What does Wuhan virus do under the epidemic situation? Response from researchers of the original virus Institute

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 What does Wuhan virus do under the epidemic situation? Response from researchers of the original virus Institute


At the same time, the author hopes that the whole society will pay more attention to the researchers and their work. After all, researchers are also heroes who fight alongside medical workers to save the world from diseases and epidemics.

Wuhan Virus Research Institute, right and wrong under the epidemic

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus has been raging across the country.

The first report of the epidemic was in Wuhan. Wuhan Institute of viruses (hereinafter referred to as Wuhan Institute of viruses) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is located in Wuhan and has a high-level biosafety laboratory (P4) and many researchers have been committed to the research of coronavirus and bat virus for many years, has been at the forefront of the wave since the outbreak.

Although we have been doing our best to deal with the epidemic situation and study the virus, in the face of rampant rumors, some unfounded suspicions, a few rumors with obvious pertinence, and some malicious slanders from foreign media, Wuhan virus Institute seems to have been quietly carrying all the pressure of public opinion and devoted itself to scientific research.

Among the rumors, suspicions, rumors and slanders, there are also many rational voices who want to know what the Wuhan virus is doing in this epidemic.

As a scientific researcher trained in life science, studied in Wuhan Virus Research Institute, and resigned at the end of 2018 after many years of work, I only represent my personal identity, based on my personal experience and understanding, combined with the open network reports and relevant information, I would like to talk about my personal views on the hot issues related to Wuhan virus that you are concerned about.

One

According to the information that can be found on the Internet, I will briefly review the work done by Wuhan virus in this epidemic.

December 30, 2019: samples of unidentified pneumonia patients were obtained from the partner Wuhan Jinyintan hospital.

2020 / 01 / 05: covid-19 virus strain was successfully isolated. We started to establish cell model of virus infection, set up anti viral drug screening platform, and gradually carried out drug screening.

2020/01/11: novel coronavirus genome sequence information is submitted to WHO by the Wuhan virus as one of the designated National Health Protection Committees designated agencies. It is released in the global influenza sharing database (GISAID) (GlobalInitiativeonSharingAllInfluenzaData) to achieve full ball sharing. (the first new mRNA crown vaccine in the United States was developed based on the virus sequence provided by China, so the efforts of Wuhan Institute of Virology and other Chinese researchers have actually played an important role in international prevention and control of the epidemic. Its a pity that the time gained by the Chinese through the joint efforts and great sacrifice of the whole nation has been wasted by some countries.)

2020 / 01 / 21: patent application for inhibition of covid-19 virus replication (cell level) by radcivir.

2020 / 01 / 22: start the research of inactivated covid-19 vaccine.

2020/01/24: the novel coronavirus pneumonia detection team was established.

2020 / 01 / 25: urgently establish a testing team composed of nearly 20 members, and start testing for the first 196 delivered samples. (in May 11, 2020, novel coronavirus pneumonia, deputy director of the virus, Guan Wuxiang told ScienceDaily daily, cumulative detection of suspected throat swabs samples from new crown pneumonia patients is more than 6500. After the lifting of the ban in Wuhan, the Wuhan virus remains one of the designated detection units responsible for clinical nucleic acid detection.

2020 / 01 / 28: organize local staff and postgraduates of Huanggang virus Institute to support pathogen detection in Huanggang City.

2020 / 01 / 28: jointly develop the covid-19 IgM / IgG antibody detection kit (ELISA) with Lizhu reagent, and submit the emergency approval application to the State Drug Administration.

2020 / 01 / 29: the inhibition effect of Shuanghuanglian on covid-19 virus was tested at the cell level.

2020 / 02 / 03: the joint research and development progress of Lizhu reagent and Wuhan virus Institute is announced, and a variety of detection kits are introduced, including IgG / IgM antibody detection kit (colloidal gold method), nucleic acid detection kit (PCR fluorescence method) and IgM / IgG antibody detection kit (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The above products have been developed and trial produced, and are cooperating with a number of centers for Disease Control and medical institutions to expand the number of clinical samples to further evaluate the products and verify their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

2020 / 02 / 05: Wuhan Jinyintan hospital started the phase III clinical trial of Ridgeway to test the effect of treatment of new type of coronary pneumonia.

2020/02/07: novel coronavirus pneumonia is effective in treating new crown pneumonia, the Ministry of science and technology has agreed. It is recommended that the chloroquine phosphate should be incorporated into the new edition of the guidelines for the treatment of the disease.

2020/02/07: China began novel coronavirus infection with Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, and registered number ChiCTR2000029605 of China clinical trial registration center.

2020 / 02 / 07: the first batch of virus cultured on a large scale according to the vaccine production standard was harvested.

2020 / 02 / 11: carry out the work of determining the antibody titer in the blood of clinically cured patients.

