Genomics research ushers in a new breakthrough! Researchers from China Institute of genetics and developmental biology have made great progress in soybean genome research. This research is the first time to realize genome construction based on graphic structure in plants, breaking through the storage form of traditional linear genome, and will lead the research ideas and methods of next generation genomics, which is called milestone work of genomics by reviewers. The related research results were published online in the international authoritative academic journal Cell on June 17.
Genomics is the core and foundation of life science research. In traditional genomics research, different bases are stored on chromosomes in a linear form, and gene information of a species is obtained based on a reference genome. Because of the genetic variation among different individuals in a species, the linear genome cannot reflect the genetic variation of different individuals at the same time, which greatly limits the identification and analysis of genetic variation of different individuals. Tian Zhixi, a research fellow at the Institute of genetics and developmental biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the corresponding author of the paper, said that it has become an important task and frontier challenge for genomics research to construct a new storage form of Pan genome that includes all genetic information of a species.
Soybean domestication originated in China, and then spread to all over the world, providing human with major plant oil and protein resources. At present, China is a major consumer and importer of soybean, which is highly dependent on foreign countries. It is very important to strengthen the research of soybean and increase the output of soybean to ensure the national food security. High quality reference genome is the basis of basic research and applied research of crop breeding.
In our teams in-depth re sequencing and population genetic analysis of soybean germplasm resources, we found that there are large genetic variations among different soybean germplasm resources, and a single or minority genome can not represent all genetic variations of soybean population. The basic research and molecular design breeding of soybean urgently need new genome resources which can represent different soybean germplasm materials. Tian Zhixi stressed.
At the same time, in the 1960s, the first green revolution characterized by reducing plant height and semi dwarfing breeding of crops doubled the worlds rice and wheat production and solved the problem of food and clothing. However, in the past 60 years, there has been no significant breakthrough in the average per unit yield of soybean compared with other staple crops, and soybean production is in urgent need of a Green Revolution. Liang Chengzhi, co-author of the paper and researcher of the Institute of genetics and developmental biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.
For this reason, the researchers conducted in-depth re sequencing and population structure analysis on 2898 soybean germplasm materials from the worlds major soybean producing countries, and selected 26 most representative soybean germplasm materials, including 3 wild soybeans, 9 farm species and 14 modern cultivated varieties. Using the latest assembly strategy, the research team carried out high-quality genome de novo assembly and precise annotation on 26 soybean germplasm materials, carried out systematic genome comparison, constructed high-quality pan genome based on graph structure, and excavated a large number of large segment structural variations that could not be identified by traditional genome. At the same time, 15 structural variations have been identified that lead to the fusion of different genes, which provides an important clue for the study of the generation of new genes.
Source: Zhang Zutao, editor in charge of science and Technology Daily_ NT5054