Can Chinas rare earth paralyze the United States?

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 Can Chinas rare earth paralyze the United States?


Talk about the history of mace

As you all know, there are 18 weapons in China. They are: swords, swords, halberds, axes, axes, hooks, forks, sticks, sticks, whip, mace, hammers and claws. Among them, the whip mace is a kind of blunt weapon and heavy weapon. According to the Song Dynastys system, mace is one meter and two long. Its made of refined iron. Below is a handle. Above is an iron bar with four sides, that is, four edges. It has multiple weights. According to research, it should be a single mace of more than 20 jin. If it is used by people with infinite strength, it may be close to 100 Jin. Why is that? Because mace is different from sharp weapons such as swords and spears. It has no edge and no point. It relies on the strength of a powerful blow. Light is useless.

18 kinds of weapons (general picture), see how many you recognize (picture source network, invasion and deletion)

But there is also a problem with it, that is, all kinds of armor and equipment carried by a horse have reached 780kg, which is not the weight of a man. This makes the mobility of heavy cavalry very poor. During the peasant war in the late Sui Dynasty, Li Yuan and his son started their army. In their army, there was a light cavalry of the West Turks. They went around the back of the heavy cavalry of the Sui army to launch attacks and won many battles. In the Tang Dynasty, light cavalry replaced heavy cavalry. You can think of the relief sculptures of six horses in Zhaoling of Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. The horses under Li Shimins crotch are all unarmoured. Among them, there are five arrows in Zhuis body and nine arrows in Qu u00e1 nm u00e1 Ogus body. The intensity of the war at that time can be imagined. Lets go back to that. Although the Tang army is good at using light cavalry, with the development and progress of technology, especially the entry of foreign armor, the protection ability of Tang armor is still very strong.

Liu Jun was originally listed in the North Tower of the Zhaoling Tomb of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. In 1914, two Jun, SA Lu Zi and Quan Mao Li, were lost abroad. Now, they are in the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. (picture and data source: Xian Beilin Museum)

So why do we say maces began to be popular in this period? Because it has a core function, which is to attack the enemy with armor protection. In the battlefield, guns are used to pierce, knives are used to row, and Maces and hammers are used to smash. In the face of people and horses wearing heavy armour, sharp weapons cant make them strong, but maces and hammers, with their own weight, plus the strength of users and the inertia of horses, can penetrate the armour and break peoples muscles and bones with a great force. This is the first characteristic of mace, which is to deal with heavy armour.

Mace -- a symbol of loyalty

The mace has another feature, that is, at the cultural level, it symbolizes loyalty. Lets see who uses the mace. The first one is Qin Qiong and Qin Shubao in Sui and Tang Dynasties. His two maces are powerful. It is known as mace hits both sides of the Yellow River, horse steps on the half of Shandong; it is also known as SaiMeng taste and quasi Zhuanzhu, which means that this person is filial to his parents and loyal to his friends. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, when jiajialou, the 46 friends, made a pilgrimage, Qin Qiong ranked the second, and was honored as the second Lord of Qin. Therefore, Shandong men used to have an honorific name, er Ye. No matter who he is, he will be happy if he is called the second master.

Qin Qiong, Qin Shubao with a gun and a mace

The second one is Yue Fei. Yuefei mainly used guns, but also made good use of iron maces, which has been recorded in history. Let me tell you here that if we use maces alone, they are usually double Maces. There is also a situation where this person has excellent martial arts. He can hold a long weapon and a mace. For example, in our novels, it is often said that whoever has a whip in his gun or a mace in his gun. The whip here refers to iron whip, similar to mace. This is the case with Yue Fei. He not only used guns, but also knives. He is good at riding and shooting, and he is good at using Maces.

Yuefeis expedition (picture source network, invasion and deletion)

Here comes another problem, which we often call Assassins mace and Assassins mace. There is no conclusion about this thing. In my opinion, maces are used for surprise attacks when conventional weapons cannot win. For example, you can block each others weapons with long weapons, and then smash each other with maces to surprise them. Or when fighting or pretending to be defeated, throw the iron bar at each other. Its unlikely that you have only one mace in your hand and throw it out.

There is the third characteristic of mace, that is, sudden attack and fatal attack.

Lets return to the question of loyalty. Yue Fei doesnt need me to introduce him. Everyone knows this famous general and national hero well.

So why does mace symbolize loyalty?

u2014u2014Because this kind of thing may break bones and tendons when it hits people, but it doesnt see blood, and its not as bloody as the sword. So its also called the good weapon in weapons, which is good. In addition, Qin Erye, the moral model, uses maces, and Yue Fei, the national hero, also uses Maces. Therefore, the maces have cultural meanings when they love Wu and Wu.

