On January 27, a staff member was catching a giant salamander (giant salamander) in front of a merchant in the Western District of South China seafood market in Wuhan. Photography / Changjiang Daily Chen Zhuo
2020 is the review year of Wuhan National Health City.
On January 16, Wuhan welcomed a research group organized by the planning department of the national health and Health Commission. The focus of this research groups investigation in Wuhan is to understand the comprehensive treatment of urban and rural environmental sanitation, market environmental sanitation and vector biological control.
At that time, the South China seafood wholesale market in Wuhan was on the cusp of the storm. Novel coronavirus pneumonia was reported on December 31, 2019 by the Wuhan Health Protection Committee, and China News Weekly visited Southern China seafood market on the day of the 27 cases.
South China seafood market is located in the downtown area of Wuhan, only one kilometer away from Hankou railway station. It is divided into East and west districts, with more than 600 merchants. It is an old market that has been open for many years and is rumoured to be demolished. Until new years Day 2020, the market was closed for rectification.
After the outbreak, many people are worried about how many South China seafood markets there are in China? With the continuous emergence of new business forms such as supermarket, convenience store and fresh e-commerce, is it necessary for agricultural trade market to exist? The reality is that in Chinas trillions of fresh food trading markets, farmers market is still the main fresh food consumption channel of residents, accounting for more than 70%.
Due to different understandings of local governments at all levels, the planning of the agricultural trade market is not in place. In addition, after the opening of the market subject, there are state-owned enterprises, private enterprises and individual contractors, which cause difficulties in management. Ma Zengjun, vice president of the world wholesale market Federation and President of the National Federation of urban agricultural trade centers, analyzed that the market management and operators should establish strict market access and exit mechanisms. The construction of the agricultural trade market has always been a livelihood project, which needs to be coordinated with the development of the city.
Survey of health cities
A research group from the planning department of the National Health Commission stayed in Wuhan for two or three days. At this time, it has been two weeks since Wuhan south China seafood wholesale market was closed for rectification.
On January 19, Zhou Xianwang, mayor of Wuhan City, presided over the executive meeting of the municipal government to study and deploy the standardization transformation of Wuhan agricultural trade market (vegetable market). In 100 days of the great war, the upgrading of 400 agricultural markets in the city was completed, which was the goal at that time.
In fact, these 400 farmers markets are the main channel to solve the demand of peoples livelihood fresh food, accounting for 70% - 80%.
As one of the focuses of public speculation, South China seafood wholesale market is located on the second ring road of Wuhan city. It is less than one kilometer away from Hankou railway station. The surrounding business circle is dense. The total construction area of the market is 50000 square meters. There are more than 1000 stalls in the East and west regions, among which there are live birds, beasts and other wildlife transactions in the west region.
After the closure of Wuhan City, almost all the agricultural trade markets in the central urban area were closed, and a large number of retail demands had to be solved by the supermarket.
An accompanying expert, who did not want to be named, told China News Weekly: at that time, the judgment on the epidemic situation was not so serious. The agricultural trade market was the necessary unit for the re inspection of health cities, and visited eight markets in Hankou and Wuchang. At that time, the closed South China seafood market was a comprehensive market with both wholesale and retail, including aquatic products, as well as some live birds Wildlife trading.
According to the information on the special regulation activities of wildlife market released by Wuhan municipal market supervision and administration in September 2019, there are nearly 8 merchants in South China seafood market that can legally operate wildlife, including the sale of tiger frog, snake, hedgehog, etc. The seafood market has been exposed after the continuous visits of the media. There are many illegal operations, such as no operation or breeding license, no formal quarantine department monitoring, etc.
At present, there are few wild animals that can be legally traded, so its generally the mode that businesses carry with them in the market. As long as its a legal transaction that has been approved, the market will not intervene too much. At present, there is no clear regulation on what kind of agricultural trade market can be traded. Even in the ordinary standardized market, there are requirements for the interior decoration and sanitation of the market. Zhu can, chairman of Xinwo capital, who has studied the planning and development of the agricultural trade market for a long time, told China News Weekly that the general fruits and vegetables and meat should be set separately. For aquatic products and poultry, which are easy to produce peculiar smell, they should be separated into different areas, including sewage discharge..
After several agricultural trade markets came down, the above experts disclosed to China News Weekly that in general, the management level of Wuhans agricultural trade market is not high, for example, some markets are built in a disorderly way. Compared with other cities in other provinces, there is a certain distance between the development, construction and management level of the market. Generally, the standard of a simple evaluation of a market is to see six sides and one scale - facade, scene, ground, table, wall, face and intelligent electronic scale.
Disputes over agricultural reform
As an agricultural market, it has the function of public service and is a part of social mechanism in urban planning. These important places for the exchange of agricultural and sideline products in urban and rural areas have been built relatively early, and there are many problems such as simple facilities, extensive management and poor supervision. Zhu can analyzed.
