What is the current situation of migrant workers returning to work? The 21st century economic report combs the situation of Henan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Chongqing and other major export places of migrant workers.
As of February 23, 3.689 million rural labor in Henan Province had returned to work. Before the Spring Festival, 9.78 million migrant workers had returned from outside the province, with a return rate of 37.72%; according to the statistics of Kaifeng City, Henan Province, as of February 22, 187000 migrant workers had returned to work and gone out 50800, with a return rate of 27.2%, including 6402 organized transportation.
By the end of December 2019, according to the labor resource survey of human resources and social system of Yunnan Province, 12.2404 million rural labor force had transferred employment, 8.6399 million of which were transferred within the province, and 3.605 million of which were transferred outside the province. However, as of February 21, 3.2896 million rural labor force had been transferred in Yunnan Province, including 1.0272 million of which were transferred outside the province and 2.22624 million of which were transferred within the provinceu2014u2014 There are still big differences compared with the data at the end of 2019.
However, in the next 15 days, the provinces rural labor force is expected to go out to work for 1579500 people, according to the anti epidemic situation and stable employment headquarters of Yunnan human resources and social security department.
According to a press conference on the prevention and control of the epidemic in Chongqing held on February 20, 6.057 million migrant workers returned to their hometown this spring festival in Chongqing. According to incomplete statistics, there are 739000 migrant workers going out to work. This means that there are still 5.31 million migrant workers returning home in Chongqing, accounting for nearly 88% of migrant workers returning home in the Spring Festival of 2020.
According to 2018 data, the total number of migrant workers in Sichuan Province is 21.6 million. From the perspective of industry distribution, the proportion of construction industry, manufacturing industry and tertiary industry is 27.5%, 26.4% and 42.8% respectively. In terms of flow direction, there are more than 120000 migrant workers transferred to Hubei Province. In addition, there are 3.9 million, 1.2 million, 540000 and 500000 migrant workers transferred to Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Chongqing, respectively.
According to this estimate, the epidemic situation and economic downward pressure are superimposed. It is expected that the employment situation of migrant workers in Sichuan will be greatly impacted in the first quarter. It is estimated that at least 500000 migrant workers are hard to return to work.
Faced with the more urgent employment situation of migrant workers, a number of measures have been taken in many places.
On February 25th, the Department of human resources and social security of Gansu Province issued the notice on completing the work of returning migrant workers to work and labor transfer, pointing out that providing service guarantee for the safe and orderly return of migrant workers to work, and providing freight subsidies for the return of migrant workers by charter to ensure the rapid and safe return of migrant workers to work.
From February 10, the human resources and Social Security Department of Yunnan Province sent special employment officers to Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Fujian provinces to timely learn about the resumption of work and conditions of return to work, recruitment information, and docking with the return to work and employment of migrant workers.
At the same time, in view of the fact that it is difficult for some people to go out to work and get employment this year, it is planned to arrange another special support fund for the development of public service-oriented posts, and specially arrange local and nearby employment for the poor people, so as to ensure that the poor people can steadily increase their income and get rid of poverty. In 2020, Yunnan will develop another 50000 public service-oriented posts to help the poor people who set up files and establish cards to get employment locally and nearby.
The general requirements of Sichuan Province are: to give priority to the orderly export of migrant workers from the disease-free and sporadic cases free areas in Sichuan Province, to focus on the return of employees from enterprises in Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Zhuhai, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Jinhua and other major service sites in Guangdong Province, and the rural labor force from the poverty alleviation cooperation counterpart counties in the East and West.
Guizhou is the first province in China to regulate the time for migrant workers to return to work. Migrant workers migrant workers in novel coronavirus pneumonia were released in Guizhou in February 17th. They should check the basic situation, living conditions, employability and health status of the family members of migrant workers in a village by household. Take effective measures to strive for all migrant workers to return to work before the end of February.
At present, Chongqings practice is to encourage the migrant workers who have not yet gone out to work to give priority to employment in Chongqing, in addition to ensuring their travel in the context of enterprise demand. Currently, the number of Posts released is 150000. Another good news is that with the adjustment of the epidemic prevention and control level in several districts and counties in Chongqing, more jobs may be released in the future.