Mace and rare earth

You may wonder why rare earth has talked about such a long time of cold weapons. I think there are two reasons:

The first reason is that the three characteristics of mace are similar to those of rare earth. We often say that the US Army is armed to the teeth, which is called wearing heavy armour and holding sharp weapons. Mace is specially used to smash heavy armor. The United States is not afraid of anything, but when it comes to rare earths, its sad. So in our opinion, if rare earth cant be fatal, at least it can ruin his life. In addition, since ancient times, those who use maces have been loyal and righteous. Isnt that a compliment to us.

How important is rare earth?

Next, lets talk about rare earth officially. Rare earth is the general term for 15 lanthanide elements and 17 scandium and yttrium elements in the chemical cycle table. As a strategic scarce resource, its unique physical and chemical properties make it possess the optical, electrical and magnetic properties that many other elements do not possess.

Picture source: second understanding Encyclopedia

Lets talk about how important rare earth is. I think what our comrades are most interested in is the use of rare earths in the advanced weapons of the United States. So, F-35 fighters, Virginia class nuclear submarines, Tomahawk cruise missiles, guidance systems and jet engines all need rare earths. From the propulsion motors of large ships to the small chips on missiles, from the precise optical instruments to the gun barrel which looks very rough, the application of rare earth elements will greatly improve its performance.

Modern information equipment is inseparable from chips, and the manufacture of chips is inseparable from rare earth elements. The strike precision of information equipment is not accurate, the detection distance is not far, the anti-jamming ability is not strong, and the response speed is not fast, which largely depends on the chip.

The electric motor is necessary for many high-tech equipment. As large as the electric propulsion system of a 10000 ton warship, as small as the generator on a missile, it is inseparable from the electric motor. Rare earth elements are very obvious to improve the performance of motor. Rare earth permanent magnet is called super permanent magnet because of its superior magnetic properties. It is small in size, light in weight, simple in structure, reliable in operation and high in heat dissipation efficiency. Rare earth permanent magnet motors are used to control the rudder surface of air-to-air and air-to-air missiles in the United States. The permanent magnet mentioned here is permanent. The magnet of magnet. This thing is not able to keep the original magnetic state unchanged forever, but its magnetism is relatively stable and its attenuation period is relatively long.

Rare earth elements are also widely used in optical equipment. At present, most laser materials involve rare earth, from laser rangefinder, lidar to laser guided weapons. For example, main battle tanks in western countries, such as M1 series, leopard 2 series, Challenger series, etc., are equipped with a laser rangefinder, which uses rare earth elements. Laser guided weapons, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided shells and so on, also rely on the use of rare earth elements of laser irradiators to illuminate the target. Rare earth luminescent materials have also been successfully used in night vision equipment.

New M1 tank of US Army (photo source: Netease News)

Rare earth elements are called penicillin in steel, which can purify, modify and alloy steel. Adding some rare earth elements can improve the toughness of steel, and can be used in armor steel, gun steel, aircraft deck steel and other fields. In the Gulf War, the M1 series main battle tanks of the United States can break through Iraqi tanks at a distance of 2000 meters. One of the important reasons is the high strength, toughness and bore pressure of the gun barrel. The electroslag remelting technology is usually used in tank gun barrel. The addition of rare earth elements in the electroslag remelting steel can improve the toughness of alloy steel, increase the chamber pressure, increase the muzzle kinetic energy and increase the gun range. Adding rare earth elements to armor steel can improve its impact resistance. Rare earth elements can also play a good role in other alloys. For example, the rare earth titanium alloy gearbox used in a certain engine in China has a good weight reduction effect.

Rare earth elements can also be used to make microwave absorbing materials for stealth aircraft. Ferrite is an important invisible coating for aircraft. In addition, rare earth materials can also be used in nuclear radiation shielding, nuclear reactors, sonar and other aspects.

From the importance of rare earth in the field of military industry, we can see its importance in the field of civil industry. From a large field, information technology industry, high-end CNC machine tools, robots, aerospace equipment, marine engineering equipment, high-tech ships, advanced rail transit equipment, energy saving and new energy vehicles, power equipment, etc. are highly related to rare earth.

Rare earth can be replaced in some fields, but it can not be replaced in some industries. For example, in military materials, new energy vehicles, wind power, smart phones, chips and other fields, its really not good to leave rare earth elements.

