At the executive meeting of the State Council on February 5, it was proposed that we should do our best to ensure the supply of key medical prevention and control materials and necessities, and all the key medical prevention and control materials produced by enterprises should be purchased and stored by the government.
Subsequently, on February 9, the national development and Reform Commission, together with the Ministry of finance, the Ministry of industry and information technology and other departments jointly issued the notice on giving full play to the role of government reserves to support the increase in production and supply of materials in short supply in response to the epidemic (hereinafter referred to as the notice), and issued the catalogue of products that the government has been seeking the bottom to purchase and store (the first batch) (hereinafter referred to as the product catalogue).
Materials received and stored shall be under the unified management and allocation of the state. According to the existing collection and storage system and method, the key medical protection materials produced by enterprises in the product catalog are all purchased and stored by the government. The product catalog will also be gradually improved according to the situation of epidemic prevention and control, and dynamic management will be implemented to further strengthen the construction of public health emergency materials support capacity.
With the spread of the epidemic, the demand for medical materials in various regions has surged. The main purpose of the state is to reduce production costs, encourage the expansion of production capacity, solve the worries of production enterprises, and provide reassurance for enterprises.
Among them, in order to expand production capacity, many enterprises cross-border production. According to Tianyan survey data, since January, more than 3000 enterprises in China have added masks, protective clothing, disinfectants, thermometers, medical devices and other businesses.
As a central enterprise directly involved in the production and guarantee of epidemic prevention medical materials, Hengtian Jiahua nonwovens Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Sinomach group, resumed production at the first time, handled industrial and commercial changes, adjusted all products to non-woven raw materials for medical health materials, and accelerated the production of non-woven raw materials for protective articles at the limit speed of the production line.
The head of Hengtian Jiahua told the first financial reporter that the masks and protective clothing for emergency production are all allocated by the government, and the enterprise is fully producing them. At present, it has opened 8 production lines for plane medical surgical masks, and gradually reached production capacity, with a daily output of more than 500000 pieces. It actively promotes the procurement of N95 mask production equipment and anti-virus protective clothing project, and strives to invest them as soon as possible Yield.
According to the notice, relevant departments of provincial governments shall, according to the product catalog and according to the needs of epidemic prevention and control, implement the list system management on the material storage of key material production enterprises for epidemic prevention and control, and the list of enterprises shall be reviewed and summarized by each region and then submitted to relevant national departments. Central enterprises may apply to the relevant departments of the state directly or by the competent departments of relevant industries. Relevant departments of the state should strengthen the information sharing of the list, do a good job in communication with relevant financial institutions, and study and issue support policies.
After the epidemic is effectively controlled, what should we do with these production capacity? Ministry of industry and information technology told the first financial reporter that according to the policy requirements, relevant enterprises will be encouraged to transform the expanded production capacity to other types, standards or models with large market demand, and to meet the needs of industry or consumption while meeting the needs of key medical materials. In order to maintain the proper production capacity of the enterprises in transition, the relevant departments of local governments should study and issue policies and measures to support them within a certain period of time.
All materials received and stored must be tested and certified in strict accordance with the relevant national standards. Materials that do not conform to the relevant standards of the state or of inferior quality shall not be stored. According to the Ministry of industry and information technology, the state level will further strengthen the supervision and inspection of key material production and sales enterprises for epidemic prevention and control, resolutely maintain a fair and just market order, strengthen the supervision of performance, and seriously investigate and deal with enterprises that illegally produce unqualified products and seriously breach contracts.
Further optimize the collection and storage mechanism
Since the 1970s, the governments of the United States, Japan and other countries have been collecting and storing oil, rare metals and other strategic resources.
Liu Zhe, vice president of Wanbo New Economic Research Institute, told the first financial reporter that the national reserve is based on the institutional arrangement of macro-control, which regulates the market price and income distribution of products through the collection and storage. While ensuring the strategic reserve of necessary materials, it is more important to bear the price of the collected and stored products, guarantee the interests of the farmers or related enterprises who provide strategic resources, and narrow down Income gap and other functions.
Wheat is the first variety to be collected and stored in our country. After that, the country has successively opened the collection and storage of corn, sugar and other agricultural products. The batch of collection and storage is uncertain every year. Generally, it will harvest and store at a low price to achieve the role of counter cyclical price regulation of agricultural products.
After 2008, the state began to collect and store aluminum, zinc and other non-ferrous metals, rare earth and other rare metals, as well as natural rubber. Generally, the purchase price will be higher than the market price. For example, in 2008, the purchase price of aluminum ingots was about 10% higher than the spot market price at that time.
At present, the main varieties collected and stored in China are agricultural products, non-ferrous metals and land. First novel coronavirus pneumonia, Liu Zhe told the first financial reporter, is based on the basic judgement of the new crown pneumonia epidemic. The emergency and forward-looking safeguard measures are different from the previous reverse regulation of the price led purchase. This is a supply and demand led purchase.
