This image is the largest and most comprehensive history book of galaxies in the universe.
Source principle (principia1687)
This is perhaps the most incredible picture of the universe, known as the Hubble deep field.
Twenty four years ago, the Hubble Space Telescope released its first deep-field image, which shocked everyone - it contained an incredible number of stars and galaxies. After a long exposure, these objects, including thousands of galaxies and trillions of stars, have been captured from a tiny, seemingly empty space in the sky.
In the 20 years since this image was released, the follow-up observations of the Hubble Space Telescope have provided more and more abundant information, refreshing our understanding of the universe again and again.
Robert Williams, umass.edu
The astronomer in the picture is named Robert Williams, and the idea of Hubbles deep field came from him. He suggested aiming the Hubble Space Telescope at a void.. Although the idea was disapproved by his colleagues, he persisted.
Ursa Major (photo: hubblesite. ORG)
In the Hubble deep field image, only a few bright spots are relatively near stars, more are actually distant galaxies, some of which are even more than 13 billion years old. In todays universe, most of the galaxies around us are spiral and elliptical. The Hubble deep field reveals the galaxy structure of the early universe. At that time, the galaxy structure was just formed, so there are a lot of strange shaped galaxies.
The second Hubble deep field focuses on a piece of sky in the southern hemisphere. There are many similarities between the new image and the original image - which is exactly what we expect, because if the universe looks roughly the same in any direction, it will appear.
Hubble ultra deep field (2004) photo source: hubblesite.org
In 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope captured this Hubble ultra deep field (HUDF) image with an improved camera. Through billions of light-years of space, it seems to have reached the core of the universe, showing about 10000 galaxies.
The image of Hubbles ultra deep field reveals a small area of the constellation Tianlu, which was first named as the chemical stove in French by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, a French astronomer in the 18th century.
HUDF near infrared (2009) image source: hubblesite.org
In 2009, in a maintenance mission, the Hubble Space Telescope used a new instrument. This time, it can observe the sky area shown in the Hubble ultra deep field image in the near infrared band.
The dimmest and reddest object in the image is a galaxy that was formed 600 million years after the big bang. Before this image, astronomers had never observed such an early Galaxy in the universe.
Hubble extreme deep field (2012) photo source: hubblesite.org
The 2012 Hubble extremely deep field (XDF) shows a small sky area in the center of the Hubble ultra deep field. It is a combination of more than 2000 images taken by Hubble in the same small area with a total exposure time of more than 2 million seconds in 10 years.
The image contains about 5500 galaxies, the darkest of which is about one billionth as bright as the naked eye. The youngest Galaxy in the image is still in the infancy of the universe, about 450 million years after the big bang.
Hudf-abyss (2019) image source: abysshshtultra deep imaging project
In 2019, the abyss Hubble ultra deep field project was released, which is the version of abyss after the near-infrared Hubble ultra deep field (HUDF) image was improved. The new observations show dim, previously unseen light around large galaxies, some of which are two times the size of previous measurements.
Hubble heritage site (photo source: hubblesite. ORG)
Hubble legacy field is an image formed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 16 years with nearly 7500 independent exposures. This image is the largest and most comprehensive history book of galaxies in the universe.
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