2020 / 02 / 19: issued a letter from the staff and graduate students of the Institute caused by Wuhan virus: do a good job in science and technology. When there are rumors everywhere and there is a lot of noise, the staff and graduate students of the Institute are required to reflect the mission and responsibility of the science and technology national team with solid work achievements, and provide strong scientific and technological support for winning the epidemic prevention and control war. Novel coronavirus, which is not a public official account, can be used as a professional virology research team. It can publicize virology knowledge, introduce new coronavirus, and popularize prevention and control knowledge through various platforms such as WeChat public address, video website and new media.

2020 / 02 / 21-2020 / 04 / 17: rumors of various platforms are all over the world, so Wuhan virus Institute has to keep quiet actively. Except for the publication of some scientific research papers, it has not published any new work progress through any way.

April 10, 2020: Qiu Yang, associate researcher of Wuhan Institute of Virology and Zhou Xi, researcher, revealed that the nucleocapsid protein encoded by covid-19 virus can be used as an inhibitor of virus production to inhibit intracellular RNA interference. SciChinaLifeSci.2020Apr10.doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1692-1.[Epubaheadofprint

April 12, 2020: the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine jointly developed by Wuhan Virus Research Institute and Wuhan Biological Products Research Institute of Sinopharm group was approved for clinical trials. The vaccine relies on a new coronavirus strain which was first isolated by Wuhan Institute of Virology. After being cloned and screened by Wuhan Institute of Virology and Wuhan Institute of biological products, the vaccine was developed jointly. (however, there is no mention of Wuhan virus Institute in the overwhelming vaccine publicity. Is it possible that the name of Wuhan virus Institute had to be omitted because it was in the middle of rumors at that time? The details are unknown to outsiders.)

April 15, 2020: Guan Wuxiang, deputy director of Wuhan Institute of Virology and Zhang Dingyu, President of Wuhan Jinyintan hospital, as experts, jointly participated in the national security education of Hubei Province, shared and popularized the knowledge of biosafety, analyzed and sorted out the current situation of Chinas biosafety, and put forward their own views on better maintaining the national biosafety.

April 18, 2020: Yuan Zhiming, a researcher of Wuhan Institute of Virology and director of Wuhan National biosafety laboratory, analyzed and refuted conspiracy theories such as artificial virus and virus leakage in an interview with cgtn.

2020 / 04 / 22: media revealed that the network and email address of Wuhan virus Institute had been attacked, many researchers email addresses and passwords had been dragged into the database, and unknown groups had compiled a list of @ wh.iov.cn email accounts and passwords. Shi Zhenglis email address had been knocked into the database hundreds of times. Some peoples mailboxes have been attacked more than 3000 times, and some laboratory computers need to be reinstalled after being attacked. (however, thanks to the strong network security of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, no mailbox has been broken.)

April 23, 2020: the new inactivated coronavirus vaccine jointly developed by Wuhan Institute of Virology and Wuhan Institute of biological products completed the vaccination of 96 people in the first three age groups. (unfortunately, Wuhan virus Institute is once again missing in most propaganda.)

2020 / 05 / 02: Wang Manli, associate researcher of Wuhan Institute of Virology and Hu Zhihong, researcher, cooperated with Beijing Institute of toxicants and drugs, and found that abidol hydrochloride, an anti influenza drug, can effectively inhibit covid-19 virus in vitro cultured cells. CellDiscov.2020May2;6:28.doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0169-8.eCollection2020.

2020 / 05 / 07: Zhang Leike, associate researcher of Wuhan Institute of Virology, worked with Rao Zihe and Yang Haitao, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, to reveal the mechanism of inhibition of the main protease of covid-19 virus by the antitumor drug Carmofur based on protein structure. NatStructMolBiol.2020May7.doi:10.1038/s41594-020-0440-6.[Epubaheadofprint

*As of May 12, 2020, there are 35 articles with covid-19 titles in PubMed, a professional medical literature retrieval website, which searches for authors including Wuhan virus Institute.

I believe that the actual work, work, work and efforts of the researchers of Wuhan virus Institute are far beyond the content of the report, but because they are in the center of the vortex of various public opinions, rumors, attacks and defamation, and at the same time, they are also subject to the attacks of some Internet thugs who dont distinguish right from wrong and the defamation of some foreign media forces, so its not convenient to explain every effort and every effort in detail A little work and every achievement; no clarification and response to the overwhelming rumors and doubts.

Two

no

Based on all the data reported at present, the analysis of global experts, and the objective actual situation and logical analysis, this possibility can be ruled out. In this regard, the vast majority of virologists in the world have a consensus.

(1) It is difficult to achieve under the existing scientific and technological capabilities.

Under the current level of science and technology, researchers really have the ability to transform the coronavirus to a certain extent. For example, like the 2015 Nature Medicine article (natmed. 2015; 21:1508-13. There are many articles explaining this work), which was completed by American scientists in the United States and constructed the recombinant virus.

Shi Zhenglis role is to provide the sequence information of bat coronavirus s protein which is responsible for recognizing the S protein entering the host cell, and to confirm that the S protein of bat coronavirus can recognize the cell receptor ACE2 at the cell level, but it is not directly involved in the construction of the recombinant virus and the analysis of infection characteristics, and it is not involved in the work of virus recombination.

