 1947 that left was allowed to return to Istanbul. After that, he joined Fenerbahce and was later named Fenerbahces best forward ever and was written into Fenerbahces team song. He also helped Turkey beat the then formidable Hungarian team in 1956. However, although the fans like him very much, he still needs to pay a high tax to the tax department. He is not even as rich as Fenerbahces replacement player because he is Greek.

(Fenerbahce fans salute left)

On September 6, 1955, a large-scale violence against the Greeks broke out in Istanbul, which the Greeks called the Istanbul Massacre. The cause of the incident was a dispute between Greece and Turkey over the Cyprus issue. The Turkish security department sent out false news that the Greeks had planted bombs in Istanbul, triggering a large-scale Turkish violence against the Greeks. According to statistics afterwards, about 13 to 30 Greeks and Armenians died in the violence.

Lefts home in Istanbul was also hit, with Turks throwing stones at his home all night. Due to his influence in Turkish football, the police chief arrived the next day and apologetically assured left that as long as he could identify the culprit, he would be arrested. But left did not identify anyone, nor any complaints, he took all the losses.

In 1964, left moved to AEK in Athens at the end of his career, but the Greeks showed great hostility towards him. They thought that lefts obedience in Istanbul would only encourage the Turkishs arrogance, and he refused to return to Greece to help the Greek national team, although he had outstanding football skills.

Although left scored several goals for AEK in Athens, the criticism has always been there. Fans chanted slogans such as Greece does not have the surname of kuchuk antonyadis and we dont want Turkish players. In the final game, he was severely injured by Greek players who were hostile to him and said goodbye to the football field.

On January 13, 2012, left died of pneumonia in Istanbul at the age of 87. He was buried in the Greek cemetery in Istanbul. On January 15, 2019, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan visited his tombstone seven years after his death, saying, he is my most unforgettable player, the greatest Turkish player, a model for all Turks.

In response to this, the Greek media Greek city times commented: Erdogan never mentioned the word Greece, as if he had forgotten that left kuchuk antonyadis was Greek and buried in the Greek cemetery. Lefts life is full of tragedies. Before his death, he was subjected to various difficulties in Turkey because of his Greek identity. He was regarded as a Turkish hero after his death. We still cant understand his weakness

The opening match of the 2012 European Cup was between Greece and Poland, which was led by CCTV commentator Liu Jiayuan. Before the start of the game, Liu Jiayuan half jokingly told the audience: the names of the players on both sides of the game are very characteristic and long. Its not a small test for me, but I will try my best to complete it.

Before that, Chinese netizens had summed up the rules of the names of the players of the two teams. Greek players all end with Si, while most Polish players end with skey. But it is also because of this that the name of the Greek striker, mitroglu, makes him a little different from other Greek players.

(mikeloglu is one of the few players in the Greek national team who does not have a s in his name)

Mitroglu was the best shooter in the 2007 European Youth Championship, winning six Greek league titles and two Portuguese super champions. However, compared with his honor, his name and appearance are more special. He is the only yellow man in the Greek team, and his appearance is closer to that of Turks. His family name, mitroglu, is also a Turkish family name, similar to calhanoglu and belozoglu. In Turkish, oglu means someones son, for example, chalhanolu means the son of Charhan (in Greek, Poulos also means someones son).

So what does mitroglu have to do with Turkey?

In 2019, mitroglu will join Galatasaray on loan, which has caused a wave of discussion on Turkeys social media. There are many speculations about his life. Soon Turkish netizens summed up two statements.

(mitt roglu played in the Premier League with Fulham, but only played twice)

The first is that the ancestors of mitroglu are Turks, who have lived in Greece for generations, and they identify themselves as Greeks in their hearts. Therefore, mitroglu is a Greek of Turkish origin, and mitroglu means the son of Mitri, indicating that the ancestor of mitroglu is Mitri; the second is that the ancestor of mitroglu is the Greek living in Anatolia. After Turkey promulgated the name act in 1934, his original name should be Mitropoulos, which is a common surname in Greece.

But both statements were quickly overturned, because Mitri was not a Turkish surname at all; and the mitroglu family had lived in Greece since his great grandfathers generation, indicating that he had not been influenced by the law of names. This time, the Turkish netizens are completely confused.

Later, after mitroglu joined Galatasaray, a Turkish history professor gave his research results, which were regarded as the most likely answer: before the Ottoman Empire conquered Anatolia, mitroglus ancestors lived here. They may be pechenegs or ugus. But his ancestors should have been loyal to the Byzantine Empire and had always believed in the Orthodox Church. This tradition has been around for hundreds of years, so mitroglu has the look of a Turk, but is a Greek to the letter.

No matter where he comes from, its ridiculous to focus on the pedigree rather than the performance of the players. Mitroglu was also unsuccessful at Galatasaray and was returned to Marseille after scoring a goal. However, Turkish netizens are so keen to help mitroglu find his roots that he is really confused. He sarcastically said: if I score a lot of goals in Galatasaray, they will think that I am Turkish and should not play for Greece.

The Turkish fans are indeed the most bloodthirsty fans in the world. Hakan Suk mentioned at the beginning is of mixed blood of Macedonian and Albania; Turkeys active forward ZENK tosong is of Greek origin; Ersan gulum, who once played in CSL Hebei Huaxia, also has Greek blood; NBA star ilyasowa is a mixture of Tatars and Belarusians Even Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is of Georgian origin, and even the name Erdogan was forced to change because of the promulgation of the name law. But in the eyes of Turks with high nationalism, these are all true and pure Turks.



In todays highly integrated world, any country and nation can not be separated by itself. Erdogan dreams of reappearing the glory of Osman, but he puts on the reverse gear and steps on the accelerator to the end. Narrow nationalism is bound to become a hotbed for racists, even the pure football field is not immune. With the transformation of St. Sophias Cathedral into a mosque, reconciliation between Greece and Turkey has become increasingly remote.

If Erdogan wants to recreate the glory of the Ottoman Empire, why not change Istanbul back to the name of the Ottoman Empire? During the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople was the official name of the city.

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Source: Football Conference Author: editor in charge of the Soviet Red Army: Feng Haotian_ NSJS2656