Look at the ancients and modern people, in the end, whose college entrance examination is more difficult.
Believe me, after watching, you will be deeply comforted.
As soon as the Tang Dynasty scientific examination is mentioned, people may raise their hands to answer:
I know, I know! Clear the classics and Jinshi two subjects!
Its true that there are so many poems and figures in vain.
However, I still want to pour a little cold water on you: Congratulations, only a part of it is right.
Strictly speaking, the imperial examination of Tang Dynasty is divided into two categories: the system examination and the regular examination.
The so-called Zhiju is a kind of unconventional examination which is issued by the emperor to recruit extraordinary talents from time to time.
For example, Wang Bo, one of the four outstanding figures in the early Tang Dynasty, became an official at the age of 16. This subject is one of the compulsory examinations.
In the Tang Dynasty, there were probably no less than a hundred subjects (according to historical records, there were no worries about hundreds of subjects), and the more common subjects were virtuous and virtuous prescriptions, erudite macro Ci, and capable speech and extreme admonition.
In addition, there are a lot of subjects that are too fancy to be true:
For example, what is the family silurianthaceae;
In the face of death, nimbonko ;
Talent and breadth sink into the lower branch ;
A wise man and a marvelous scholar ;
The names are so grandiose that its hard to believe that this is an official subject for the imperial court. It can only be said that it is good to be an emperor, and such a serious scientific examination can be so willful.
Of course, the examination system is only a supplementary way of talent selection, similar to our current art and sports students.
The real play, but also depends on the frequent.
It is often held once a year in the Tang Dynasty. The main subjects include scholar, Mingjing, Jinshi, Mingfa (Law), Mingshu (calligraphy), mingsuan (arithmetic), etc. (there are plenty of them...)
Other Mingfa, Mingshu, mingsuan and so on are not very popular, so the most important thing of Changke is Mingjing and Jinshi. That is to say, we mentioned the most two subjects when we talked about poetry and character records.
First of all, the difficulty of the test is different.
The so-called 30 years old Mingjing, 50 less Jinshi, 30-year-old Mingjing has been considered as the senior examinee, but the title of the 50 year old Jinshi is still young and promising.
Because the Ming Dynasty is easy to test, the main test tie Jing, is to extract the classic ancient prose, cover the key words, let the examinee fill in. Just like the filling questions we used to do when we were children, we just memorize them by rote.
Because, focus on poetry and Fu.
Poetry and Fu are both styles that require rhythm. Poetry should have harmonious rhyme and neat antithesis, and Fu should have gorgeous words and plump. We should also make it according to the topic and give full play to it on the spot.
This requires candidates to have considerable literary talent and independent thinking ability.
The poets we are familiar with in the Tang Dynasty almost all chose to take part in the imperial examination because of their talents.
Sometimes, even the examiner improvises the topic.
For example, one year, when the examiner saw a new pine tree planted in the north of the examination room, he said to the candidates:
Students, lets write a poem about this pine tree today.
Moreover, not only the examiners are casual, but the examinees are more exaggerated.
During the Kaiyuan period, there was a candidate named zuyong, who had just 15 minutes to start the poetry examination. He suddenly got up, put the poem manuscript in front of the examiners case and left with a stationery bag.
Just two steps after leaving the examination room, the examiner held up the examination paper, held the door frame and cried out:
Hi! This classmate, you havent finished writing yet! What paper should I hand in!
Its the end of my mind.
Finish saying then float and go, leave the examiner in the wind disorderly.
Why did the examiner say he didnt finish it? Because there was a requirement for the length of poems in Tang Dynasty, which must be five characters, six rhymes and twelve sentences, but Zu Yong left after only four sentences.
Now, lets enjoy the most personalized examination oriented work of Tang Dynasty in 300 years
Looking at the snow in Zhongnan
Zhongnan Yinling show, snow floating clouds.
The forest shows the color, and the city grows colder in the evening.
