Dunhuang is suffering from mountains and rivers, while Dunhuang is splendid in the prosperous times.
In the yellow sand and the cold wind outside Jiayuguan, a thin woman followed the footsteps of her predecessors to protect the national treasure. From spring to autumn, more than half a century
Her name is fan Jinshi.
Next, I want to talk about the magnificent history, the amazing cultural treasure, the hard work of those who protect the national treasure, and the love that is too thick to be separated from time and space.
Dunhuang, unparalleled in the world
Dunhuang is of great value to China.
Dun, Daye; Huang, shengy. Dunhuang, with its two characters, bears in mind the glorious history of the desert pearl, the prosperity of economy and trade, and the brilliance of culture, making it a place of fascination for thousands of scholars.
At the end of the 2nd century BC, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty established Dunhuang Prefecture. Zhang Qian sent to the western regions twice, and the silk road running through Eurasia ran through the whole line. Dunhuang became the throat connecting the western regions and the Central Plains.
In 366 A.D., a monk named Le Hui traveled from the Central Plains to Dunhuang. He glanced casually at the direction of Sanwei mountain, and saw the golden light and bright light, as if thousands of Buddhas had turned into reality and bliss was in the air.
He was shocked and thought that this place must be a holy place of Buddhism, so he built the first cave on the opposite cliff. In the thousands of years that followed, countless monks, craftsmen, painters and merchants gathered in Dunhuang to dig Buddhist caves on the cliff beside Dangquan river.
Civilization from India, Greece, Persia, Central Asia and other regions mingled with Chinese civilization here, leaving us rich cultural treasures - not only exquisite and magnificent murals and colored sculptures, but also scriptures, artifacts, social documents of various generations. Dunhuang has become a holy place in the hearts of countless historians, cultural scholars and artists.
Mr. Ji Xianlin said, there are only four cultural systems with a long history, vast territory, self-contained system and far-reaching influence in the world: China, India, Greece and Islam, and there is no fifth one; there is only one place where these four cultural systems converge, that is, Dunhuang and Xinjiang in China, and there is no second.
In 1524 (the third year of Jiajing), the Ming government ordered Jiayuguan to be closed and the army and the people moved back to it. Since then, the Mogao Grottoes have been left unattended for more than 400 years, allowing the wind and rain to erode, and a large number of caves collapsed and destroyed.
In 1900, some people accidentally found more than 60000 Scripture caves containing scriptures, documents and cultural relics while clearing the sand accumulated in Mogao Grottoes. However, the dying Qing government did not pay attention to this important discovery. Instead, the Russians, the British, the Japanese, the French and the Americans came one after another. With the plunder of foreign countries and the surveillance of officials, countless precious cultural relics were exiled overseas. When the remaining cultural relics were transported back to Beijing, the number was only 8000.
This situation did not change until decades later because of the arrival of a group of people.
In 1944, the national Dunhuang Art Research Institute was established, and Chang Shuhong, a painter who returned to France, was the first director. Since then, a large number of young artists, such as fan Wenzao, Duan Wenjie, Shi Weixiang and ouyanglin, have come to Dunhuang and become the first generation of Mogao Grottoes. In addition to cleaning and protection, their main work is to copy the murals and sculptures in the grottoes.
However, the protection and research of Dunhuang, copying is far from enough, but also need the intervention of archaeology to explore the historical and cultural value behind it.
In 1950, the national Dunhuang Art Research Institute was reorganized into Dunhuang Cultural Relics Research Institute. Su Bai, a professor of Archaeology in the Department of history of Peking University, and Zhao Zhengzhi, Mo Zongjiang and Yu Mingqian formed an expert group to Dunhuang to investigate the natural environment around the Mogao Grottoes, the damage of each grottoes, and the construction age of some grottoes.
In 1957, Zheng Zhenduo, then Vice Minister of culture, proposed to edit and publish the complete collection of Dunhuang Grottoes (one hundred volumes), recording all the information of Mogao Grottoes, a cultural treasure, and leaving an authoritative basic data for future research. Su Bai joined the editorial board, which made steady progress. By 1962, the editorial board had made a more detailed editing plan. In the same year, with the strong support of Mr. Su Bai, the Dunhuang Institute set up an archaeological team.
