Crawfish industry will gradually move towards rationality and stability
Our reporter / Zhao Yiwei
Entering the midsummer, the market heat of the popular crayfish is not reduced all year round, but the price has ushered in a big dive. Last year, 100 yuan was enough to eat. Many crayfish enthusiasts say that the price of crayfish this year is close to the people, almost half of that of last year. In particular, during the May 1st period, in Jingzhou, Qianjiang and other main crayfish producing areas in Hubei Province, street vendors hawked crayfish and even shouted out the price of 2-4 yuan weight of crayfish as low as 4 yuan per Jin.
This year, the price of crayfish has generally fallen nationwide. According to the monitoring data of China aquaculture network, since May, the market price of crawfish in China has declined to varying degrees. In the aquatic markets of Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Chengdu, Changsha and other places, the price of crawfish with the weight of 2-4 yuan once dropped to 6-7 yuan per Jin. Compared with the market price of 15-18 yuan per Jin in the same period last year, the market price has been cut.
But in sharp contrast to low-cost crayfish, the market price of large-scale crayfish that weighs more than 9 yuan has risen all the way, even up to 42 yuan per Jin. According to the weight, crawfish can be divided into 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, and 9 or more grades. With the weight, the price gap is constantly widening, almost doubling the price of every big grade of shrimp.
Chen jumao, who has been engaged in shrimp farming in Qianjiang for 11 years, confessed to China News Weekly that the price of crawfish is polarized this year, which has a huge impact on the farmers. In addition to a few special shrimp farmers, the vast majority of crawfish farmers this year are almost dead.
This years crayfish industry has entered a period of deep adjustment, and the heat of industrial speculation has obviously cooled down. Cai Jun, Secretary General of crayfish Industry Branch of China Association of aquatic products circulation and processing, told China News Weekly, at present, there is a structural imbalance in the crayfish market, and some hype and followers have begun to withdraw or transform. In the future, efforts to produce high-quality and large-scale shrimp products will become a consensus in the industry chain of aquaculture, processing, catering and other sectors.
The trend of abandonment
In the first ten days of May, the rice transplanting period has not yet entered. However, many farmers in shrimp rice breeding fields in Qianjiang City started to work for rice planting early, which is more than 20 days ahead of previous years.
Its a loss to sell prawns this year. Its better to let them go early and prepare for rice. Chen jumao said that during the May Day period, the price of 2-4 yuan crawfish in the pond was even sold to 0.5-3 yuan / Jin, which could not cover the cost of cultivation, seriously dampening the enthusiasm of shrimp farmers. Many people simply abandoned their cultivation and put shrimp to grow rice. Selling shrimp also requires the cost of artificial fishing and transportation, which is equivalent to a discount..
Shrimp rice co cultivation is a common mode of crayfish cultivation in Qianjiang City, that is, to cultivate two seasons of crayfish in rice field and one season of medium rice. During rice cultivation, crayfish and rice grow together in rice field.
According to the practice of previous years, the first batch of adult shrimps will be harvested from the middle of April to the end of May, leaving the young shrimps to be fostered in the shrimp ditch. When rice is planted at the beginning of June, young shrimps will return from the shrimp ditch to the field to continue growing. Depending on the number of shrimps in the field and the market situation, the shrimps can be added from late June to early July, and the second batch of shrimps will be harvested in August and September.
Putting shrimp and rice ahead of schedule this year means that the breeding season has ended ahead of schedule. Chen jumao said frankly, this is the stop loss method for the vast majority of crayfish farmers. The production of crayfish is in serious surplus. There is almost no one in Tangkou and the price has fallen below the lowest in history.
On one side of the pond, the mouth of the shrimp pond was deserted, while on the other side, the mouth of the shrimp pond was squatted and looted.
In Jinxing village of Qianjiang River, Chen jumao has 1830 mu of ponds dedicated to the intensive cultivation of prawns. He only entered the golden fishing period in mid May. The largest cannon head prawn weighs more than 9 yuan, and the smallest prawn weighs 4-6 yuan. From the beginning of fishing, every days shipping volume has been snatched away without worrying about the market.