Take automobile as an example. It will be difficult for the whole industry to leave rare earth, especially new energy vehicles. We usually use NdFeB permanent magnetic materials in dozens of parts of every car, such as engine, brake, sensor, instrument, speaker, etc. A full-automatic limousine needs about 0.5-3.5kg of rare earth permanent magnet materials, while the application of NdFeB materials in new energy vehicles will be more, reaching 10-20kg. It can be said that the development of high-tech society is unimaginable without rare earth elements.

Application field of rare earth elements (photo source: Research Report of Zhongtai securities in April 2018)

What do you know about rare earth in China

The distribution of rare earth in China shows a pattern of light in the north and heavy in the South. Light and heavy rare earth minerals are mainly distributed in Baotou, Inner Mongolia and Liangshan, Sichuan, while ion type medium and heavy rare earth minerals are mainly distributed in Ganzhou, Jiangxi and Longyan, Fujian. Medium heavy rare earth, which is rare in total content and high in use value, is mainly used in national defense and military industry and high-end fields.

Schematic diagram of metallogenic belt and distribution of major rare earth minerals in China (photo source: National Geography of China)

Our reporter once visited the rare earth enterprises in Ganzhou. We have a comprehensive understanding of the present situation of rare earth in our country.

Second, we have advantages and disadvantages in rare earth technology. The advantage is that China has now formed a complete rare earth industry system. At the level of science and technology, China has developed a number of internationally advanced technologies in the fields of rare earth mining, smelting and separation. In terms of rare earth separation and extraction technology, China has incomparable advantages over other countries. Our rare earth separation purity has already exceeded 99.9999%. So why cant the United States get rid of rare earth mines? Because the technology of separation and purification is in Chinese hands.

So where are our weaknesses? Thats the core technology of high-end applications. In terms of core patents, there is still a big gap between China and developed countries. For example, all the core patents of neodymium iron boron rare earth permanent magnet materials, which are the most consumed in China, are owned by Japanese and American companies. Therefore, Chinas rare earth industry is a big country in both production and consumption, but technically, it is not a strong country. This is similar to the fact that although raw materials for grain production are produced in rural areas, the real high-end food still needs to be purchased from urban food processing plants, and the main profit and added value are still in the industrial link of deep processing.

Schematic diagram of main distribution countries and regions of rare earth minerals in the world (picture source: National Geography of China)

Third, based on the current Sino US relations, the United States has a deep unease on the rare earth issue. In fact, there are also rare earths in the United States, but they are basically light rare earths, which cannot be used in military industry and high technology. Therefore, since 2019, the State Department, the Ministry of defense and the Ministry of Commerce of the United States have sent delegations to Canada, Australia, Mongolia and many African countries to contact and build rare earth mining and processing plants. Australias largest rare earth mining company will build a plant in the United States. At the end of July last year, trump met with the president of Mongolia in Washington. The two sides discussed U.S. mining investment in Mongolia, including rare earth. In addition, the Financial Times said that although Trumps idea of buying Greenland seemed ridiculous, the United States actually targeted the resources there, especially rare earths. The U.S. Senator Rubio, known as the Anti China Pioneer, proposed to establish a Rare Earth Alliance not bound by the anti-monopoly law.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u6056789,container:ssp_ 6056789, async:true }The U.S. military is better and will pay directly to help rare earth enterprises build factories in the United States. But the latest news is that the US military has stopped these investments. The specific reason is unknown. It may be that some technical bottlenecks are found and cannot be broken in a short time. A professional told our reporter that it will take at least three years for the us to rebuild the rare earth industry chain. After that, I think you can have a comprehensive and objective understanding of rare earth. So what do I want to say in the end? That is to say, rare earth is the sword of Damocles hanging above the head of the American. In our opinion, its a high-rise Assassins mace. Its there if its smashed or not. What we should do now is to tackle the core technology and use more precious rare earth resources in our high-tech weapons and civilian products. Only in this way can the blade become sharper and the mace become more and more heavy Source: editor in charge of Global Times: Li Chao_ NB12814

The U.S. military is better. It directly pays for rare earth enterprises to build factories in the United States. But the latest news is that the US military has stopped these investments. The specific reason is unknown. It may be that some technical bottlenecks are found and cannot be broken in a short time. A professional told our reporter that it will take at least three years for the us to rebuild the rare earth industry chain.

So what do I want to say in the end? That is to say, rare earth is the sword of Damocles hanging above the head of the American. In our opinion, its a high-rise Assassins mace. Its there if its smashed or not. What we should do now is to tackle the core technology and use more precious rare earth resources in our high-tech weapons and civilian products. Only in this way can the blade become sharper and the mace become more and more heavy