In order to reinforce the cliff in the south of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, it is necessary to move the ground outside the grottoes. Mr. Chang Shuhong proposed to Peking University that some students majoring in archaeology should be transferred to carry out archaeological excavation outside Mogao Grottoes.
Peking University, there is a girl
In 1958, fan Jinshi applied for the History Department of Peking University on his own initiative. She took the train for three days and three nights to report to the school. However, due to the delay of the opening of Peking University, she had nowhere to go, so she had to curl up on the floor for a night. Fortunately, the next day, she met a senior in the history department and asked her to copy the manuscript in the history department office. During this period, she first heard about archaeology.
At that time, Chinese archaeology was just in its infancy. In 1952, the Department of history of Peking University was the first university in China to set up an archaeology major. Its a new thing for most young people. In the description of Xuechang and Xuejie, archaeology is very interesting. It can not only read poetry, but also travel all over famous mountains and rivers. So, when she divided her major, she did not hesitate to choose archaeology.
In 1962, Su Baidai went to Mogao Grottoes, where fan Jinshi was.
Technicians of Dunhuang Research Institute repaired the damaged murals in cave 98 of Mogao Grottoes.
In the grottoes, the colorful and magnificent colors, imaginative composition, the warm red color of early murals and the splendor of Tang Dynasty, these murals and sculptures which are full of tension and fantasy colors, make this 24-year-old young woman extremely surprised!
At the same time, the difficulty of the real conditions broke her previous romantic fantasy about Dunhuang, which was that flying sand and walking stones, lack of electricity and food, and water were all bitter. The guardians of the national treasure wore old clothes for cadres, one by one yellow and skinny.
Here, Su Bai instructs students to choose typical caves for comprehensive measurement and writing records, and creatively uses archeological typology in the investigation of caves. Through the shape of Dunhuang Grottoes, the combination of statues, the layout of murals, the image of characters, clothing and so on, they classify and rank them to determine the order of their times.
Fan Jinshi left Dunhuang before the end of his internship because of his weak physique and inability to adapt to the harsh local environment.
Sitting on the bus to the railway station, she thought, Ill never come back.
In fact, this internship is the preliminary exploration of the Institute for the study of grottoes archaeology. Chang Shuhong took a fancy to the students from Peking University who came to Dunhuang for internship and hoped to attract these professionals to write the complete works of Dunhuang Grottoes.
In 1963, after a lot of research and negotiation, Peking University decided to send two students to Dunhuang. Fan Jinshi was among them.
Its not very good, she thought.
In this way, my sweetheart in Wuhan Fan Jin poetry to Dunhuang.
hard! hard! hard!
When she first arrived in Dunhuang, she became the first group of professional archaeologists of Dunhuang Research Institute.
In the absence of modern scientific and technological means at that time, it was very difficult to complete a hundred volumes of complete Dunhuang Grottoes!
On the one hand, they are facing a huge workload.
According to the plan, the complete collection of Dunhuang Grottoes includes 487 Grottoes in the south of Mogao Grottoes, 5 in the south, 19 in the West Qianfo grottoes and 41 in the Yulin grottoes of Guazhou, with a total of 552 grottoes. Among them, there are more than 2000 statues, 45000 square meters of murals and more than 50000 documents and works of art in 487 caves in the south.
The staff of Dunhuang Research Institute are testing the water content of rock mass.
In addition, when entering a cave, it is necessary not only to record the shape, face, movement, posture, composition, color application, line and production process of the colored sculpture and mural, but also to study the soil, wood, grass and pigment used. For example, what is the composition of soil? What kind of tree does the wood come from? What kind of grass does the grass come from? What are the differences between the mineral composition of pigments and the composition of organic dyes? All these need to be distinguished carefully.
Look at the cave itself. When was it built? Is there any damage, collapse, repair or reconstruction? What kind of original building and original state should be in historical changes should also be made clear one by one.
Each cave here has a history of 800 years, and more than 1600 years. The complexity of the records can be imagined.
On the other hand, the technical problems make them headache.
Taking surveying and mapping as an example, the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang are all made by craftsmen by hand. The size, height and shape of the grottoes are all estimated by craftsmen through visual inspection. It seems to be regular, but in fact, there is no regularity from the shape of the grottoes, niches, central square pillars, altar of Buddha, top of the grottoes to the four walls. It is very difficult to use traditional tools in surveying and mapping. In addition, it is very complicated to study the layering of multi-layer materials and various pigments in the painting layer.