The whole poem chants things and expresses feelings, which is beyond the words. It is fresh and clear, simple and natural. It is a rare masterpiece.
Wang Shizhen of the Qing Dynasty juxtaposed this poem with Tao Qians quiet ears, clear eyes and Wang Weis quiet deep lane, and broad space for leisure in his Yuyang poetry talks, which are called the best work of chanting snow.
In todays college entrance examination, you can only get a zero score if you write a 200 word composition. However, zuyong was admitted by the examiners as an exception because the poem was so well written that it became a famous story about the imperial examination.
A careless digression, continue to talk about the difference between Huiming Scripture and Jinshi.
Because the difficulty of the examination is different, it is logical that the gold content of education is different.
If it is shown that classics is equivalent to the current correspondence undergraduate course, the Jinshi are 985 and 211, and even the benchmarking of Tsinghua University and Peking University is not too much.
There was an obvious chain of disdain in the atmosphere of scientific examination at that time
Those who come from Jinshi look down on those who come from Mingjing; those who havent passed the imperial examination despise those who are born in Mingjing.
A typical example is the story of Li He offending Yuan Zhen.
When Li he was a teenager, he was well-known in Jingluo because he was favored by Han Yu, a literary giant. It is said that Yuan Zhen, who had passed the examination of the Ming classics at that time, admired him very much and visited him personally.
How can you come to visit me!
It means that you, a man of Mingjing origin, have the face to see my brother?! u2014u2014Almost didnt make Yuan Zhen angry to the spot explosion. (should be!)
Seeing this, you may want to say that the imperial examinations in the Tang Dynasty were still very good.
The scope of the examination is hot and loose, and the answer of give up halfway can also make it to the top of the list. Although Mingjing is not popular, it is necessary to concentrate on writing poems for the entrance examination.
Ha ha, if I tell you again, the Tang Dynasty examination room can also whisper, discuss the test questions (is true), do you envy immediately want to cross back?
Dont worry. After talking about the loveliness of the imperial examination in the Tang Dynasty, I will start to blacken it.
The first black spot in the imperial examination of the Tang Dynasty is that the admission rate of Jinshi is extremely low.
In the late Tang Dynasty, the average number of Jinshi admitted each year was no more than 25, and the admission rate was only 1.2%. The so-called thing is rare, and the degree of respect and honor of high school Jinshi in the Tang Dynasty is rare.
For example, someone once wrote a poem after he ascended the throne
The robe is like rotten silver, the text is like brocade, and the phase will be in the sky.
It is not difficult to imagine the happiness of Jinshi and the admiration of the world.
In the Tang Dynasty, there seems to be a sacred Jinshi complex in the whole bureaucratic system.
One is not from Jinshi family background; the second is not married to the daughter of five famous families; the third is not able to write national history.
Whats more incredible is that even the Emperor (Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty) was so keen on the title of Jinshi that he could not take part in the scientific examination, so he wrote himself Li Daolong, a Jinshi from Xianggong in the Forbidden City.
Because of the low admission rate, the Tang Dynasty even produced a special type of poetry, called poetry falling behind the throne
The second poem
I wake up nine times a night, but my dream is short.
Two Changan Mo, empty tears see flowers.
Ah, I dont want to say anything. Just look at the name of the poem (the next poem) is enough sad.
For ten years, the valley God has been waiting for a whole body, and for half a year, the sound and dust have been cut off for thousands of miles.
His temples are like snow, and his heart is like death.
The son of Gu Kuang, a poet, has been studying for 30 years. He has been reciting poems for 30 years.
Cao song, a poet who wrote the famous saying when a marquis is is granted by virtue of the emperors words, he will be successful and his bones will be withered. It was not until he was more than 70 years old that he was promoted to the rank of poet because of his old age
At that time, many foreign students stayed in Changan for many years in order to win a Jinshi background. Some parents died and had to sell themselves to serve as slaves for funerals. Some couples had been separated for more than ten years and could hardly recognize each other when they met
See this, is not already shivering, decisively jumped down from the spaceship?