Even with the aid of modern biological technology such as bioinformatics analysis and protein structure prediction, a lot of experimental work is needed for screening and verification, and the cost of manpower, funds and time is still unimaginable. Therefore, it is very difficult to make covid-19 virus artificially under the existing technological capabilities.

Scientists time and energy are limited. Their work, while pursuing scientific truth, also needs to face many practical problems to maintain the normal operation of the laboratory. The most important three should be research funds, experimental personnel and research conditions. To put it more generally, they are money, people and high-level biosafety laboratories.

(i) Money: the laboratory must have enough research funds (money) to carry out scientific experiments (reagents, analysis, testing, experimental animals...) The monthly living allowance for postgraduates should also be paid from the scientific research funds.

There is not enough funds to support, there is no way to operate a laboratory. Most of the funds of Wuhan Institute of Virology are vertical support, mainly including the annual operation funds allocated directly to the Institute by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the national and local projects applied by various research groups. The information of these projects is completely open and transparent (you can go to the inquiry if you are interested, for example, NSFC inquiry system of NSFC is as follows: https://isisn.nsfc.gov.cn/egrantindex/funcindex/prj search-listuff09u3002

Under the current scientific research environment in China, the articles published by the applicant directly determine the scientific research projects and industry recognition he can obtain, so everyone hopes to publish their work in a better magazine.

At present, the international management of research on enhancing the virulence of pathogens or modifying virus hosts is very strict. If there is no special reason, it is generally not allowed to publish such work (for example, the 2015 article mentioned above has also been questioned).

If its impossible to publish a work, which scientist will spend a lot of money and energy on such research?

Imagine, which student will accept a research project that cant publish an article or guarantee his graduation? Similarly, the salary income of the staff (the salary of Wuhan virus Institute is really not high) is related to the professional title, and one of the hard indicators for the promotion of the professional title is the number and level of published articles (including the application items, which have been explained above, and will not be repeated), so the staff also have no intention and motivation to carry out a promotion without publishing articles, promoting professional titles or promoting Pay for research projects. All in all, there is no incentive for any researcher to reconstruct such a virus.

(3) Most importantly, there is no evidence that the new coronavirus has been artificially modified.

Edmond Locard (1877-1966), the founder of modern forensic science, proposed a famous law: every contact leaves a trace.

The same is true of scientific experiments. If we want to transform a virus, we must use modern molecular biology technology.

At present, the gene sequence of covid-19 virus has been published for several months, and many scientists all over the world are trying to study it, but no one has put forward any clear and convincing evidence to prove the existence of artificial modification.

(biorxiv article of Indian scholars claims that covid-19 virus contains HIV sequence, suggesting artificial modification has been criticized by scholars all over the world, and the manuscript has been withdrawn; Dr. Dong Yuhong, a virologist in Europe, and Dr. James Lyons Weiler, a virologist in the United States, claim that the evidence of breaking the coronavirus code is also totally untenable, and has been criticized by many people. Global diseases Poison experts dont buy it.)

(4) Recently, many scientists have published various evidences to show that the virus is not an artificial synthesis but a natural origin.

For example, Kristian Andersen, a famous viroevolutionist at Scripps Institute, published an article on viral.org, refuting the conspiracy theory of artificial synthesis, which has been reprinted and supported by many famous virologists.

This is a refutation research article with the most professional authority and the most technical content (http://virtual.org/t/the-proximal-origin-of-sars-cov-2 / 398).

In addition, Professor Guan Yi of South China Agricultural University, Hong Kong University and Professor Hu Yanling of Guangxi Medical University all published research papers on biorxiv (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.17.951335v1, https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.13.945485v1) on the preprint website, indicating that a coronavirus similar to covid-19 was found in pangolin samples.

Although it is still controversial whether pangolin is really an intermediate host, it is now recognized that covid-19 virus should originate from bats.

(5) The worlds top scientists have reached a consensus to reject this conspiracy theory.

(Note: the above data content is updated to 2020 / 02 / 21, and then a large number of experts have published articles or statements to refute the claim of artificial virus, which can not be listed one by one due to time.)

(5) According to the report of Reference News Network 2020 / 05 / 10: according to foreign media reports, many people, including the World Health Organization, the British health minister and the spokesman of the Russian President, denied the accusation that the new coronavirus was made artificially, and stressed that the virus came from nature.

According to the Russian satellite news agency website reported on May 6, the World Health Organization denied the accusation that the new coronavirus was made artificially, and stressed that the virus came from nature. Matthew Hancock, the British health minister, said the UK did not see any evidence that the new coronavirus was made by humans, the report quoted Reuters as saying.

British government officials said Londons position is that the new coronavirus is likely to be transmitted from animals to humans first, but has nothing to do with laboratories.

Russia said it was wrong for the United States to blame China for the new coronavirus epidemic without providing evidence.

In the early days, conspiracy theories such as artificial virus and laboratory leakage were mainly spread by some netizens and sensationalists. At the time of the spread of the epidemic abroad, the media in some countries began to spread the theory (some rumors are likely to be export to domestic sales), while some politicians were also in various political purposes.