Fan Jinshi, who works in Dunhuang (source: CCTV documentary national memory)
Moreover, they are in a bad environment.
The scholars lived in the dormitories transformed from the horse houses of the Kuomintang cavalry. The ceiling of the dormitories was pasted with waste newspapers, and the dust fell on the walls all around them. After a days work, we are in such an environment, lighting oil lamps, ambush night war, sorting out the data recorded in the day.
In winter, its cold at night, and the fire on the stove is easy to extinguish. Fan Jinshi put on all her clothes to keep warm. In the middle of the night, a mouse fell on the pillow. She just got up, dusted and went to sleep. The water alkali here is so strong that she cant wash her hair clean, so she cut a short sporty hair, and never had a long hair.
The life in the northwest desert seems to make fan Jinshi forget the prosperous city gradually.
The original residence of Fanjin poetry in Dunhuang (picture source: CCTV documentary national memory)
In the night, with the wind blowing and the sand falling in the room, she looked out of the black window and cried more than once. She felt that Peking University had forgotten her, her boyfriend Lao Peng had forgotten her, and the whole world had forgotten her.
However, when the sun rose the next day, she walked into the grottoes again and saw the Bodhisattva on the wall with flying sky clothes and full of wind, she thought, its worth the pain and tiredness.
No thanks to Tathagata, no thanks to Qing
In 1967, fan Jinshi went to Wuhan from Dunhuang.
On January 15, their parents did not arrive, there was no wedding feast, no new house, and they got married. The young teachers dormitory of Wuhan University is one for two. That night, Peng Jinzhangs roommate let the dormitory out to serve as a new house for the two.
Photos of fan Jinshi and Peng Jinzhangs marriage
After marriage, the two are still separated. Later, fan Jinshi was pregnant, and Peng Jinzhang had prepared all the necessary articles for newborns and puerperas in Wuhan. However, their child was born prematurely in a hospital in Dunhuang without even a babys clothes in advance.
After Peng Jinzhang received the telegram that his son has been born, he hurried from Wuhan to the hospital with two baskets of maternal and infant articles on one shoulder pole. Its said that his son has been born for several days and is still naked. Peng Jinzhang is so sad that he tears. When fan Jinshi in the ward saw Peng Jinzhang, he couldnt control it any more and cried loudly.
Five years later, their second child was born. The parents were busy with their work. The two children grew up in Hebei, Shanghai, Wuhan and Dunhuang. Until 1984, both children were received by their fathers.
At that time, Peng Jinzhang had established an archaeology major in Wuhan University, served as the deputy director of the Department of history and head of the archaeology teaching and Research Office of Wuhan University, and took charge of all kinds of work such as leading affairs, teaching, field research, etc., plus two children, it was really hard. It is urgent to solve the problem of long-term separation between husband and wife.
As his wife and mother, fan Jinshi was filled with guilt, I think Lao Peng is too great, my child is too poor. Peng Jinzhangs colleagues half jokingly asked fan Jinshi, Wang Baochuan has waited for her husband for 18 years, and Peng Jinzhang has waited for you for 20 years. When do you want him to wait?
However, they are indispensable backbones in their respective units. Who should be mobilized?
Conditions in Wuhan are obviously better. At least for the sake of children, education is also a good way to go to big cities. However, at this time, Fan Jin poetry cant put down Dunhuang: she wants to race with sandstorm, save the murals in the cave; to complete the research on the dating of the grottoes, establish scientific archives; and 20 years ago, her mentor and leader gave her an important mission - to complete the archaeological report of the complete collection of Dunhuang Grottoes.
On the other hand, Peng Jinzhang has deep feelings for the archaeology major of Wuda founded by himself. In the next two years, the units on both sides did not let people go, and there was no agreement between the two.
The transfer of the two mens work shocked the Gansu provincial Party committee. In 1986, a cadre from the organization department and Propaganda Department of Gansu provincial Party Committee directly found Liu Daoyu, President of Wuhan University. The school said it was up to them to make a decision.
Fan: I cant leave anyway.
Peng: I cant go. Lets go. Ill go.
In this way, Peng Jinzhang, over half a hundred years old, gave up his business of more than 20 years in Wuhan, said goodbye to comfortable life, transferred to Dunhuang Research Institute, and became a researcher under his wife, starting from scratch.
