By the end of the year or now? Four new crown vaccines in the world are about to enter clinical trials

 By the end of the year or now? Four new crown vaccines in the world are about to enter clinical trials

Novel coronavirus pneumonia vaccine development program, nearly 4 new WHO (2 in China, 1 in the US and 1 in the UK) are entering the third phase of the trial, according to the WHO 18 reported on June 18th. This is the last stage before mass production.

The World Health Organizations chief scientist, sumia swaminatan, said that the second phase of testing of 10 vaccines is about to end, and four of them will enter the third phase of clinical trials in about two weeks.

The four vaccines were developed by AstraZeneca Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in cooperation with Oxford University in the UK, the messenger RNA vaccine developed by vaccine research center of the United States and Modena company, and the vaccines developed by two medical institutions in China.

According to the report, the second stage of vaccine development needs to be tested on 100 volunteers, and the third stage needs to be tested on thousands of people. This process usually lasts at least one year or one and a half. Due to the serious epidemic situation, many institutions are trying to speed up vaccine development.

Fortunately, one or two vaccines may have been successfully developed by the end of this year, but we have to look at the results of current clinical tests, swaminatan said at a press conference

Swaminatan said who will work with its members to develop a draft in advance of how vaccines should be distributed in the early stages of limited supply.

We recommend giving priority to front-line workers, such as doctors and nurses, as well as ambulance drivers, police, clerks, cleaners and more exposed groups, swaminatan said

Other groups that need to be prioritized include the elderly and those with a history of possible more severe symptoms, such as diabetes, obesity and chronic respiratory disease, the report said.

Priority should also be given to people in risk areas such as factories, prisons, nursing homes and slums, swaminatan said. Each country has a higher risk situation.

According to the report, swaminartan does not believe that the fastest development can ensure the safety of the produced vaccine, because clinical testing for thousands of people is enough to ensure that the vaccine has no side effects, but zero risk is impossible.

When mass production remains variable

Two French led pharmaceutical companies appear to be leading the way, the report said. One is American Modena company led by Stefan bonsell. Its a company that wants to take control of a disruptive technology based on genes, with a market value of $24 billion. Ponce has novel coronavirus pneumonia, which has 9% of the companys shares, and has begun the third phase clinical trial of the new crown pneumonia vaccine: thousands of volunteers are required to conduct experiments to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine and ensure no side effects. This is the final stage before the vaccine is approved for marketing.

Another leading Frenchman, Pascal sorio, leads AstraZeneca, a British Swedish joint venture. It will be early this autumn before he can say whether the vaccine developed jointly by the company and Oxford University is effective. Once the vaccine is developed successfully, he said, mass production can start in October.

Vaccine manufacturing is a big market, with a scale of around 65 billion euros (513.8 billion yuan), the report said. Its not the most profitable business in the pharmaceutical industry, but the returns are still very good. According to insiders, the profits of vaccines are worth taking risks for pharmaceutical companies. Going through three clinical trials is like going through three death valleys, explains Jean Lang, head of R & D at Sanofi Pasteur in France He currently has two novel coronavirus pneumonia vaccines, one of which is the same technology as the American company.

The failure of vaccine development and marketing is not uncommon. The measles vaccine, which Sanofi started to develop in 2015, has been approved for use in specific populations in more than 10 countries after 2 billion euros of investment, because of its side effects. Sanofi cant recover the cost at all.

According to reports, the process of vaccine manufacturing is very complex, which also makes the global vaccine manufacturing only concentrated in the hands of several major multinational pharmaceutical companies: Sanofi, Merck, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline and Johnson & Johnson. In recent years, it has also seen the rapid development of serum Research Institute of India, whose price of pneumococcal vaccine is only one seventh of that of traditional pharmaceutical companies, but it can not compete with large pharmaceutical companies of non patent drugs. Once patent protection fails, these big companies can produce drugs at a very low cost. It is more cost-effective to copy drugs by chemical means than to make vaccines within the patent period.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u6056789,container:ssp_ 6056789, async:true });}) (); read more than 8 million confirmed cases and 435000 deaths in the world. According to the statistics of this organization, more than 8 million confirmed cases in the world have been pre purchased 300 million new crown vaccines from AstraZeneca by Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Source: reference information editor: Jike_ b6492