Precise measures are still needed for local employment nearby
However, affected by the epidemic situation, how to carry out local and nearby employment when the channels for migrant workers to go out to work are blocked?
Guo Xiaoming told the 21st century economic reporter that there are conditions for local and nearby employment. According to the conditions of different regions, different directions and priorities should be chosen.
For Sichuan, he thinks it can be considered from three directions.
First, local governments should strengthen docking and transfer employment within the province. Due to the differences in wages and benefits, compared with the coastal areas, enterprises in Sichuan Province have relatively weak attraction to migrant workers, which has resulted in a large number of migrant workers output in Sichuan Province in the past, and on the one hand, there is also the problem of employment difficulty in Sichuan Province. Therefore, under the current situation, through the docking between local governments in Sichuan Province, we can realize the transfer of employment in Sichuan Province and turn the crisis into an opportunity
Second, Sichuan should consider strengthening the support for migrant workers self employment and entrepreneurship. Once the prevention and control situation is relatively improved, the demand for general tertiary industry will be generated rapidly, which will form a certain employment gap. Local governments should reduce taxes and fees and other conditions, so that migrant workers can have a place to live in towns, counties and medium-sized cities.
Third, we should strengthen the employment and Entrepreneurship of migrant workers in the field of agriculture. In recent years, Sichuan has continued to carry out vocational farmers training, but one of the problems is that, because a large number of farmers go out to work, the hollowing out of the countryside, resulting in a shortage of training objects despite policies. At this time, I think it just makes the migrant workers in the sector stay, receive training, and transform into professional farmers who master advanced production means.
Qiu Dongyang, a professor at Chongqing University of science and technology and director of MBA Education Center, believes that the problem of migrant workers rework can be treated in two aspects. The first is the issue of restorative employment, which refers to the fact that migrant workers who have more stable employment channels or positions in the past cannot return to work temporarily due to the impact of the epidemic. For this part, I think the impact is mainly short-term. As long as the domestic economic situation can be stabilized, the past employment demand can still be released, and a large number of migrant workers can still obtain employment opportunities.
However, considering that some small and medium-sized enterprises may face operating difficulties and other factors, Qiu Dongyang believes that the willingness of migrant workers to return to work may not be fully satisfied.
The second is to adapt to the new employment of migrant workers. Once the epidemic is over, it is expected that there will be an explosive growth in consumption, tourism and other industries in the future, which will bring the demand for some jobs. But the emergence of this part of the post requires the government to carry out skills training for migrant workers in advance.
However, Qiu Dongyang also pointed out that to improve the employment rate of migrant workers, it is not enough to work only from the labor side. The main body of the market is still enterprises. Only when the enterprises operate smoothly, can new jobs be created.
From the perspective of the whole situation, Qiu Dongyang believes that migrant workers employment work or experience a certain period of pain, so he also suggests that migrant workers should also appropriately lower their salary expectations and work with enterprises to tide over the difficulties.
At the same time, it is also one of the key measures to strengthen the assistance to migrant workers who are living in difficulties. The 21st century economic reporter noted that Guo Xiaoming also proposed in the above-mentioned response suggestions to promote the urban governance system with residence as the core, to include migrant workers in the scope of urban vulnerable groups, and to focus on the life of rural three left behind people.
First, with the residence as the core, migrant workers should be included in the scope of service management, regardless of whether the household registration is in the local area or whether there is property right housing, and provide services and management such as epidemic prevention publicity, material supply, personnel statistics, etc. without difference; second, during the epidemic period, migrant workers who have already entered the city but have not yet stable residence should be provided with low-cost, safe and healthy housing security; third, they will be born Migrant workers with living difficulties are included in urban public services such as urban minimum living insurance assistance, medical assistance, housing assistance, employment assistance, childrens education, etc. to ensure their basic life. Fourth, we need to increase various forms of support for the elderly, women and children left behind in rural areas, so as to avoid the plight of these rural groups due to the reduction of their overall income.