As soon as he arrived at Mogao Grottoes, he took up the task of studying the Grottoes in the north area, which was called Dunhuang desert. Over the past few years, Peng Jinzhang has sifted almost every inch of sand in the north area. Every time a cave is excavated, Peng Jinzhangs eyebrows and eyes are covered with dust. The masks are changed several times a day. Each one is black, and even the spit is black.
After 7 years of excavation, the number of known caves in Mogao Grottoes has expanded from 492 to 735, which is close to the more than 1000 niches of grottoes in the Tang Dynasty. Not only that, Peng Jinzhang also excavated many important relics in the northern area of Mogao Grottoes, including Syrian biblical documents, Uighur wooden movable characters, etc. The cultural relic in the North District has come to light, providing important material materials for historical research.
After 16 years of excavation, research and compilation, in 2004, three volumes of archaeological report Grottoes in the northern area of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang written by Peng Jinzhang were officially published. Their mentor, Professor Su Bai, changed his style of not praising others and praised fan Jinshi, Peng Jinzhang is good..
Without waiting for her to be happy for a while, Mr. Su Bai commented on her, you are so busy..
In the first few years when fan Jinshi arrived at Dunhuang, he and his colleagues completed the first draft of several cave archaeological reports, including cave 248. However, the first volume of the complete Dunhuang Grottoes was not published until 2011.
Archaeological report of cave 266-275 of Mogao Grottoes published in 2011
This masterpiece, comparable to the Twenty-Four Histories, is enough to make fan Jinshis name immortal.
However, she has more urgent things to do!
Murals and cultural relics, less!
In 1977, fan Jinshi served as the deputy director of Dunhuang Research Institute in charge of protection. At the same time, at the request of the Cultural Relics Bureau, she began to establish scientific archives for the Mogao Grottoes.
In order to establish scientific archives, she began to read a large number of photos of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang taken by foreign archaeologists.
In this turn, a startling discovery came out:
There are few murals and cultural relics in Mogao Grottoes!
In 1908, the figures in cave 217 are clearly visible in the photos taken by Bosch and the French, but now there are only mottled stone walls.
Comparison of cave 217 of Mogao Grottoes. (source: CCTV documentary national memory)
In cave 46, there was a statue lion in the shrine 70 years ago, but now it is gone.
Comparison of cave 46 of Mogao Grottoes (source: CCTV documentary national memory)
There are many differences.
The murals are degenerating! During that time, she would dream that the murals on the wall were peeling off one by one even when she slept.
This terrible fact discovery forced fan Jinshi to put aside the cave archaeology report again and immediately put it into the rescue of Mogao Grottoes.
Although she understood in her heart that fresco, like human beings, cant keep its youth forever, all the rescue can only delay its disappearance, but it cant be reversed.
But the only way to make these murals live forever is to leave them a more detailed file than the requirements of the Cultural Relics Bureau, preferably without missing any details.
So, how to record all the details?
The text description is not intuitive and complete; with the current technical level, there is a risk of negative film damage and degaussing of video tape.
At the end of the 1980s, fan Jinshi saw a computer in Beijing. This magical instrument, which can produce a picture one click and close the picture without disappearing, made her hope that she would take high-resolution photos for every cave, mural and color sculpture in Dunhuang Grottoes, so as to establish a digital archive and keep it forever.
However, to complete this concept, a large number of computer equipment needs to be purchased. A computer with 640kb memory costs 6480 yuan, which the research institute cannot afford.
Fortunately, the leaders of Gansu Province attached great importance to fan Jinshis proposal. In 1990, the research on the computer storage and management system of Dunhuang frescoes was listed as a key scientific and technological research project in the eighth five year plan. The digital archives of Dunhuang Grottoes allocated 300000 yuan.
Money and equipment, but not enough.
The photos of the digital archives need to face the murals and take the way of Orthophoto projection to ensure that the images do not deform. The shape and size of Mogao Grottoes are different, and the murals are covered on the uneven walls, which makes it very difficult to take photos. How to set up a photography platform, how to polish, and so on, all need careful planning.
In addition, Dunhuang is the pioneer of cultural heritage digitization in China, and there is no ready-made experience to follow in China, so fan Jinshi focuses on foreign countries. In 1998, Dunhuang Research Institute and Northwestern University in Chicago, United States, cooperated to adopt the digital method of covering image acquisition and computer image splicing for murals, which requires a set of specially customized and flexible assembly equipment for grottoes, including movable track and vertical lifting bracket.
