Can Chinas rare earth paralyze the United States?

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 Can Chinas rare earth paralyze the United States?


Talk about the history of mace

As you all know, there are 18 weapons in China. They are: swords, swords, halberds, axes, axes, hooks, forks, sticks, sticks, whip, mace, hammers and claws. Among them, the whip mace is a kind of blunt weapon and heavy weapon. According to the Song Dynastys system, mace is one meter and two long. Its made of refined iron. Below is a handle. Above is an iron bar with four sides, that is, four edges. It has multiple weights. According to research, it should be a single mace of more than 20 jin. If it is used by people with infinite strength, it may be close to 100 Jin. Why is that? Because mace is different from sharp weapons such as swords and spears. It has no edge and no point. It relies on the strength of a powerful blow. Light is useless.

18 kinds of weapons (general picture), see how many you recognize (picture source network, invasion and deletion)

Mace was popular in Tang and Song dynasties. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, it was the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties. In that era, heavy armour cavalry was popular. There was a proper term for it, which was called armour and riding gear. Armor is armor, riding is riding, with props, with equipment. It means that both people and horses wear heavy armour. Why? Because in ancient China, long-range weapons such as bows and crossbows were particularly developed. Therefore, the heavy armour cavalry can protect themselves well when they charge the group. Due to its superior protective performance, heavy armour cavalry often outnumber other cavalry, so it has been developed beyond the norm.

But there is also a problem with it, that is, all kinds of armor and equipment carried by a horse have reached 780kg, which is not the weight of a man. This makes the mobility of heavy cavalry very poor. During the peasant war in the late Sui Dynasty, Li Yuan and his son started their army. In their army, there was a light cavalry of the West Turks. They went around the back of the heavy cavalry of the Sui army to launch attacks and won many battles. In the Tang Dynasty, light cavalry replaced heavy cavalry. You can think of the relief sculptures of six horses in Zhaoling of Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. The horses under Li Shimins crotch are all unarmoured. Among them, there are five arrows in Zhuis body and nine arrows in Qu u00e1 nm u00e1 Ogus body. The intensity of the war at that time can be imagined. Lets go back to that. Although the Tang army is good at using light cavalry, with the development and progress of technology, especially the entry of foreign armor, the protection ability of Tang armor is still very strong.

Liujun, Zhaoling (national treasure level cultural relic) ten years of Zhenguan, Tang Dynasty (636)

Liu Jun was originally listed in the North Tower of the Zhaoling Tomb of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty. In 1914, two Jun, SA Lu Zi and Quan Mao Li, were lost abroad. Now, they are in the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. (picture and data source: Xian Beilin Museum)

So why do we say maces began to be popular in this period? Because it has a core function, which is to attack the enemy with armor protection. In the battlefield, guns are used to pierce, knives are used to row, and Maces and hammers are used to smash. In the face of people and horses wearing heavy armour, sharp weapons cant make them strong, but maces and hammers, with their own weight, plus the strength of users and the inertia of horses, can penetrate the armour and break peoples muscles and bones with a great force. This is the first characteristic of mace, which is to deal with heavy armour.

Qin Qiong, Qin Shubao with a gun and a mace

The second one is Yue Fei. Yuefei mainly used guns, but also made good use of iron maces, which has been recorded in history. Let me tell you here that if we use maces alone, they are usually double Maces. There is also a situation where this person has excellent martial arts. He can hold a long weapon and a mace. For example, in our novels, it is often said that whoever has a whip in his gun or a mace in his gun. The whip here refers to iron whip, similar to mace. This is the case with Yue Fei. He not only used guns, but also knives. He is good at riding and shooting, and he is good at using Maces.

Yuefeis expedition (picture source network, invasion and deletion)

Here comes another problem, which we often call Assassins mace and Assassins mace. There is no conclusion about this thing. In my opinion, maces are used for surprise attacks when conventional weapons cannot win. For example, you can block each others weapons with long weapons, and then smash each other with maces to surprise them. Or when fighting or pretending to be defeated, throw the iron bar at each other. Its unlikely that you have only one mace in your hand and throw it out.

There is the third characteristic of mace, that is, sudden attack and fatal attack.

Lets return to the question of loyalty. Yue Fei doesnt need me to introduce him. Everyone knows this famous general and national hero well.

In fact, there is another man with a mace in his hand. Thats Zhao Defang, eight kings and one thousand years old. Todays young friends may not know that there used to be such a prince with a golden mace in the book Yang Jiajiang and three heroes and five righteousness. He hit the king and slanderer. Yang Jiajiang and Bao Zheng are often protected by the golden mace given by the emperor. Its true in history that he is the fourth son of Zhao Kuangyin, the emperor of Song Dynasty, but his story is fictitious. He died at the age of 22.