However, if you are ill, you should listen to the doctors judgment. Its not right to listen to the fortune tellers words. If you want to learn mathematics, you should listen to the math teachers advice. Its also not appropriate to find a PE teacher.

So, the origin of the virus, not to see the professional opinions of virologists and biologists all over the world, but to listen to those politicians who play tricks on politics and the eye-catching media that specialize in the gossip concocted by the gimmick, it is not ridiculous.

Three

no

(1) To get out of the lab, you have to have a virus.

(i) Now it is found that batcovratg13 from bat is the most similar to covid-19 virus, that is to say, no virus like covid-19 has been found.

(III) prior to covid-19, only six viruses were found that could infect humans. If the 7th coronavirus that can infect people has been discovered for a long time, scientists will not publish an article as soon as possible (if it is not the impact of the epidemic, it should be a major discovery), but will secretly hide and wait for the leakage, which is illogical from any point of view.

(2) The possibility of leakage through experimental animals is very low.

The use and management of experimental animals are strictly regulated.

As far as I know, all P2, P3 and P4 levels are in the laboratory animal farm of Wuhan Institute of viruses. I only know the management of part of P2 laboratory. P3 and P4 belong to high-level laboratory animal, and I have no qualification to use them. But they must have higher protection specifications and stricter management than P2 laboratory animal.

Moreover, there is a special person in the experimental animal center who is responsible for the management and monitoring of animals. There is no dead angle monitoring in the experimental space for 24 hours, and the experimental personnel cant deal with the animals at will. Covid-19 virus research needs to be carried out in at least P3 level laboratory, and the corresponding animal experiment management is more strict.

Therefore, there is no chance that the experimental animals mentioned by Dr. Wu Xiaohong will escape and be eaten; the so-called selling some experimental animals in the microblog of fake real name report is even more ridiculous.

(3) Primate experiment is the key work of covid-19 virus research after the recent outbreak.

First of all, the approval of animal experiments and the use of P4 laboratories are strictly regulated. All work needs to conform to bioethics and experimental animal welfare ethics. When small animals (such as mice) can be used, large animals are not allowed to be used, and primate experiments need to be more careful. If the experiment is approved, all work needs to be carried out under the supervision and management of the animal center, not at will.

For P4 laboratory, animal experiments are not even carried out by the researchers who carry out the project, but by the trained and qualified P4 laboratory personnel after submitting the experimental scheme.

(II) from a funding perspective.

The cost of primate experiment is quite high, not to mention the cost in the later experiment process. The cost of purchasing a rhesus monkey alone is about 20000 yuan.

As far as I know, Wuhan virus institute only has the experimental space for primates in P4 Laboratory (P2 and P3 are not available), and the cost of maintaining and working in P4 laboratory is very high, so if there is no special need, there is no need to conduct primate experiments at all.

Therefore, primate experiments are often the last step of a subject, that is, at the cell level, small animal experiments have been completed, and the results are good, it is possible to consider primate experiments.

As far as I know, P4 laboratory did not carry out primate infection experiment before the outbreak; after the outbreak, Wuhan virus Institute carried out some primate experiments in P4 laboratory in order to make scientific research.

At present, I dont know the specific experimental content and the number of animals in primate experiments, but according to the conventional process, it may involve (not necessarily include) understanding the pathogenesis of the virus, developing treatment plans, testing drugs, developing testing vaccines, etc. (Note: the above data content is written on February 21, 2020)

2020 / 04 / 12 media reported that Wuhan virus Institute (most media reports did not mention the Institute) and Wuhan Biological Products Institute jointly developed the worlds first new coronavirus inactivated vaccine. Before the clinical test, it must go through a series of strict toxicity tests and validation of effectiveness. It is believed that in these tests, primate infection models have made great contributions.

Wuhan virus is not in the transformation of coronavirus?

I dont know much about the coronavirus research work of Wuhan Institute of viruses, but for any laboratory that studies viruses, its quite normal to carry out some modification operations for viruses.

For example, in order to study the process of virus invasion, replication and transmission, quantum dots can be used to mark the virus surface, add fluorescent protein gene to the virus genome, fuse the protein on the virus surface with fluorescent protein, knock out the virulence gene in the virus for vaccine development, etc.

However, all the experimental designs are based on the perspective of security, which is why there are different biosafety level laboratories, and the experimenters need to choose the appropriate security level according to the corresponding research objects and work content.

So if the virus is modified, are they all terrible? The answer is No.

The vast majority of virus transformation is for scientific research, which is based on the basic premise of security. Take HIV for example. One of the characteristics of HIV is that it can integrate its genome into human chromosomes (which is one of the reasons why HIV is hard to cure).

Using this feature, scientists have transformed HIV into a vector for gene delivery, like truck freight, to transfer the target gene it carries to other cells. For decades, HIV vectors (commonly known as lentiviral vectors) have experienced a round of development, from the first generation to the fourth generation. The main change is the gradual improvement of safety.