The staff put the equipment into the cave and installed the lighting system, computer and camera. Every time they take a picture, the computer will shift a little bit, and then take another picture. The two adjacent pictures have a 50% coincidence. Take about 1000 photos of each wall.
The staff shot the inside of the cave.
(picture source: CCTV program I love invention: Digital Dunhuang)
At the site, the professional personnel verify the quality of the photos through the computer, and then splice and fine tune the 1000 photos after they pass the verification. Finally, they will be spliced into a high-definition digital image of the wall and stored in the archives.
Up to now, the image collection of more than 200 caves and the image processing of more than 100 caves have been completed, and the exquisite details of the grotto art have been reproduced.
In addition, Dunhuang Research Institute also cooperates with relevant units to apply advanced 3D digital technology and 3D printing technology with an accuracy of 0.1mm to restore the statue.
Technology and talents are indispensable
At that time, in order to develop the local economy, there was a nationwide upsurge of building cross regional tourism listed companies. Relevant departments in Gansu Province wanted to bundle Mogao Grottoes with a tourism company.
As soon as the news came out, fan Jinshi had trouble sleeping and eating. She thought of two experiments that Dunhuang Research Institute had done before: in the first experiment, 40 young people were allowed to enter a cave. One and a half hours later, the carbon dioxide in the cave increased five times, the relative humidity increased 10%, and the temperature increased 4 u2103; in the other experiment, the simulated stone made from the rock wall material of Mogao Grottoes continued to increase in the surrounding space Relative humidity, a few hundred days later, the simulation stone broke.
These two experimental results give her a wake-up call: a large-scale influx of tourists will bring disaster to the cultural treasure after thousands of years of wind! After several twists and turns, fan Jinshi finally succeeded in preventing the bundle listing.
However, with the implementation of the national long vacation system and the great development of the national tourism industry, the number of tourists to Mogao Grottoes is multiplying.
Tourists wait in line to enter the nine story building of Mogao Grottoes.
On the one hand, there are tourists who come from afar and are full of expectation, on the other hand, there are fragile and old caves. Fan Jinshi, who is in a dilemma, decided to combine blocking with dredging.
Blocking is to limit the current so as to ensure that the number of tourists is within the bearing capacity of Mogao Grottoes. In order to calculate the bearing capacity, the staff of Dunhuang Research Institute began to monitor and investigate the micro environment of the cave since 2000. They installed sensors in the caves to monitor and analyze the changes of tourists flow, temperature, humidity and other indicators in real time; measured the size of each cave area, investigated the advantages and disadvantages for visitors, etc.
After a series of calculations, the maximum daily carrying capacity of tourists in Mogao Grottoes should not be more than 3000 according to the two-hour visiting time of one person.
This number cant meet the needs of tourists at all. What should we do?
Sparse - visitors can enjoy the beauty of Mogao Grottoes without having to go to the caves on the spot. In this way, fan Jinshi thought of digitalization again.
In March 2003, she and 24 other members of the CPPCC put forward a proposal to the CPPCC National Committee for the establishment of the Mogao Grottoes digital exhibition center, the core of which is the two digital theaters.
Tourists entering the Mogao Grottoes first go to the cinema to watch two digital films. The picture resolution of the ball screen film is four times that of the IMAX movie popular on the market. The mural color sculptures in 18 grottoes are presented in front of the tourists, which is better than the physical effect. After watching the film and then entering the real caves, the density of tourists is effectively dispersed, and the bearing capacity of Mogao Grottoes is increased to 6000 people per day.
When the Mogao Grottoes Exhibition Center was put into use in 2014, fan Jinshi was 76 years old. Now, she would often go there for a walk and listen to the real voice of tourists. She was worried: what if the country spent so much money and broke the pot?? What if the tourists dont accept it? In that case, the money is really floating.
Fan Jinshi regarded the safety of Dunhuang Grottoes as life, followed the footsteps of the old generation to guard Dunhuang for a lifetime, leaving Dunhuang with not only abundant research results, but also a new generation of Dunhuang people cultivated by her for Dunhuang Research Institute.