The head of an enterprise producing medical protective clothing told the first financial reporter that at present, the whole process of national allocation is under control. The materials produced on the same day are uniformly handed over to the receiving and storage enterprises for receiving, storage and transportation. After the shipment, regular scheduling and tracking of transportation logistics and arrival signing are carried out, and closed-loop management is implemented for production, shipment and signing, so as to ensure that the whole process of production and transportation of materials for epidemic prevention and control can be realized Control.
The Ministry of industry and information technology has sent special task force to key enterprises such as medical protective clothing to coordinate and solve the problems of qualification, employment, capital, transportation, etc. faced by enterprises in production, supervise enterprises to resume production as soon as possible, and tap the potential of production increase. According to the demand for key medical materials and the situation of production scheduling and expansion of production of production enterprises, we should strengthen the matching of supply and demand, arrange the allocation plan scientifically, and make every effort to ensure the demand for epidemic prevention and control in Hubei Province. At the same time, according to the development situation of the epidemic situation, the demand for medical materials in the future will be predicted in a rolling way, based on which the output and production capacity plan will be inverted, and efforts will be made to match the supply capacity of epidemic prevention and control materials with the actual demand, and rare materials will be used in the most needed places.
Liu zhe said that the current collection and storage work needs to further adapt to the reform of the market economy and further optimize the collection and storage mechanism. For example, while completing the function of collection, storage and security, we should give more play to the role of the market mechanism and straighten out the relationship between the government and the market. Instead of simply regulating prices, we should stimulate the initiative and enthusiasm of micro entities and guide them to ensure the sustainable and high-quality supply of strategic materials through technological transformation and added value.
The system of emergency material reserve needs to be supplemented urgently
In this outbreak, major public health emergencies have been launched one after another, and the most strict prevention and control measures have been implemented. However, the corresponding material reserve and guarantee mechanism has not kept up with the outbreak, and many hospitals are in urgent need of medical material inventory.
A person in charge of the epidemic control center of Shandong Province told the first financial reporter that the medical material reserves of infectious diseases in China are divided into national level, provincial and municipal level reserves, as well as the reserves of various hospitals, but these reserves can only deal with some small-scale epidemics, such as this one with a wide range and a long time, and the daily reserves are not enough. Especially at the hospital level, many hospitals are short of funds and will not invest too much in emergency reserve.
Since the outbreak of SARS in 2003, the medical material reserve system has been gradually established. According to the regulations on emergency response to public health emergencies issued in 2003, the relevant departments of the State Council and the local peoples governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall, in accordance with the requirements of emergency response plans, ensure the reserves of emergency facilities, equipment, treatment drugs and medical devices.
The law of the peoples Republic of China on the prevention and control of infectious diseases, implemented in 2004, stipulates that the peoples governments at or above the county level shall be responsible for storing medicines, medical devices and other materials for the prevention and control of infectious diseases for use. In 2016, the 13th five year plan for prevention and control of sudden acute infectious diseases (2016-2020) issued by the former national health and Family Planning Commission also proposed to improve the material reserve mechanism.
The national emergency material reserve can be divided into three categories: physical reserve, contract reserve and production reserve. Physical reserve is a kind of reserve material that can be used for emergency deployment at any time after disasters or emergencies happen. Contract reserve is a contract signed between government departments and enterprises, institutions or individuals with emergency resources to ensure that they can rent and transfer the materials of these units or individuals for emergency response in accordance with the contract after the emergency. Production reserve is for those enterprises or other units that can produce, transfer or develop emergency materials, by signing relevant agreements or contracts, to ensure that emergency materials can be produced, transferred or developed rapidly in accordance with the requirements of the contract after an emergency.
China is the worlds largest producer and exporter of masks, accounting for about 50% of the worlds annual output. However, there is such a big gap in masks and protective clothing during the outbreak, which highlights that in response to major public health events for a long time, our country excessively relies on the daily medical material reserve, while the production enterprise information is not perfect, the emergency demand information is not transparent and other production reserve problems are not complete.
Gao Hong, a researcher at the Safety Industry Institute of CCID think tank, wrote that Chinas emergency materials are stored, purchased, allocated, transported, distributed, used and recycled by multiple departments, which is also one of the reasons for the insufficient supply, chaotic management and low efficiency of emergency materials in this epidemic. A unified and efficient comprehensive management and control organization and system shall be established to manage the daily storage and emergency command related material support work. As the leader of the medical material support group of the joint prevention and control mechanism of the State Council, the Ministry of industry and information technology has taken the lead in organizing the production and supply of emergency materials, which is a good practice and can play an exemplary role in improving the contract reserve and production reserve mode in the future.
Gao Hong also suggested establishing an information response mechanism for production reserves. Through the establishment of the information system of emergency material production reserve, enterprises and institutions with emergency material production capacity are guided to join in, and the integrity system and various main credit records are established in the aspects of emergency material procurement, emergency requisition, voluntary donation, disaster relief, recovery and reconstruction. In case of emergency needs, shortlisted enterprises are preferred. Through the information system, provide information release, purchase, order fulfillment, inventory management, transportation, distribution, acceptance and other whole chain information service capabilities.