Now the majority of cell biology or molecular biology laboratories in the world are using lentivirus vectors.

By the way, traditional HIV can only recognize one receptor called CD4, that is, it can only infect one kind of cells containing CD4 (CD4 + T cells); in order to enable it to recognize more kinds of cells, scientists specifically replaced the HIV surface protein that recognizes CD4 with the similar protein (VSV-G) of another virus (water cannon stomatitis virus, VSV), so that the lentivirus vector can infect many Different kinds of cells expand its application. Therefore, it is not always a bad thing to make some modifications to the virus, and it will not necessarily cause serious consequences (Note: the above data content is written in 2020 / 02 / 21)

Before Wuhan Institute of viruses (not mentioned in most media reports) and Wuhan Institute of biological products jointly developed the worlds first new coronavirus inactivated vaccine, Chen Weis team of academicians of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences had taken the lead in developing the new coronavirus recombinant vaccine. The vaccine is actually based on virus modification.

The vaccine of academician Chen Weis team was obtained by modifying adenovirus (a common virus, which can cause acute upper respiratory tract infection, eye and gastrointestinal tract infection; it can also cause pneumonia in infants and young children, with serious illness and high mortality).

Simply put, the recombinant adenovirus vaccine based on adenovirus can be obtained by removing the key replication related genes in adenovirus genome through gene transformation, and then using the obtained recombinant adenovirus as the skeleton to express the surface protein of new coronavirus (or other viruses such as Ebola virus).

Therefore, virus transformation is a very common technical means, there is no need to panic.

Although virus modification is a conventional technology and operation, the work of virus modification (especially the highly pathogenic virus which needs to be studied in the high-level biosafety laboratory) can not be carried out casually.

Any modification work related to highly pathogenic virus must pass the review of professional biosafety committee and ethics committee before the start of the project. Only in line with international and domestic biosafety and bioethics, the review can be carried out after passing. These processes have strict rules and regulations, strict application and evaluation procedures, which are not playful at all.

Five

Does Wuhan virus Institute foresee the possible epidemic situation and give a warning?

However, scientists are not forecasters. No one can predict in advance that there will be such a serious epidemic caused by such a virus by the end of 2019. What they can do is to start scientific research quickly after the outbreak.

The time node of novel coronavirus working by the Wuhan virus is mentioned above, that is to say, the earliest time that was found was collected in December 30, 2019.

The focus of Virology may be different from that of infectious diseases, clinical medicine, public health and so on, mainly for the study of virus itself.

In the face of such a new virus (although similar to SARS, there is a big difference after all), it is difficult to make a clear conclusion whether human to human transmission will occur or whether a large-scale epidemic will be caused without animal and cell experiments.

The only thing that might alert researchers is that sequencing results and sequence alignment show that covid-19 has something to do with SARS. However, science is rigorous, and the similarity of virus sequences alone is insufficient as evidence to predict serious outbreaks. If this information is published to the media, it may cause serious social problems.

Therefore, the most possible way for Wuhan virus Institute is to submit these information to relevant units according to laws, regulations and work processes (Im not an expert in this field, and I dont know which specific units are, but there are a lot of information on the Internet describing the legal reporting channels of new infectious diseases, so you can inquire by yourself).

There is no definite evidence to prove this, but on January 11, as one of the designated agencies of the national health and Health Commission, Wuhan virus Institute submitted the genome sequence information of the virus to the World Health Organization, from which we can see some clues more or less.

In addition to devoting themselves to scientific research and publishing papers, an important social responsibility of scientific and technological workers and research institutions is to publicize science popularization to the public and introduce their work and results in a language that the general public can understand.

However, it is not too late to mend. After being blacked like a storm in some countries, we finally understand that the so-called self-cleaning of the Qing people is just wishful thinking, which must be clarified at the time of clarification, and should stand up for criticism at the time of revision.

On this basis, arming the public with scientific knowledge is the best way to make everyone immune to rumors. Therefore, there is a long way to go in science popularization.

Six

How to evaluate Shi Zhengli?

Shi Zhengli

Seven

How to treat the drugs screened by Wuhan virus?

According to the information displayed on the official website of Wuhan virus Institute, on December 30, 2019, the Institute collected the covid-19 virus samples from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital; on January 2, 2020, the full genome sequence of covid-19 virus was determined; on January 5, the virus strain was successfully isolated; on January 9, the virus strain was included in the national Virus Resource Bank (managed by Wuhan virus Institute) and standardized preservation was carried out; 1 On November 11, who, as one of the designated agencies of the National Health Commission, submitted the genome sequence information of covid-19 virus.

From the above time points, we can see that the research work of Wuhan virus began in the early stage of the epidemic (note that it is the early rise of the epidemic rather than the beginning of the epidemic).

According to an interview with Guan Wuxiang, vice director of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Wuhan Institute of virology has condensed 12 research directions, including a drug screening team composed of 17 researchers.

Some of the results have been published through various media or professional scientific journals. The information of drug screening and research progress published by the media mainly focused on the early stage of the epidemic, but some of the information caused some public opinion reversal, and the results in the middle and late stage were mainly published through scientific and technological journals.

