In terms of area and population, the main urban area after expansion is closer to the concept of metropolitan area. Metropolitan area is also called metropolitan area. Professor Zhao Jian, director of China Urbanization Research Center of Beijing Jiaotong University, analyzed that the concept of metropolitan area is the concept of local labor market, that is, the concept cannot exceed the scope of commuting. It is a region composed of big cities and neighboring counties with high commuting links. The maximum commuting area is generally no more than 70 kilometers, and the metropolitan area is generally no more than 20000 square kilometers. For example, the metropolitan area of Tokyo in Japan, including one city and three counties, covers an area of about 13500 square kilometers.
Although it is a city, Chongqing has a population of more than 30 million and a total area of 82400 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the scale of a medium-sized province. Therefore, the expansion of Chongqings central city, or the construction of a metropolitan area, is mainly within its own administrative divisions. But for most of the other central cities, the expansion of the city often needs to cross the jurisdiction of its own administrative divisions, involving areas outside the scope of urban administrative divisions.
At present, one of the ways for the expansion of the central city is to merge the central city into the surrounding areas. For example, in 2011, through the three part Chaohu, the Juchao District and Lujiang County of Chaohu, the original city, were transferred to Hefei; in 2016, Jianyang City was officially transferred to Chengdu as the agent; in 2017, Xian took charge of Xixian new area; in December 2018, the State Council approved Shandong Province to adjust Laiwu, Jinan City City administrative division, the abolition of Laiwu City, the jurisdiction of its area under the jurisdiction of Jinan City.
This model can be called the concept of hard expansion, that is, through the adjustment of administrative divisions, the surrounding areas are brought into the scope of administrative divisions of central cities. This model may continue in the future.
However, the overall adjustment of administrative divisions is complex, involving all aspects. It is not easy for some central cities to achieve hard expansion. For example, cities such as Shenzhen, Xiamen and Ningbo, which have separate plans, are financially separated from their provinces. There is a great resistance and difficulty in integrating them into the surrounding areas. For another example, the merger of Guangzhou and Foshan is an old folk topic, but it is not easy to merge a trillion level city like Foshan, a famous historical and cultural city.
In the case that hard expansion is difficult to achieve, more central cities are building a metropolitan area, breaking the barriers of household registration and accelerating the urbanization, so as to realize the soft expansion of central cities.
For example, Ningbo recently published the announcement on Soliciting Opinions and suggestions on relaxing the settlement conditions of our city in an all-round way and proposed that Ningbo would give Zhoushan household registration personnel the treatment of moving their registered permanent residence in the same city according to the work requirements of integration of Ningbo and Zhoushan. Zhoushan urban household registration is equal to Ningbo urban household registration, and Zhoushan county and city household registration is equal to Ningbo county and city household registration.
Recently, Shenzhen Municipal Development and Reform Commission issued work summary in 2019 and work plan in 2020, which proposed to accelerate the preparation of Shenzhen metropolitan area planning. Fully learn from the development experience of the three world-class Bay areas, coordinate the participation of the four cities of Guanhui River and Shantou, reasonably determine the major tasks and measures for the development of the metropolitan area, and help Heyuan and Shanwei integrate into the construction of the bay area.
Houhai, Shenzhen. (Lin Xiaozhao / photo)
In Guangzhou, according to the overall planning of Guangzhous land and space (2018-2035), Guangzhou metropolitan area will be built around the integrated development of Guangzhou and surrounding cities. Among them, we should promote the integration of Guangdong and Qing with higher quality and promote the cooperation and development of Guangfo Zhaoqing Yunshao economic circle.
Build a metropolitan area
In fact, in recent years, the industrial gradient distribution of many big cities and surrounding areas is advancing in depth. Taking Shenzhen as an example, it is a more feasible way for Shenzhen to break through the restrictions of administrative divisions and achieve closer cooperation with surrounding areas by building metropolitan areas and other forms. At present, many enterprises in Shenzhen have moved their manufacturing links to Dongguan, Huizhou, Heyuan and other places, leaving their headquarters, R & D and design links or parent factories in Shenzhen.
The surrounding area can be described as near the water, first the building, then the moon. Peng Peng, executive chairman of Guangdong Institute of institutional reform, analyzed with the first financial reporter that Dongguans emerging industries have developed rapidly in the past decade, mainly to undertake a large number of high-tech industry spillovers in Shenzhen, and the economic development toughness has been continuously enhanced.
On May 13, cedar bulk commodity supply chain group and Guangde (Yingde) Industrial Park of Guangqing Special Economic Cooperation Zone officially signed the investment cooperation agreement on cedar copper based new material production project. According to the agreement, cedar block will invest in building copper based new material industrial base in guangdeyuan, the project focuses on high-end manufacturing, and the annual output value will reach 2.5 billion yuan after scale operation.
Professor Hu Gang, President of South China Urban Research Association, told reporters that for the central city, the matters involved in the adjustment of administrative divisions are relatively complex, but it is relatively easy to build a metropolitan area and accelerate the development of urbanization with the surrounding areas, which is also a way for the central city to realize the expansion.
For large cities, although their manufacturing industry has moved out, it is still stable within the scope of the metropolitan area, and can effectively retain the complete industrial chain supporting. At the same time, the liberated central city focuses on the development of headquarters economy, modern service industry and high-tech industry, which are combined to create a stronger industrial competitiveness.
This kind of expansion is actually a kind of soft expansion. That is to say, through the regional coordinated development mode, on the basis of good industrial coordinated development, and through the development mode of metropolitan area, some things that enterprises cant do are left to the government, for example, by accelerating the construction of rail transit, to serve the gradient distribution of industry. On February 21 last year, the national development and Reform Commission published the guidance on cultivating and developing modern metropolitan area on its official website. This means that Chinas urbanization has entered the era of metropolitan area. It is clear in the opinions that we should build an urban circle on the track. The layout of urban rail transit network shall be considered as a whole to build a commuter circle with rail transit as the backbone. We will work out urban rail transit planning in areas where conditions permit, and promote the four networks integration of trunk railway, intercity railway, urban (suburban) railway and urban rail transit. Explore the appropriate extension of urban rail transit in the central city of the metropolitan area to the surrounding cities (towns). Source: editor in charge of the first financial network: Chen Hequn, nb12679
On February 21 last year, the national development and Reform Commission published the guidance on cultivating and developing modern metropolitan area on its official website. This means that Chinas urbanization has entered the era of metropolitan area.
It is clear in the opinions that we should build an urban circle on the track. The layout of urban rail transit network shall be considered as a whole to build a commuter circle with rail transit as the backbone. We will work out urban rail transit planning in areas where conditions permit, and promote the four networks integration of trunk railway, intercity railway, urban (suburban) railway and urban rail transit. Explore the appropriate extension of urban rail transit in the central city of the metropolitan area to the surrounding cities (towns).