In fact, the farmers market, which is responsible for the dinner table of residents, has always been the standard in Chinas large and small cities. The scattered agricultural trade market weaves the life of the nearby residents together like a needle and thread, and becomes a part of the urban and rural common life. Most of these markets serve as vegetable baskets and rice bags, dealing with ordinary peoples three meals a day.
In the early days, there were state-owned vegetable farms. After the reform and opening up, the agricultural trade market mainly solved two problems: one was the supply of vegetables in the city, the other was the employment of migrant workers in the city. During this period, the government took the agricultural trade market as a supporting measure for the construction of residential areas. The management was dominated by the government, with unified planning and respective operation. The relative investment was relatively small, and it was not an enterprise or group operation mode. Yonghui supermarket Secretary Zhang Jingyi said.
After the reform and opening up, China began to reduce the varieties and quantity of the state-controlled purchase and sale and the limited sale, and the agricultural trade market and the traditional agricultural and sideline product market were restored and developed. At that time, with the advantages of simple and low cost, wind and rain proof, fixed operation and stable daily stand free from the weather, the steel shed market quickly penetrated into cities and towns across the country.
Most of the existing agricultural markets can be traced back to the national vegetable basket project started in 1988. The original purpose of this livelihood project is to alleviate the contradiction between the tight supply of agricultural and sideline products and the rapid price rise in the 1980s. In this period, the wholesale market of production and sales began to move and integrate on a large scale, realizing group operation. The circulation mode of agricultural and sideline industries of farmers - wholesale market of production and sales - agricultural trade market - consumers has been influenced so far. Zhu Can said.
But then, the agricultural trade market has become the representative of dirty and disorderly in the process of urbanization. In the eyes of policy makers, miniaturization, chain and supermarket are considered to be more advanced urban non-staple food supply business, which is an enterprise behavior. Therefore, at the beginning of the 21st century, the opinions of speeding up the construction of supermarkets, convenience stores, community food stations and the decision of returning to the farmers market appeared on the desk of decision makers.
Around 2000, with Fuzhou model as a typical representative, agricultural reform and super achieved some success in Fuzhou, and began to land nationwide. Local governments at all levels actively lead and promote the transformation of agriculture into super industry. On the one hand, it is to improve the city appearance, and more importantly, the government hopes to solve the problem of food safety with the self-restraint of chain enterprises.
In the early stage of agricultural reform and super market , there were about three modes: one was to transform and upgrade on the spot, dismantle and rebuild the original agricultural market; the other was to build supermarkets around the agricultural market, and let the agricultural market withdraw naturally through market competition; the other was to build new supermarkets directly, each of which accounted for one-third of the total. Zhang Jingyi said.
After the agricultural reform super entered the actual operation of the country, various difficulties came one after another. There are more than 800 agricultural markets in Shanghai, and we have cooperated with Shanghai Guosheng group for nearly five years, and only transformed more than 30. At that time, there were more than 400 small proprietors in Chongqings first agricultural trade market, which took about two years. Zhang Jingyi explained that the old farmers market has poor property conditions and small scale, so the investment cost of transformation is very high. Compared with the same area, the cost of agricultural reform is 20% to 30% higher than that of the new fresh supermarket.
The vigorous transformation of agricultural products into supermarkets has experienced more than two years of operation and entered the adjustment period. At the same time, the domestic academic circle carried out transformation of agricultural products into supermarkets in 2003, expressing various concerns, such as: how can supermarkets meet the diversified demand of agricultural products like the agricultural trade market; the risk of managing fresh products is large, and once the supermarket encounters the risk, it will give up not operating fresh products and change to other products, etc And so on.
After the controversy, the policy of agricultural reform to super is very difficult. The policy turns to encourage the transitional agricultural reform to super (adding supermarkets in the agricultural trade market) and gradually change the operation mode of the agricultural trade market.
In 2009, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the notice of the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Finance on the implementation of the standardized vegetable market demonstration project. The standardized vegetable market has become the main form of the transformation of the countrys agricultural trade market, and is rapidly spreading across the country.
Due to the existence of various constraints, the development of agricultural trade market lags behind the new business forms such as business supermarket and community vegetable market, and the emergence of fresh e-commerce has replaced part of the demand for agricultural trade market. Is there any need for agricultural trade market?
The answer given by the data is yes. In 2019, the retail sales of fresh food in China exceeded 2 trillion yuan. According to the data of China Merchants Securities in April 2019, the traditional agricultural trade market is still the main channel for domestic residents to purchase fresh food, accounting for about 73%. Supermarket channel accounts for 22%, which is the second largest channel. At present, fresh food consumption is not divided by e-commerce channels, and online channels account for about 3%.
