26 years! China finally has its own global navigation system

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 26 years! China finally has its own global navigation system


China Aerospace ushers in a milestone!

Just now, the last networking satellite of beidou-3 global satellite navigation system was successfully launched.

25 minutes later, the Starship separated.

This means that the deployment of the global constellation of Beidou navigation system is fully completed, and the global networking of Beidou system is officially completed.

After 26 years, China finally has its own global satellite navigation system.

More representative is that this is the highlight time of the domestic aerospace industry chain.

China News Agency reported that the localization rate of single navigation satellite and key components in beidou-3 system reached 100%.

In the same way, the performance of Beidou system does not lose GPS and other mature systems, and in some aspects, it is better to use.

In an interview with the media, Liu Jingnan, a famous geodetic and satellite navigation expert and former president of Wuhan University, said:

Beidou-3 is close to GPS in accuracy and reliability. Only Beidou can realize the integration of communication, guidance and remote control.

The construction of Beidou system was started in 1994 and has gone through 26 years, spanning three generations.

Behind it is not just from scratch, but Beidou is growing: from China to the Asia Pacific, to the world.

Beidou No.1 of pioneer

The first generation of Beidou System (Beidou-1) is also the Beidou satellite navigation test system, which carries the pioneering task of Chinas navigation satellite.

In 2000, China launched two geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites, and Beidou was able to provide services in a limited area.

However, this is not perfect. Beidou-1 adopts active positioning technology.

In the whole process, the user first sends the signal of applying for positioning to the ground control center through the satellite, then the ground control center sends the ranging signal, and gets the distance between the user and the two satellites according to the signal transmission time.

Because the satellite transponder depends on the ground control center, it is limited in positioning accuracy, user capacity, frequency and concealment of positioning.

Moreover, this system has no speed measurement function and cannot be used for precise guidance weapons. Beidou still needs refueling.

But the completion of Beidou-1 also made China the third country with satellite navigation system after the United States and Russia.

And compared with the system of the United States and Russia, Beidou-1 also has innovation: for example, the two-way short message communication function realizes the integration of communication and navigation.

Beidou No.2 gradually becoming stronger

In 2004, the year after Beidou I was officially completed, the construction of Beidou II began.

Compared with Beidou-1, beidou-2 is too mature.

On the other hand, in the active location technology, passive location is added. Users do not need to transmit signals, only rely on receiving signals to complete the location, solve the user capacity limit, and meet the high dynamic demand.

This naturally meets the requirements of precision guided weapons.

Therefore, there is more than one level of networking satellites and satellite types of beidou-2 than Beidou-1.

There are not only five geostationary orbit satellites, but also five IGSO and four MEO satellites.

From 2007 to 2012, 14 satellites were launched to form a network, using a mixed constellation architecture of medium and high orbit.

Ran Chengqi, director of Chinas satellite navigation system management office and spokesman for Beidou system, reported by peoples daily in 2012 that in order to build Beidou-1 and beidou-2, the total investment is tens of billions.

In the next 10 years, Beidou needs to build a global network and invest another 450 billion yuan.

In December this year, the life of the last Beidou-1 satellite expired, and it was officially retired in 2013.

At the same time, beidou-3, facing the world, has been under construction for three years.

Beidou 3 global coverage

In 2009, the beidou-3 system began to be built, because the overall number of satellites needed to be global networking was further increased to 30.

Among them, there are 3 geostationary orbit satellites, 24 medium earth orbit satellites and 3 tilt synchronous orbit satellites.

Before that, beidou-3 had already provided services around the world.

In terms of technology, beidou-3 not only inherits the two technologies of active positioning and passive positioning, but also has the technology of inter satellite link to realize the communication between satellites, so as to solve the problem of global station layout.

By the end of 2019, the positioning accuracy of beidou-3 in the global region is better than 10 meters, and that in the Asia Pacific region is better than 5 meters.

It can also provide satellite based enhancement, ground-based enhancement, precise single point positioning and regional short message communication services in China and its surrounding areas. Provide the basic service capacity of high-precision positioning in real-time meter level, decimeter level, centimeter level and post-processing millimeter level nationwide.

This years industrial scale is over 400 billion yuan, and Beidou + 5g helps new infrastructure construction

Compared with the space segment (satellite design, satellite manufacturing, satellite launch) and the ground segment (master control station, injection station, detection station), the user segment has a higher degree of development in the whole industry, which can be divided into three chains: upstream, midstream and downstream.

Upstream is mainly the basic components, mainly including the chip (baseband chip, RF chip), module, board card, antenna and other basic products.

Many of the listed companies hidden in it have attracted much attention before the completion of Beidou global networking.

For example, Beidou Xingtong claims that the chip has the global signal to support Beidou and is compatible with other satellite navigation systems.

For example, China test navigation announced that the completion of the global networking of Beidou generation 3 will bring a large number of orders to the company, stimulate the demand for board chips, etc.

Downstream is for Beidou related solutions, operation and maintenance services and other industries.

According to the medium and long term development plan of the national satellite navigation industry, the scale of the satellite navigation industry will exceed 400 billion yuan this year. Beidous contribution rate to domestic navigation applications will reach 60%, and more than 80% in important application fields.

However, the impact of Beidou System on the whole economy is not limited to the satellite navigation industry. It will also provide great help to the current new infrastructure, especially in combination with 5g.

The service provided by Beidou itself is satellite positioning and navigation. In the current life scenario, it is inseparable:

In an interview with CCTV news, Shen Jun, a Beidou science popularization expert, said that 70% of smart phones use Beidou, especially Android phones.

For example, in the field of the Internet of vehicles, Beidous positioning and timing functions can help the system to achieve accurate time information and position information perception. In combination with 5g technology, low latency and high bandwidth technology, it can achieve full scene and high-precision position perception.

At the same time, with the support of 5g base station auxiliary positioning and Beidou foundation enhancement system, it can meet the positioning accuracy of sub meter level or even centimeter level.

The completion of Beidou systems global networking is also considered as a new opportunity for Chinas automobile industry.

At present, the service of Beidou system is provided by Beidou No.2 and No.3 systems. After the networking is completed, the service will be provided mainly by Beidou No.3 system.

At the same time, the new phase of Beidou navigation system has begun:

By 2035, with Beidou system as the core, we will build and improve a more ubiquitous, integrated and intelligent national integrated positioning and navigation time service system.

At that time, our Beidou will be more powerful. In the global technology competition, we will be able to provide more support and more services.

Source: Qiao JunJing, editor in charge of the collision group_ NBJ11279