So why does mace symbolize loyalty?

u2014u2014Because this kind of thing may break bones and tendons when it hits people, but it doesnt see blood, and its not as bloody as the sword. So its also called the good weapon in weapons, which is good. In addition, Qin Erye, the moral model, uses maces, and Yue Fei, the national hero, also uses Maces. Therefore, the maces have cultural meanings when they love Wu and Wu.

Mace and rare earth

The first reason is that the three characteristics of mace are similar to those of rare earth. We often say that the US Army is armed to the teeth, which is called wearing heavy armour and holding sharp weapons. Mace is specially used to smash heavy armor. The United States is not afraid of anything, but when it comes to rare earths, its sad. So in our opinion, if rare earth cant be fatal, at least it can ruin his life. In addition, since ancient times, those who use maces have been loyal and righteous. Isnt that a compliment to us.

The second reason is more important. That is, I hope you can think in a similar way and connect everything. The knowledge and skills we learn are all one point. We should connect them into a line and then connect them into a surface. Only in this way can we discover the wonder of the world, see through the problems, and let the wind and waves rise and sit on the fishing platform.

How important is rare earth?

Next, lets talk about rare earth officially. Rare earth is the general term for 15 lanthanide elements and 17 scandium and yttrium elements in the chemical cycle table. As a strategic scarce resource, its unique physical and chemical properties make it possess the optical, electrical and magnetic properties that many other elements do not possess.

Picture source: second understanding Encyclopedia

Lets talk about how important rare earth is. I think what our comrades are most interested in is the use of rare earths in the advanced weapons of the United States. So, F-35 fighters, Virginia class nuclear submarines, Tomahawk cruise missiles, guidance systems and jet engines all need rare earths. From the propulsion motors of large ships to the small chips on missiles, from the precise optical instruments to the gun barrel which looks very rough, the application of rare earth elements will greatly improve its performance.

The electric motor is necessary for many high-tech equipment. As large as the electric propulsion system of a 10000 ton warship, as small as the generator on a missile, it is inseparable from the electric motor. Rare earth elements are very obvious to improve the performance of motor. Rare earth permanent magnet is called super permanent magnet because of its superior magnetic properties. It is small in size, light in weight, simple in structure, reliable in operation and high in heat dissipation efficiency. Rare earth permanent magnet motors are used to control the rudder surface of air-to-air and air-to-air missiles in the United States. The permanent magnet mentioned here is permanent. The magnet of magnet. This thing is not able to keep the original magnetic state unchanged forever, but its magnetism is relatively stable and its attenuation period is relatively long.

New M1 tank of US Army (photo source: Netease News)

Rare earth elements are called penicillin in steel, which can purify, modify and alloy steel. Adding some rare earth elements can improve the toughness of steel, and can be used in armor steel, gun steel, aircraft deck steel and other fields. In the Gulf War, the M1 series main battle tanks of the United States can break through Iraqi tanks at a distance of 2000 meters. One of the important reasons is the high strength, toughness and bore pressure of the gun barrel. The electroslag remelting technology is usually used in tank gun barrel. The addition of rare earth elements in the electroslag remelting steel can improve the toughness of alloy steel, increase the chamber pressure, increase the muzzle kinetic energy and increase the gun range. Adding rare earth elements to armor steel can improve its impact resistance. Rare earth elements can also play a good role in other alloys. For example, the rare earth titanium alloy gearbox used in a certain engine in China has a good weight reduction effect.

Rare earth elements can also be used to make microwave absorbing materials for stealth aircraft. Ferrite is an important invisible coating for aircraft. In addition, rare earth materials can also be used in nuclear radiation shielding, nuclear reactors, sonar and other aspects.

US Air Forces F-22 stealth fighter (photo: Global Times)

Rare earth can be replaced in some fields, but it can not be replaced in some industries. For example, in military materials, new energy vehicles, wind power, smart phones, chips and other fields, its really not good to leave rare earth elements.

Take automobile as an example. It will be difficult for the whole industry to leave rare earth, especially new energy vehicles. We usually use NdFeB permanent magnetic materials in dozens of parts of every car, such as engine, brake, sensor, instrument, speaker, etc. A full-automatic limousine needs about 0.5-3.5kg of rare earth permanent magnet materials, while the application of NdFeB materials in new energy vehicles will be more, reaching 10-20kg. It can be said that the development of high-tech society is unimaginable without rare earth elements.

The distribution of rare earth in China shows a pattern of light in the north and heavy in the South. Light and heavy rare earth minerals are mainly distributed in Baotou, Inner Mongolia and Liangshan, Sichuan, while ion type medium and heavy rare earth minerals are mainly distributed in Ganzhou, Jiangxi and Longyan, Fujian. Medium heavy rare earth, which is rare in total content and high in use value, is mainly used in national defense and military industry and high-end fields.