After the market price plummeted, in recent two years, the crayfish farmers who rushed into the Bureau by the wind have abandoned their breeding, and the market of shrimp fry, which once had the highest hype, has completely collapsed.
2018 is the fastest growing year for crayfish industry and the most hyped period. Cai Jun told China News Weekly that in those days, a swarm of farmers were eager to buy shrimp fry, and a large number of demand for fry broke out. For a while, the price of shrimp fry went from ten yuan per Jin to forty yuan per Jin. Even some farmers directly converted to sell only shrimp fry because of high profits..
The bubble in the shrimp market quickly disappeared. After the accumulation in 2018 and 2019, the crayfish breeding end tends to be saturated, and the new shrimp farmers have generally owned enough shrimp fry. After entering the crayfish breeding track in 2020, the market price of shrimp fry will encounter Waterloo.
According to the practice in the crawfish industry, crawfish with 1-4 yuan is the main market force, accounting for about 60%, and will also be sold to processing plants to make frozen shrimp tail, shrimp ball, shrimp slide and other frozen shrimp products, mainly focusing on fresh retail; shrimp with 4-6 yuan accounts for about 20%, generally making instant seasoned shrimp, mainly focusing on e-commerce channels; while crawfish with 6-8 yuan and more than 9 yuan only account for about 10%, generally for direct catering The requirements of specification and quality are high.
Since April this year, crayfish began to be put on the market in batches, and a large number of small-scale crayfish have been pouring into the market, causing the price to keep falling. In order to reduce the loss, many small lobster farmers try to seek a large number of acquisitions of processing plants, in order to clear the inventory as soon as possible.
The supply of shrimps is in serious excess, which leads to the purchase price of shrimps in the processing plant being reduced from 5-8 yuan to a few cents, which is not obvious. Chen jumao told China News Weekly that small shrimps with less than 4 yuan are generally referred to as stock shrimps, which are purchased by the cold storage of the processing plant and processed into various frozen shrimps products, which then flow into the retail channels.
Fortunately, during the epidemic period, the hot e-commerce and live broadcast products digested a large number of surplus small lobsters. The online sales of frozen shrimp tail, shrimp ball, shrimp skate and seasoned shrimp products have increased greatly, especially the spicy and thirteen flavor seasoned shrimp products, which can be eaten after consumers buy them home and heat them up, which is convenient, fast and much cheaper than the on-the-spot food. It has almost become the must bring sharp goods of all online hosts, ranking high in the freezing speed of all kinds of fresh e-commerce for three consecutive months Top of the food list.
The finished crayfish, including instant seasoned shrimp, performs particularly well online. According to the monitoring data of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas, during the May 1st period alone, a total of 47500 tons of finished shrimp were sold in Hubei, up 25.79% from the end of April.
The sales volume in the domestic market has increased substantially year on year, especially the sales of low-cost shrimp tail and seasoned shrimp products are hot. Gan Shidong told China News Weekly that affected by the epidemic, this year, many processing plants that used to export shrimp products have been transformed into domestic shrimp tail and seasoned shrimp products. With the low-cost purchase price, most of the processing plants that originally lost money have made money this year.
This year, the processing plant is blessed with misfortune. It is difficult for small-scale farmers to ship, and the right to speak is at the end of the processing plant. Cai Jun told China News Weekly that this years crayfish industry has ushered in new development opportunities, mainly reflected in the recognition of frozen shrimp by consumers, and a wave of rapid development of seasoned shrimp, especially the seasoned shrimp products mainly through e-commerce channels. Under the situation of this years epidemic, driven by the live delivery mode, it has aroused great consumer enthusiasm. The follow-up processing of seasoned shrimp is simple and suitable for family consumption. It is a good development opportunity when the restaurant terminal consumption has not fully recovered.
Cai Jun said that in the past years, sales of traditional restaurants accounted for 80% and retail only accounted for 20%. This year, 80% of crawfish were sold online and only 20% were sold offline.