Sheng Qiang, an associate professor at the school of architecture and art, Beijing Jiaotong University, has been tracking changes in the Beijing food market. Starting from the doctoral thesis in 2005, almost every five years, we have carried out carpet research on the food market in the Third Ring Road of Beijing. Sheng Qiangs most intuitive feeling is that the actual number of stalls in the vegetable market is decreasing, and the market will spontaneously make some adjustments, such as the consolidation of stalls to increase the business area, improve the level of the business environment and so on.
In his view, no matter what the policy orientation, the demand for the agricultural trade market will always exist. Whether it is suitable for the vegetable market or the supermarket is determined by the objective law of the market itself. From the perspective of architecture and planning, there will be another dimension - location, what level of transportation it is located in, and what type of business it is more suitable for..
In the 1950s and 1960s, some big cities in the United States also experienced the phenomenon of Desertification of the vegetable market: the government departments issued policies to restrict the development of the vegetable market, and the urban vegetable market was closed in large areas. Later, public space management organizations in some areas decided to re-establish the vegetable market in the urban public space after investigation. The square in front of the federal building in Bern, Switzerland, if there is no special election activity, will become a free market twice a week. Hawkers from all over the country and even neighboring countries will set up stands and sell products here.
Compared with the development experience of foreign countries, Ma Zengjun believes that compared with supermarkets and community restaurants, it is indeed more difficult to manage the farmers market, but the demand of consumers for farmers market cannot be ignored. In his opinion, the first problem to be solved is planning. Due to the different understanding of the local governments at all levels on the vegetable market, the planning is not in place, so it is necessary to determine the reasonable density of the agricultural trade market according to the situation of the community..
In urban planning, the control index of urban public facilities is called thousand people index, which reflects how many square meters of vegetable market each thousand people can match. This indicator varies from place to place. For example, the allocation standard of Beijings food market is 50 square meters per thousand people, and that of Shanghai is 120 square meters per thousand people.
Indicators are used to determine the rationality of spatial distribution. The key to the problem is whether the theoretically established indicators can be implemented. The existing reasonable and legal commercial land is often located along the city level road at the block boundary, which has a high profit potential in todays urban economic pattern, while the vegetable market, a convenient business, has a low profit and is not suitable for distribution in these areas. Sheng Qiang told China News Weekly that it is a reasonable way to adjust the land use planning according to the contemporary market rules, otherwise, even if there is index control, it will be difficult to implement, and the forced implementation will also result in a waste of land resources.
Urgent need to upgrade
China News Weekly learned in an interview that at present, the property rights of the agricultural trade market are relatively scattered, and there are state-owned and private enterprises, street communities and individuals as the managers of the market. The phenomenon of focusing on collection rather than management is widespread.
According to Wu Gang, chairman of Hangzhou Yihong Market Research Consulting Co., Ltd., the transformation of the agricultural trade market is a systematic project, which is divided into two parts: hardware and software. The national agricultural trade market is improving hardware more or less. The most intuitive thing is that the environment has been improved, but only the capital investment of each market There is a difference between entry and strength.
The key to deciding whether a market can be changed well or not, and whether it can meet the needs, is to look at the software, such as relying on the software to realize intelligent operation and realize the management of food safety and fire safety issues in the market, including the establishment of standing books, product traceability, etc. Wu Gang said, the key is to do systematic research and positioning on the market in the early stage, how to improve the brand quality of merchants, the systematization of management, or the lack of restrictions on merchants, and the poor effect of investment promotion will affect the later effect.
After the outbreak, Zhu can once wrote an article calling for the intelligent and standardized transformation of the agricultural trade market. He observed that, as a result, the epidemic was special. In the face of the demand for vegetable distribution, the farmers market used more telephone, wechat and other ways to realize the primary online demand of offline demand, which exposed the shortage of online capacity of farmers market.
In the internal management of the market, through the innovative application of modern technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, and the Internet, we will transform the traditional agricultural trade market in an intelligent, digital, technical and standardized way. In the sales process, we should open up online and offline business channels and actively develop online trading and logistics distribution. The new agricultural trade market should establish cooperation with e-commerce and distribution platform, and establish direct supply and direct sale, online ordering, chain distribution and other modes. Zhu can suggests.
Ma Zengjun inspected the colorful food market in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and found that the successful operation of the agricultural product market in the worlds metropolises, its construction and operation mode has reference significance for the construction and development of the agricultural product market in Chinese cities. Rotterdam colorful food market integrates parking lot, apartment and food market in function, and integrates tourism, leisure, shopping, catering and other diversified formats. Although it is a city complex, the operating cost of the food market is not high.
According to Ma Zengjun, for the agricultural trade market, it is more important to improve its functions and integrate with the development of the city. These iconic agricultural markets reflect the shape and customs of a city, and become a window of urban culture, such as the Japanese construction site, the hongshiban in Hangzhou, the eight cities in Xiamen, etc.