Dont worry. Its not over.
The second big black spot of the Tang Dynastys scientific examination is as follows
There is no confusion in the examination, and there is a prevailing trend of writing papers and passing lists.
Its too easy for the examiners to pour water on a certain examinee.
And the so-called Xingjuan means that before the examination, the examinees bind their favorite works into volumes, and then rush to recommend themselves in the courtyards of kings and nobles. If they are appreciated by the dignitaries and recommended to the examiners, they are likely to be ranked directly, that is, Tongbang.
Wang Wei and Du Mu, for example, are the lucky ones in this category.
But all these things are unfair to the candidates who are born in ordinary families and have no backing.
Han Yu, for example, failed to win the imperial examination for four times because no one recommended him. And Li Shangyin, who had been recommended for the fifth time, was admitted.
Du Xunhe, a poet in the late Tang Dynasty, was also famous for his poems, but he failed in many attempts. He had no choice but to lament that there are chapters to be spread in the sea, and no relatives are more valuable in the imperial court..
In the Tang Dynasty, people were divided into four categories: scholars, peasants, workers and merchants. Only the children of scholars and peasants were allowed to take part in the scientific examination. (please check your family composition as soon as possible)
Most of the farmers children are poor and have no conditions to study, so they are not qualified for the examination. So in the final analysis, almost all the Jinshi in Tang Dynasty were from the bureaucratic class.
Why is his family always a mystery? Why does he never talk about his parents and brothers in his poems?
The answer is that his family is very likely to be in business. (Guo Moruo even speculates that his family is doing logistics business on the Yangtze River...)
This can also explain why our brother Taibai has never participated in the scientific examination. On the one hand, it is more important that we are not qualified!
He has always kept a secret about his family background. Maybe he is afraid of leaking out his family composition. The road of recommendation will not go through.
Ah, writing about this, I feel sorry for my elder brother Li again.
(Li Bai: I love drinking, for a reason...)
Apart from the above, the examination of Jinshi in the Tang Dynasty was still eliminated step by step, and each match was determined to stay. The first poem and Fu cant pass, but the post sutras and questions are not qualified for the examination.
Last night, under the solitary lamp, my appendix was crying for several lines.
He left home at the beginning of his life.
Ah, how can I tell my parents when I go home
Finally, although the Jinshi of Tang Dynasty were blown to heaven, they were not admitted! Bag! Points! Match!
They still have to go through the selection of the civil servants to become civil servants.
In the interview process of the civil service, the examiners have great discretion, and the children of the aristocratic families who are related to the background will once again take the advantage.
As talented as Han Yu, he was born in a common family, but he was not allowed to be elected as an official for three times
Just ask if you are a pit father, trembling or not!
In particular, the Tang Dynasty is still in the primary stage of the imperial examination. It seems that the Jinshi examination, which seems to have been held in Longmen, is only a game that only a few people in the upper class can play. It is far from the real road of opening up talents.
In the final analysis, the current college entrance examination system is more friendly to the working masses
Unlimited origin, do not need to line the volume, the examination to see the total score, the admission rate is still high!
Nowadays, with the development of history and the progress of the times, although the college entrance examination is no longer the only way out of life like the ancient imperial examination, it is still the fairest way for individuals to improve their fate.
Therefore, young people still need to read more when they are OK!
Finally, I wish all the students who fought hard in the imperial examination hall this summer to be ranked in the top of the list and leap into the dragons gate.
Happy horses hoof disease, a day to see all Changan flowers!
Author: Mr. Zhou, a fan of Tang and Song poetry, a fan of story telling, a young woman in Shandong who believes in history is actually very interesting. Official account: Zhou Gong loves reading (ID:yushanzhaji). Insight is authorized to release.