Despite the booming sales of processed shrimp products this year, domestic processing plants are still in the initial stage in general, and the capacity is not enough to undertake the whole supply of crawfish this year. Cai Jun pointed out that, in addition to the seasonal characteristics of crayfish, many processing plants have raised the acquisition standard and lowered the acquisition price at the same time, this has undoubtedly hit the enthusiasm of farmers, and is also the reason to further promote the vast majority of farmers to abandon breeding..
Up to June, the consumer market is gradually warming up under the stimulation of low price crawfish in the early stage. However, at the breeding end, after a large number of abandonment tides, it is unable to cope with the next consumption peak.
According to previous years experience, the crayfishs peak season is 6, 7 and 8 months. This year, due to over cultivation, crayfish generally matures early and its sales are relatively ahead of schedule. With the official summer, crawfish restaurant food and online consumption also began to rise, market supply and demand is changing.
The crayfish market will be out of stock seriously soon, and the market is likely to rebound strongly after reaching the bottom. Chen jumao said, the crayfish consumption peak has not yet entered, and the large number of abandoned crayfish at the breeding end has shrunk the supply at the later stage, and the consumption market at the later stage will be seriously out of stock.. Now the market price of crawfish has recovered, and a new round of high prices can be predicted.
The change of the breeding end not only reduced the supply of small lobster in the later stage, but also strained the shipment of large lobster. Even if the catering industry is not fully restored, the crayfish of large and medium specifications also shows a good market. If the catering industry is fully restored, the crayfish of large and medium specifications is likely to be stronger. Cai Jun said.
With a large number of farmers abandoned, the situation of insufficient market supply later this year and next year is also brewing.
This year, the proportion of crayfish abandoned is very high, many people quit breeding. The reduction of supply will lead to a new round of price increase next year. Cai Jun, secretary-general of crayfish Industry Branch of China Association of aquatic products circulation and processing, told China News Weekly that judging from the current situation, the price of shrimp seedlings is low and the number of breeding households is sharply reduced, and this year is the most suitable year for local breeding..
Cai Jun believes that from the perspective of the terminal consumer market, consumers want to eat shrimp with large specifications and good quality, and the crawfish industry is bound to design products according to the needs of consumers. Therefore, in the future, if crayfish farmers want to make money, they should make specifications and quality. From large-scale shrimp farming to large-scale shrimp farming.
In fact, according to the calculation of shrimp breeding cost, although the cost of intensive cultivation of prawns is higher, the market price is far higher than that of ordinary prawns, and the net profit per jin of prawns is higher and the benefit is better.
If one mu of Tangkou shrimp wants to sell 8000 yuan of harvest, according to the current market price, it is unrealistic to raise only 200 Jin of prawns, 600 Jin of medium-sized prawns and 1300 Jin of small prawns. As an example, Chen jumao said, farmers should take a long-term view. The intensive cultivation of prawns is in line with the market consumption trend, and the investment cost of each jin of prawns is lower, and the gross profit is higher.. In Chen jumaos view, the crawfish catering end is competing to attract consumers with high-quality prawns, and the catering end competition is the breeding end competition. Five to 10 years later, the crayfish market must be about quality, not quantity. It is expected that the crayfish industry will gradually move towards rationality and stability after the adjustment period of this year. When the breeding end starts to pursue quality, the competition between the processing factory and the catering end will also turn to the competition for quality. There is still a lot of room for improvement and market potential in the future, Cai Jun said. Source: Zhang Mei, editor in charge of China News Weekly_ NF2100
If one mu of Tangkou shrimp wants to sell 8000 yuan of harvest, according to the current market price, it is unrealistic to raise only 200 Jin of prawns, 600 Jin of medium-sized prawns and 1300 Jin of small prawns. As an example, Chen jumao said, farmers should take a long-term view. The intensive cultivation of prawns is in line with the market consumption trend, and the investment cost of each jin of prawns is lower, and the gross profit is higher..
In Chen jumaos view, the crawfish catering end is competing to attract consumers with high-quality prawns, and the catering end competition is the breeding end competition. Five to 10 years later, the crayfish market must be about quality, not quantity.