According to my personal experience and understanding, Wuhan virus institute should also have a large number of research results and progress reported to the higher level expert group or the higher level health and scientific research departments through other internal channels, but because there is no publicly released information, we cannot understand the specific situation.

Now lets talk about drug screening from my personal understanding. First of all, I dont have much personal experience in drug screening, but I have participated in part of a project, so there may be errors in details, but the overall process should not be too biased.

After the new coronavirus isolated from Wuhan virus, the establishment of infected cell model should be started immediately. The establishment of cell model should make use of some cell lines commonly used in virology laboratory to simulate the infection in vivo.

After that, researchers began to use the cell model of virus infection to adopt a wide-ranging screening method (which is also a conventional screening method), and a large number of drugs or drug banks that have been clinically approved or have not been approved (as far as I know, all multiple drug banks of Wuhan virus).

If a drug can effectively inhibit virus replication in this cell infection model, it is possible (note, it is only possible, not 100% certain) that it also has antiviral effect in vivo.

On January 28, it announced the identification of three drugs that can inhibit virus replication at the cellular level, including the highly publicized version of readcivir (gs-5734) and the other two drugs chloroquine, After sigma-c6628) and ritonavir, they successively identified other drugs that can effectively inhibit virus replication in vitro, and published the research results in professional scientific journals (it is believed that the relevant results have been reported to the superior before the publication of the article).

Now there are still controversies about the actual efficacy of chloroquine, readcivir, Lianhuaqingwen capsule and other drugs, which is also the only way for the development of science and medicine.

After a long period of clinical tests in stages I, II and III, it is possible to be approved for clinical treatment. The whole drug research and development is a long process. Its only the first step in the long march to find out the possible effective drugs at the cell level. Moreover, the epidemic broke out suddenly, so all the screening work can only speed up under the premise of ensuring the results, so as to provide the possible candidate drugs for the next test as soon as possible.

As a basic scientific research institution, the researchers of Wuhan virus institute can only test the cell level in vitro, at most using experimental animals for some validation.

They do not have the ability or qualification to conduct independent clinical tests. From this point of view, regardless of the actual clinical effect of these drugs, the work and efforts of Wuhan Institute of Virology are worthy of affirmation.

As for Wuhan viruss rush to register radcivir patent, although the hot spot has passed, lets talk about my ideas. I dont know much about intellectual property and drug research and development, so I can only talk about my personal understanding. There are also a large number of experts in the industry (please refer to the opinions of experts in the industry) who have commented on this matter. You can refer to it yourself.

Moreover, the writing of patents is standardized, which is quite different from the daily writing of science and technology. Most of the researchers I know are not good at this kind of patent writing. The common practice is to provide all the ideas, results and information to the patent agency (just like going to a law firm in a lawsuit), and then the patent agency is responsible for the subsequent patent writing and application, which will not take up too much time of the researchers.

The application for patent can be approved or not, so it is best to have reliable data, but there is no reliable data, which can be rejected at most, without serious consequences. However, the public report must have rigorous experimental data and reliable conclusions.

At that time, some people questioned why Wuhan virus first applied for a patent and published an article instead of recommending clinical tests immediately after discovering that the drug might be effective?

I think there are several reasons.

Under normal circumstances, after selecting some drugs that may be effective, the researchers of Wuhan Institute of Virology must, on the basis of strict in vitro (cultured cells) and in vivo (experimental animals) testing and verification, cooperate with units with clinical testing qualification and ability (such as hospitals) for clinical testing, or entrust a professional third-party cro company (entrusted research institutions) to carry out the clinical testing For testing.

In this new crown epidemic, all the results should be reported to the superior departments or expert groups, and then the superior units or expert groups make follow-up decisions. If necessary, the clinical research of follow-up related drugs can be promoted based on the evaluation results of cell level. We believe that Wuhan virus Institute has made relevant recommendations according to regulations.

(II) radcivir only shows the ability to resist covid-19 virus at the cell level, which is the first step in the long march according to the normal process. It should be followed by small animal experiments, possibly primate experiments, and finally phase I, II, and III clinical trials. Imagine who would rush to clinical test such a drug that only plays the role of cell level?

(III) radcivir has not been officially approved for marketing after all. Although the toxicity level can refer to the results of the second phase and previous experiments abroad, there are too many uncertain factors, so we must carry out experiments in a scientific manner to determine the effect. This is also why Wuhan Jinyintan hospital needs to carry out a double-blind experiment on 761 patients, which can only be concluded in April. At present, the results show that radcivir has no significant effect, but some people think that this is because the number of clinical subjects is too small (because a large number of clinical tests are launched at the same time, resulting in not enough clinical patients to participate in the test), so the specific effect of radcivir needs to be further studied.

Eight

Why dont Wuhan virus Institute and Shi Zhengli come out to clarify?

Personal point of view, Wuhan virus Institute and Shi Zhengli really should come out to refute and clarify rumors and stigma one by one. But they are also limited by various practical and objective conditions.