Our reporter once visited the rare earth enterprises in Ganzhou. We have a comprehensive understanding of the present situation of rare earth in our country.

First of all, China is a big country in rare earth resources. According to the data of the U.S. Geological Survey in 2019, the global rare earth reserves are 120 million tons, of which Chinas reserves are 44 million tons, ranking first in the world, Vietnams 22 million tons, Brazils 22 million tons, Russias 12 million tons, Indias 6.9 million tons, Australias 3.4 million tons, and the U.S. reserves are 1.4 million tons.

At present, China has the largest reserves, production and export in the world. In 2018, China exported about 53000 tons of rare earth, with a total export amount of about 3.39 billion yuan. Another data shows that from 2014 to 2017, 80% of U.S. rare earth imports came from China. In the field of permanent magnetic materials, the worlds demand is 160000 tons of rare earth per year, and Chinas annual supply can reach 140000 tons.

Second, we have advantages and disadvantages in rare earth technology. The advantage is that China has now formed a complete rare earth industry system. At the level of science and technology, China has developed a number of internationally advanced technologies in the fields of rare earth mining, smelting and separation. In terms of rare earth separation and extraction technology, China has incomparable advantages over other countries. Our rare earth separation purity has already exceeded 99.9999%. So why cant the United States get rid of rare earth mines? Because the technology of separation and purification is in Chinese hands.

So where are our weaknesses? Thats the core technology of high-end applications. In terms of core patents, there is still a big gap between China and developed countries. For example, all the core patents of neodymium iron boron rare earth permanent magnet materials, which are the most consumed in China, are owned by Japanese and American companies. Therefore, Chinas rare earth industry is a big country in both production and consumption, but technically, it is not a strong country. This is similar to the fact that although raw materials for grain production are produced in rural areas, the real high-end food still needs to be purchased from urban food processing plants, and the main profit and added value are still in the industrial link of deep processing.

Nevertheless, Chinas rare earth industry still has a strong voice, and our rare earth policy has a strong influence on the international market. However, with the increase of rare earth mining volume in other countries, China is facing new challenges to maintain the influence of the rare earth industry.

Schematic diagram of main distribution countries and regions of rare earth minerals in the world (picture source: National Geography of China)

Third, based on the current Sino US relations, the United States has a deep unease on the rare earth issue. In fact, there are also rare earths in the United States, but they are basically light rare earths, which cannot be used in military industry and high technology. Therefore, since 2019, the State Department, the Ministry of defense and the Ministry of Commerce of the United States have sent delegations to Canada, Australia, Mongolia and many African countries to contact and build rare earth mining and processing plants. Australias largest rare earth mining company will build a plant in the United States. At the end of July last year, trump met with the president of Mongolia in Washington. The two sides discussed U.S. mining investment in Mongolia, including rare earth. In addition, the Financial Times said that although Trumps idea of buying Greenland seemed ridiculous, the United States actually targeted the resources there, especially rare earths. The U.S. Senator Rubio, known as the Anti China Pioneer, proposed to establish a Rare Earth Alliance not bound by the anti-monopoly law.

(function(){( window.slotbydup=window .slotbydup||[]).push({id:u6056789,container:ssp_ 6056789, async:true }The U.S. military is better and will pay directly to help rare earth enterprises build factories in the United States. But the latest news is that the US military has stopped these investments. The specific reason is unknown. It may be that some technical bottlenecks are found and cannot be broken in a short time. A professional told our reporter that it will take at least three years for the us to rebuild the rare earth industry chain. After that, I think you can have a comprehensive and objective understanding of rare earth. So what do I want to say in the end? That is to say, rare earth is the sword of Damocles hanging above the head of the American. In our opinion, its a high-rise Assassins mace. Its there if its smashed or not. What we should do now is to tackle the core technology and use more precious rare earth resources in our high-tech weapons and civilian products. Only in this way can the blade become sharper and the mace become more and more heavy Source: editor in charge of Global Times: Li Chao_ NB12814

The U.S. military is better. It directly pays for rare earth enterprises to build factories in the United States. But the latest news is that the US military has stopped these investments. The specific reason is unknown. It may be that some technical bottlenecks are found and cannot be broken in a short time. A professional told our reporter that it will take at least three years for the us to rebuild the rare earth industry chain.

After that, I think you can have a comprehensive and objective understanding of rare earth.

So what do I want to say in the end? That is to say, rare earth is the sword of Damocles hanging above the head of the American. In our opinion, its a high-rise Assassins mace. Its there if its smashed or not. What we should do now is to tackle the core technology and use more precious rare earth resources in our high-tech weapons and civilian products. Only in this way can the blade become sharper and the mace become more and more heavy