Long drought every rain, meet old friends in other countries, bridal chamber candle night, when the top of the list.
The annual college entrance examination season is coming again. Today we are going to write about the imperial examination system of the Tang Dynasty related to the fourth happiness of life.
Believe me, after watching, you will be deeply comforted.
I know, I know! Clear the classics and Jinshi two subjects!
Its true that there are so many poems and figures in vain.
Strictly speaking, the imperial examination of Tang Dynasty is divided into two categories: the system examination and the regular examination.
For example, Wang Bo, one of the four outstanding figures in the early Tang Dynasty, became an official at the age of 16. This subject is one of the compulsory examinations.
In the Tang Dynasty, there were probably no less than a hundred subjects (according to historical records, there were no worries about hundreds of subjects), and the more common subjects were virtuous and virtuous prescriptions, erudite macro Ci, and capable speech and extreme admonition.
In addition, there are a lot of subjects that are too fancy to be true:
For example, what is the family silurianthaceae;
In the face of death, nimbonko ;
Talent and breadth sink into the lower branch ;
The calligraphy or the physique ;
A wise man and a marvelous scholar ;
The names are so grandiose that its hard to believe that this is an official subject for the imperial court. It can only be said that it is good to be an emperor, and such a serious scientific examination can be so willful.
Of course, the examination system is only a supplementary way of talent selection, similar to our current art and sports students.
It is often held once a year in the Tang Dynasty. The main subjects include scholar, Mingjing, Jinshi, Mingfa (Law), Mingshu (calligraphy), mingsuan (arithmetic), etc. (there are plenty of them...)
Among them, the highest level of talent, but because it was extremely difficult to test, the establishment was soon abolished. (dont be fooled by the word poor scholar, it was in the Ming and Qing Dynasties)
Other Mingfa, Mingshu, mingsuan and so on are not very popular, so the most important thing of Changke is Mingjing and Jinshi. That is to say, we mentioned the most two subjects when we talked about poetry and character records.
What is the difference between these two subjects?
First of all, the difficulty of the test is different.
The so-called 30 years old Mingjing, 50 less Jinshi, 30-year-old Mingjing has been considered as the senior examinee, but the title of the 50 year old Jinshi is still young and promising.
Because the Ming Dynasty is easy to test, the main test tie Jing, is to extract the classic ancient prose, cover the key words, let the examinee fill in. Just like the filling questions we used to do when we were children, we just memorize them by rote.
Its more difficult for Jinshi.
Because, focus on poetry and Fu.
Poetry and Fu are both styles that require rhythm. Poetry should have harmonious rhyme and neat antithesis, and Fu should have gorgeous words and plump. We should also make it according to the topic and give full play to it on the spot.
This requires candidates to have considerable literary talent and independent thinking ability.
The poets we are familiar with in the Tang Dynasty almost all chose to take part in the imperial examination because of their talents.
The examination of poetry and Fu in Tang Dynasty is generally put in the first place. The range of topics is very wide, including historical stories, seasons, scenery description, etc.
Sometimes, even the examiner improvises the topic.
For example, one year, when the examiner saw a new pine tree planted in the north of the examination room, he said to the candidates:
Students, lets write a poem about this pine tree today.
Therefore, the title of this years poems and Fu is called newly planted small pine trees in the north of Gongyuan tower.
Moreover, not only the examiners are casual, but the examinees are more exaggerated.
Just two steps after leaving the examination room, the examiner held up the examination paper, held the door frame and cried out:
Hi! This classmate, you havent finished writing yet! What paper should I hand in!
Zuyong stops, turns around, smiles, and answers the examiner
Its the end of my mind.
Finish saying then float and go, leave the examiner in the wind disorderly.
Now, lets enjoy the most personalized examination oriented work of Tang Dynasty in 300 years
Looking at the snow in Zhongnan
The whole poem chants things and expresses feelings, which is beyond the words. It is fresh and clear, simple and natural. It is a rare masterpiece.
Moreover, it is true that the meaning has already been exhausted, and one more word will add fuel to the lily.
Wang Shizhen of the Qing Dynasty juxtaposed this poem with Tao Qians quiet ears, clear eyes and Wang Weis quiet deep lane, and broad space for leisure in his Yuyang poetry talks, which are called the best work of chanting snow.
In todays college entrance examination, you can only get a zero score if you write a 200 word composition. Its really a good example to write a famous poem by the examiners.
A careless digression, continue to talk about the difference between Huiming Scripture and Jinshi.
If it is shown that classics is equivalent to the current correspondence undergraduate course, the Jinshi are 985 and 211, and even the benchmarking of Tsinghua University and Peking University is not too much.
There was an obvious chain of disdain in the atmosphere of scientific examination at that time
Those who come from Jinshi look down on those who come from Mingjing; those who havent passed the imperial examination despise those who are born in Mingjing.
A typical example is the story of Li He offending Yuan Zhen.
When Li he was a teenager, he was well-known in Jingluo because he was favored by Han Yu, a literary giant. It is said that Yuan Zhen, who had passed the examination of the Ming classics at that time, admired him very much and visited him personally.
As a result, Li he took the business card and looked at it with a cold snort in his nose
How can you come to visit me!
It means that you, a man of Mingjing origin, have the face to see my brother?! u2014u2014Almost didnt make Yuan Zhen angry to the spot explosion. (should be!)
Although its hard to tell the true story from the false one, the great disparity between Mingjing and Jinshis reputation can be seen in the eyes of Tang people.
The scope of the examination is hot and loose, and the answer of give up halfway can also make it to the top of the list. Although Mingjing is not popular, it is necessary to concentrate on writing poems for the entrance examination.
Ha ha, if I tell you again, the Tang Dynasty examination room can also whisper, discuss the test questions (is true), do you envy immediately want to cross back?