Wuhan virus in this epidemic situation has a black constitution, leading to the epidemic trend of black virus. At first, it was said that the virus and P4 laboratory were artificially transformed and leaked. Later, a student graduated from the virus Institute for two years became patient 0. Then someone pretended to be a researcher of the virus Institute and reported that the director of the institute took the experimental animals to the seafood market for resale (it was funny to think about that picture); after the epidemic eased, some people promoted the anti-virus method known as Wuhan virus, and some sold the so-called Wuhan virus The anti-virus hand sanitizer developed by Wuhan virus Institute, and some people under the guise of Wuhan virus Institute, went out to provide the company with a new crown nucleic acid detection service.

However, if we waste our precious time on these meaningless lawsuits, there will be no inactivated new coronavirus vaccine that can enter the clinical test, and there will not be so many drugs identified in the in vitro test, and there will be no new coronavirus that can be derived from the important discovery of bats.

With every detail vividly described, Shi Zhengli is the focus of attention. Numerous rumors have appeared around her: the virus was first transformed by her own; and the Shi Zhengli was under the cover of others to alert everyone to the new crown. Recently, foreign media had a nose and eyes saying that Shi Zhengli was driving to the P4 laboratory and secretly put a virus containing foam box in the Southern China seafood market. The official account of the Southern China seafood market and the P4 laboratories listed on the two sides of the Wuhan virus is not allowed to go along. Recently, the WeChat public claimed that Shi Zhengli had provided more than 5000 samples of bat viruses abroad. There were also reports that Shi Zhengli had absconded with France in a few days ago (I was all laughed at).

As a result, Shi Zhengli was forced to come out again to clarify in the circle of friends, indicating that this was a matter of nothingness. It is considered to be a deficiency of heart; after the result is clarified, some people think that Shi Zhengli must be a deficiency of heart if she doesnt give an alarm in this situation; now we assume that if we really give an alarm, we believe that some people are still dissatisfied, and think that its just a trick to call the police because of such a small thing, which must be a deficiency of heart. People who have no ghosts in their hearts should be frank and say nothing, and those who are clear should be self-conscious u3002

The last time Shi Zhengli made a statement in the circle of friends that there was no artificial virus to clarify a paragraph, it has been analyzed by various keyman in turn with various views. This time, she still cant help but stand up to clarify, which is probably forced to be helpless. Even though there are hundreds of people and hundreds of tongues, they cant explain clearly.

Screenshot of rumor

From this, I think of all kinds of brainless rumors about Bill Gates recently. Over the years, the Gates Foundation has funded vaccine research and development and production in many countries, and helped many countries fight against a variety of epidemic diseases. After the outbreak in the world, he continued to provide a large number of donations to all over the world, and did not spare no effort to spend a huge sum of money to promote the research and development of the new crown vaccine. However, these behaviors attracted him to use the new crown epidemic to control the worlds population and complete the population elimination plan, and appropriately blacked him into thanos.

On these rumors and attacks, Bill Gates told CCTV news 1 + 1 on April 9, 2020: I think its ironic, especially for those who do their best to prepare for the epidemic.

Recently, with the international slander and rumor of various foreign media and politicians, I think you should be able to see the clue. In fact, as early as the beginning of the outbreak (early February), a lot of accounts from overseas IP addresses have jumped out of various platforms to release information, and wantonly smear Wuhan virus Institute, Shi Zhengli and other researchers from various angles.

Recently, a variety of foreign media and politicians have targeted Wuhan virus, and some of the so-called evidence finally shows that its actually a clumsy patchwork of transplanting trees (https://m.chinanews.com/wap/detail/zw/gn/2020/05-07/9177873.shtml); last month, there were also overseas black guest groups that attacked Wuhan virus by using Internet, using the means of database collision to try to invade Wuhan virus Email address of scientific research personnel.

Based on a comprehensive analysis of various situations, I think that part of the doubts raised by researchers such as Wuhan virus Institute and Shi Zhengli in the early stage of the epidemic mainly come from the doubts caused by the lack of understanding of the virus and scientific research of some people, which could have been easily eliminated by experts clarification and kopu, but because of some restrictive measures at that time, the rumors became increasingly fierce ;

At the same time, at this time, there will also be some online red fish in troubled waters and some overseas accounts with ulterior motives, trying to stir up the flames, disturb the audio-visual, and take this opportunity to attack and affect the Wuhan virus Institute. The specific purpose is unknown;

After the epidemic spread all over the world, media and politicians in some countries, ignoring the professional opinions of global scientific experts, are determined to target China and Wuhan virus Institute. If it is not for the purpose of fabricating sensational (fake) news, it should also be for the purpose of casting off the pot and diverting attention, or for other political purposes.

Nine

(1) Please dont over interpret researchers.

What they say and use in daily life will not be as elaborate as writers and poets, nor as watertight as politicians and diplomats, but often just on the point. Its like there are two trees in my family, one is jujube tree, the other is jujube tree. If we over interpret it, we can see the allusions and metaphors that the author didnt think of.