Fan Jinshi understands that its not the time when she graduated. Its OK for young people to pursue better living conditions and treatment. Therefore, fan Jinshi cherished those who were willing to come to Dunhuang by themselves, personally sent a group of young people to colleges and universities at home and abroad to study, and encouraged them to study in research and Bo.
If I dont cultivate good talents for Dunhuang, I am a sinner! The latter is better than me, and I am satisfied.
These good seedlings planted by Fan Jins poems have already provoked the beam of Dunhuang. Zhao Shengliang, a foreign doctor who went to Japan to study at his own expense, gave up more favorable treatment and returned to Dunhuang as the new dean of the Dunhuang Research Institute. At that time, Su Bomin, who was moved by fan Jinshis question we can suffer there, and your lover disagrees with us, and determined to stay in this unit, is now the vice president of the Dunhuang Research Institute.
The beauty of Dunhuang, the life of Dunhuang people
In January 2018, after 55 years of guarding Mogao Grottoes, fan Jinshi formally went through the retirement procedures. Looking back more than half a century in Dunhuang, fan Jinshi said that she did not want to leave, she stayed, is a persons life..
u2014u2014Cave 45 has the most exquisite Bodhisattva statues in the whole Mogao Grottoes. The Bodhisattvas expression is gentle and cordial, just like a beautiful and pure girl, dressed in a bun, with beautiful eyebrows and sideburns, with a slight nod and charming posture; her eyes are like seeing but not seeing, and her mouth is like smiling; her upper body is exposed, and the gauze is wrapped around her shoulders, relaxed and drooping, and the colorful flowers on the gauze are bright and fresh.
u2014u2014Rebound Pipa in cave 112 shows that Jiyue Tian has a leisurely and graceful manner, and she raises her feet to the ground, turns her hips and leaps up in the air. The peak of Tang music and dance was fixed on the wall, standing in front of the painting, as if music flowed from the wall; opening her eyes, she was plump, free and beautiful, with a concentrated look, and her soft waist showed the unique unrestrained posture of West Asian women.
Just like the monk Lechi who witnessed the miracle 1700 years ago, fan Jinshi also saw the Buddhas light in Mogao Grottoes: in the summer of 1995, one evening after the rain, the Dangquan River in front of Mogao Grottoes burst into flood. When she built sandbags along the river to fight against the flood, she saw a large golden light over Sanwei mountain. After the golden light disappeared, two intersecting rainbow appeared in the blue sky.
Along Dangquan River, the first generation of Dunhuang people, including Chang Shuhong and Duan Wenjie, were buried. What she saw was the sincere heart of countless Chinese people to protect the national treasures of Dunhuang.
In 2017, Peng Jinzhang died and was temporarily buried in Shanghai at the request of his child.
But fan Jinshi said he still wanted to bring him here.
Since we are two, we are two forever. Finally, I will return to Dunhuang. Why? What did the old master do?
Im over eighty years old. Ill leave one day. Im ready. Im glad to say that I fulfilled my promise and I did my best for Mogao Grottoes!
Therefore, in the light of the guardians of Dunhuang for thousands of years, and in the love that lovers cant transform, fan Jinshi cant leave in this life.
1. My heart is in Dunhuang - self narration of fan Jinshi, fan Jinshi and Gu Chunfang. 2019
2. CCTV documentary people: role models fan Jinshi March 2017
3. CCTV documentary national memory (October 2018)
4. Phoenix TVs 81 year old fan Jinshi has been guarding Mogao Grottoes for nearly 60 years: the couple will finally return to Dunhuang, October 2019
5. Fan Jinshi, daughter of Dunhuang, new West, 2005, issue 10
6. Fan Jinshi: returning to Dunhuang is the home, 2005, issue 05
7. On the road: Fan Jinshi, Dean of Dunhuang Research Institute, Xie Zhijuan, decoration, 2006
8. Her career in Dunhuang: Fan Jinshi, vice president of Dunhuang Research Institute of Gansu Province, fan Zhibin, Party building, No. 3, 1987
10. Im going to do what I still owe -- a recent interview with fan Jinshi, honorary president of Dunhuang Research Institute, retired in March, Gansu Daily. May 5, 2015
12. In memory of Mr. Su Bai, Dunhuang Research Institute, February 3, 2018
This paper is selected from zhczyj, written by Wang Yiwen and Ni Jingyao. See authorized release.