Dont worry. After talking about the loveliness of the imperial examination in the Tang Dynasty, I will start to blacken it.
The first black spot in the imperial examination of the Tang Dynasty is that the admission rate of Jinshi is extremely low.
In the late Tang Dynasty, the average number of Jinshi admitted each year was no more than 25, and the admission rate was only 1.2%. The so-called thing is rare, and the degree of respect and honor of high school Jinshi in the Tang Dynasty is rare.
For example, someone once wrote a poem after he ascended the throne
In the year of Bingjia, the son of heaven, thirty-three people were immortal.
The robe is like rotten silver, the text is like brocade, and the phase will be in the sky.
In the Tang Dynasty, there seems to be a sacred Jinshi complex in the whole bureaucratic system.
For example, a prime minister named Xue Yuanchao said that he had three major hatred in his life
One is not from Jinshi family background; the second is not married to the daughter of five famous families; the third is not able to write national history.
(Im not talented. Im rich and powerful. Ive had three grudges in my life: I didnt promote myself to the rank of Jinshi, didnt marry a woman named Wang, and I couldnt compile the history of the country.)
Whats more incredible is that even the Emperor (Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty) was so keen on the title of Jinshi that he could not take part in the scientific examination, so he wrote himself Li Daolong, a Jinshi from Xianggong in the Forbidden City.
However, it seems that the road of Jinshi with infinite scenery has paved the way for many failed candidates.
I wake up nine times a night, but my dream is short.
Ah, I dont want to say anything. Just look at the name of the poem (the next poem) is enough sad.
Wen Xian, the son of Wen Tingyun, a poet in the late Tang Dynasty, also failed many times and wrote similar poems
For ten years, the valley God has been waiting for a whole body, and for half a year, the sound and dust have been cut off for thousands of miles.
His temples are like snow, and his heart is like death.
Cao song, a poet who wrote the famous saying when a marquis is is granted by virtue of the emperors words, he will be successful and his bones will be withered. It was not until he was more than 70 years old that he was promoted to the rank of poet because of his old age
At that time, many foreign students stayed in Changan for many years in order to win a Jinshi background. Some parents died and had to sell themselves to serve as slaves for funerals. Some couples had been separated for more than ten years and could hardly recognize each other when they met
See this, is not already shivering, decisively jumped down from the spaceship?
Dont worry. Its not over.
The second big black spot of the Tang Dynastys scientific examination is as follows
There is no confusion in the examination, and there is a prevailing trend of writing papers and passing lists.
And the so-called Xingjuan means that before the examination, the examinees bind their favorite works into volumes, and then rush to recommend themselves in the courtyards of kings and nobles. If they are appreciated by the dignitaries and recommended to the examiners, they are likely to be ranked directly, that is, Tongbang.
Wang Wei and Du Mu, for example, are the lucky ones in this category.
But all these things are unfair to the candidates who are born in ordinary families and have no backing.
Du Xunhe, a poet in the late Tang Dynasty, was also famous for his poems, but he failed in many attempts. He had no choice but to lament that there are chapters to be spread in the sea, and no relatives are more valuable in the imperial court..
Next, lets look at the third big black spot of the Tang Dynastys scientific examination: restricting the identity of candidates.
In the Tang Dynasty, people were divided into four categories: scholars, peasants, workers and merchants. Only the children of scholars and peasants were allowed to take part in the scientific examination. (please check your family composition as soon as possible)
Most of the farmers children are poor and have no conditions to study, so they are not qualified for the examination. So in the final analysis, almost all the Jinshi in Tang Dynasty were from the bureaucratic class.
Speaking of this, we have to mention our old acquaintance Li Bai.
Why is his family always a mystery? Why does he never talk about his parents and brothers in his poems?
This can also explain why our brother Taibai has never participated in the scientific examination. On the one hand, it is more important that we are not qualified!
He has always kept a secret about his family background. Maybe he is afraid of leaking out his family composition. The road of recommendation will not go through.
Ah, writing about this, I feel sorry for my elder brother Li again.
Apart from the above, the examination of Jinshi in the Tang Dynasty was still eliminated step by step, and each match was determined to stay. The first poem and Fu cant pass, but the post sutras and questions are not qualified for the examination.
Last night, under the solitary lamp, my appendix was crying for several lines.
He left home at the beginning of his life.
You see, Huang Tao, a poet in the late Tang Dynasty, was washed down in his first poem and went back to the hotel and cried like a dog
Ah, how can I tell my parents when I go home
Finally, although the Jinshi of Tang Dynasty were blown to heaven, they were not admitted! Bag! Points! Match!
They still have to go through the selection of the civil servants to become civil servants.
In the interview process of the civil service, the examiners have great discretion, and the children of the aristocratic families who are related to the background will once again take the advantage.
Just ask if you are a pit father, trembling or not!
Well, when you see this, do you find that the ancient imperial examination is not as simple as you think?
In particular, the Tang Dynasty is still in the primary stage of the imperial examination. It seems that the Jinshi examination, which seems to have been held in Longmen, is only a game that only a few people in the upper class can play. It is far from the real road of opening up talents.
In the final analysis, the current college entrance examination system is more friendly to the working masses
Unlimited origin, do not need to line the volume, the examination to see the total score, the admission rate is still high!
Nowadays, with the development of history and the progress of the times, although the college entrance examination is no longer the only way out of life like the ancient imperial examination, it is still the fairest way for individuals to improve their fate.
Therefore, young people still need to read more when they are OK!
Finally, I wish all the students who fought hard in the imperial examination hall this summer to be ranked in the top of the list and leap into the dragons gate.
Happy horses hoof disease, a day to see all Changan flowers!