(2) Ask the scientific researchers to stand up and publicize science popularization, clarify the facts and refute the rumors.

A good friend of mine sent a pair of children to relatives thousands of miles away before the Spring Festival, and then quickly returned to Wuhan to join the first-line medical treatment together with his wife. After two weeks of intensive work, he also carried out online consultation during the isolation period. He told me that if you dont tell the truth, if you dont tell the truth, if you dont tell the truth, you will be flooded; another professor with social responsibility who I highly respect also told me that the public knows Right to love is very important at this time.

It was their encouragement and support that put an end to my idea of being wise and protecting myself, sitting still and eating melons and watching guests. Therefore, I hope that more scientific researchers (including scientists, ordinary scientists, scientific and technological personnel with professional background, as well as postgraduates and college students who know certain professional knowledge) can come out as soon as possible, use their own professional knowledge and rational analysis, and widely publicize in various media. When the spirit of science and correct views are told to you There is no hiding place for rumors.

After March, a lot of scientists have come to the front line of publicity one after another. They have carried out popular science work aiming at the basic knowledge and prevention and control knowledge of new coronavirus with their own professional knowledge. Intellectual research society, a non-profit public welfare organization jointly sponsored by Qian Yingyi, Rao Yi and pan Jianwei, and Tencent foundation also invited six top experts in the industry to carry out a series of public science live broadcast activities 2020 scientific anti epidemic campaign. So scientists have moved on.

(3) It is suggested that the official spokesperson of Wuhan virus institute should respond to social concerns and questions in a timely and public manner.

I believe that it is far better for you to tell us the truth, including your work, your efforts, your achievements, the pressure you are under, your responsibilities and even your mistakes, in a sincere, objective and rational way, than the four words of having a clear conscience, and far more persuasive and credible than my answers and analysis.

Recently, Guan Wuxiang, deputy director of Wuhan Institute of Virology, and Yuan Zhiming, director of Wuhan National biosafety laboratory, have been interviewed by some media and journalists, with good results.

But I think, as an expert, when facing the media, we should try our best to use some grounded language, and avoid the official jargon. We should publicize scientific knowledge and introduce our work in a way that non professionals can understand.

(4) Ask relevant departments to allow or even encourage researchers to make their own voice.

If there are scientistsu201c

At present, scientists should not be silent

u201dIts not that scientists dont want to talk, its that they dont let them talk, the article said.

I understand that at present, information disclosure needs to be selective. Not all research results and progress should be made public immediately. However, a reasonable explanation, explanation, clarification, refutation, work introduction, progress report and result interpretation are absolutely necessary. The right of the public to know must be guaranteed at this time.

It is true that we should be cautious about the public development statement in the extraordinary period, but being cautious does not mean that it is completely prohibited, one size fits all is also a typical lazy policy. Managers should work with scientists to properly screen information, speak rationally, and let scientists say what they should say.

No explanation!

(function(){(window.slotbydup=window.slotbydup||[]).push({id:u5811557,container:ssp_5811557,async:true});})(); But the scientific research on the new coronavirus and the epidemic situation is still in intense progress. Most of the researchers I know are still working day and night, fighting against the clock, working day and night, vaccines, drugs, transmission routes, virus traceability, basic virology research There is still a lot of work to be done. Only by knowing enough basic knowledge of new crown virus, accumulating abundant response means and developing effective vaccines and drugs, can we minimize the loss caused by the new crown epidemic in case of resurgence. So please give them a quiet sky and concentrate on their work. Dont be incited by a small group of people with ulterior motives, confused by some other net red figures, or accomplices of some other countries special purpose forces. Finally, I hope that the whole society can respect scientific knowledge and arm its own mind with science through the lessons of this epidemic; I also hope that the whole society can pay more attention to scientific researchers and their work. After all, researchers are also heroes who work with medical workers to save the world from diseases and epidemics. It is recommended that the cost of starting the nucleic acid screening of new coronavirus in Wuhan is more than 1 billion yuan? American expert: absurd! Shi Zhengli of Wuhan virus Institute fled to apply for asylum from the US Embassy? I deny that the source of this article is: Science net Author: Zhao Fei editor: Hua Chengyu

However, the scientific research on the new coronavirus and epidemic situation is still in intense progress. Most of the researchers I know are still working day and night, competing against the clock, vaccine, drug, transmission route, virus traceability, basic virology research There is still a lot of work to be done. Only by knowing enough basic knowledge of new crown virus, accumulating abundant response means and developing effective vaccines and drugs, can we minimize the loss caused by the new crown epidemic in case of resurgence.

So please give them a quiet sky and concentrate on their work. Dont be incited by a small group of people with ulterior motives, confused by some other net red figures, or accomplices of some other countries special purpose forces.

Finally, I hope that the whole society can respect scientific knowledge and arm its own mind with science through the lessons of this epidemic; I also hope that the whole society can pay more attention to scientific researchers and their work. After all, researchers are also heroes who work with medical workers to save the world from diseases and epidemics.