How can higher vocational colleges catch up and digest? Is the enrollment expansion aimed at alleviating the short-term employment pressure under the influence of the epidemic? In the long run, will the expansion of higher vocational colleges become the norm? What role will this play in improving the quality of Chinese workers?
According to the 2019 China higher vocational education quality annual report, higher vocational education plays an increasingly important role in expanding employment and promoting the development of students. The employment rate of vocational college graduates remained stable at 92% after half a year, the monthly income growth reached 76.2% three years after graduation, the local employment rate of graduates was close to 60%, and the proportion of grassroots services to small and medium-sized micro enterprises remained above 60%.
In addition to promoting individual employment, in the context of the gradual decline of Chinas demographic dividend, the large-scale expansion of higher vocational education, as well as the plan of more than 35 million vocational skills training this year and next, will help to solve the problem of the shortage of high skilled talents and release the talent dividend, which will be a supportive strategic measure for the transformation of Chinas economic structure.
Where do 2 million students come from?
The enlarged meeting of the Party group held by the Ministry of education on May 29 pointed out that vocational education should be done well. We will continue to expand recruitment for high school graduates, veterans, laid-off and unemployed people, migrant workers, new vocational farmers and other groups, cultivate professionals in emerging fields in new industries and new industries, and open up institutional mechanisms such as school enterprise cooperation, East West cooperation, and employment linkage.
There is no significant difference between the enrollment groups of Higher Vocational Colleges and last year. According to reports, in 2019, in addition to the new secondary vocational and ordinary high school graduates, non-traditional students accounted for about 520000, accounting for nearly half of the total enrollment expansion.
However, Hu Wei, member of the CPPCC National Committee and deputy director of Shanghai China Vocational Education Society, found some problems in the process of enrollment, including the uneven enrollment in different regions, schools and specialties; some migrant workers, retired soldiers, laid-off and unemployed people, new vocational farmers, who are older and partially married, overall due to the consideration of opportunity cost and expense The willingness to apply is not high.
The head of the recruitment and Employment Office of Beijing Institute of industry and technology introduced to the 21st century economic reporter that in a first tier city like Beijing, almost no senior high school students will choose to go to higher vocational colleges, and the number of retired soldiers is relatively limited. In general, Beijing is not a large area of higher vocational students.
Last year, the school registered 1500 people, of which only 32 were recruited through expansion, including students from secondary vocational schools, technical schools, etc. and veterans. He said.
In order to expand the recruitment channels, the person in charge introduced that his school is contacting with some large enterprises this year, mainly for the recruitment of technical workers. Under the premise of not breaking the normal working rhythm, he customized the teaching time, place and method, such as using weekend time to attend classes, so as to attract them to study.
Deng Zhiwang, a teacher from Shenzhen Vocational and technical college, also introduced to the 21st century economic reporter that the traditional new student resources are relatively insufficient, and the key to expanding enrollment is to tap the potential of social personnel.
However, a coastal higher vocational college teacher told reporters that under the guidance of enrollment expansion, the threshold for higher vocational education has been greatly reduced. In the process of enrollment expansion this year, in particular, we should avoid the phenomenon of disorderly enrollment in order to complete the task.
The promotion space of Higher Vocational Students
To complete the expansion of higher vocational education, we need to break the publics prejudice of higher vocational education.
Even the students who have entered the higher vocational colleges often have the complex of academic worship. Lixin, a vocational college student in Jiangsu Province, majored in Business English. She told 21st century economic reporter that only a few students in her class want to graduate directly from the vocational college, and others are planning to upgrade to undergraduate.
Li Xin said that he mainly hopes to reduce the limitations of academic qualifications, and that in the future, employment will be able to cross the threshold of undergraduate education and obtain a clearer employment prospect.
The head of the recruitment and Employment Office of Beijing Institute of technology explained to the reporter that it is not just necessary to continue to go to higher education, and the proportion of undergraduates is limited. Many higher vocational students will still be employment oriented.
In Beijing, the employment of vocational graduates is basically no problem. From the perspective of the starting salary after graduation, the starting salary of vocational college students and undergraduates is almost the same, but in contrast, there is a situation of insufficient potential, and the salary may gradually open the gap. Thats why some people want to get a higher education, that is, to make up for this potential. He said.
Some higher vocational graduates choose to continue their studies after working. According to the information disclosed in the employment quality report of Shenzhen Polytechnic, the monthly income of the graduates who have been employed in 2018 is 5592 yuan one year later. Among them, 83% of graduates are willing to improve their academic qualifications, of which 47% are in the process of upgrading their academic qualifications.
The above person in charge said that vocational education has actually become a system of its own, with secondary schools, junior colleges and undergraduate courses. The upgrading of higher vocational education to undergraduate courses is basically an application-oriented undergraduate major. Students pursue higher education, to a large extent, in the pursuit of skills.
Precise docking in the direction of enrollment expansion
In this years situation, the expansion of higher vocational education will alleviate part of the employment pressure objectively. Some people from higher vocational colleges predict to the 21st century economic reporter that the number of laid-off workers may be more this year.
From a larger background, what role does higher vocational education play in personnel training?
Wang Jiping, then director general of the Department of vocational education and adult education of the Ministry of education, said in February 2019 that vocational education shoulders the function of inheriting technical skills and cultivating diversified talents. It can help students master the advantages of one technology, achieve higher quality and full employment and entrepreneurship by connecting with market demand and carrying out vocational education and training on a larger scale.
According to official data, by 2018, the average number of years of education for the working age population in China has increased to 10.5 years, but only slightly longer than the nine-year compulsory education.
Deng Zhiwang said that many social personnel in higher vocational education are on duty. Some of them can arrange weekend classes, but not all employers can guarantee two-day weekend break time. In this case, the employers need to cooperate, such as retaining jobs. On the one hand, many enterprises hope employees to participate in the training, but they will worry that employees improve their skills, but they soon quit, resulting in the lack of willingness for employees to learn.
Liu Yuhui, director of the Beijing Municipal Education Commission, said at a recent promotion meeting of Vocational Education in Beijing that, as far as Beijing is concerned, the expansion of vocational education should focus on precise docking. For example, according to the needs of Beijings industrial development and spatial structure layout, combined with the capitals talent needs, optimize the layout of vocational colleges; closely follow the needs, and carry out targeted and practical vocational training for students, on-the-job employees, domestic workers, nurses and other groups.
One of the research fields of Huang Cheng, executive dean of the school of economics and management of Harbin University of Technology (Shenzhen) is population economics. He told the 21st century economic reporter that in the period of economic activity, the market is rapidly stratified, and the society not only needs high-end talents, but also students of higher vocational education will have a good way out.
(author: Wang Fan, Jiang Mengmeng, editor: Wang Feng)