In Hubei Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xiangyang and large cities such as Xian, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Shenzhen, the Xiaotangshan model hospital for centralized treatment of new pneumonia patients is accelerating its implementation. Beijing also announced the launch of Xiaotangshan Hospital renovation, depending on the changes in the outbreak.
During the SARS period in 2003, in order to effectively control the epidemic situation, Xiaotangshan designated hospital was built in Beijing within 7 days, and 1/7 of the SARS patients in China were treated in two months.
How is Xiaotangshan Hospital built? What experience does Beijing Xiaotangshan provide? Is there any rule for the construction of temporary infectious disease hospital? Behind Chinese speed, the landing of Xiaotangshan model is also a race against the epidemic.
On January 30, Wuhan huoshenshan hospital, ward board room was formed. Photography / Xu Xingxing, reporter of Beijing News
On February 2, Wuhan huoshenshan hospital under construction. Photography / Xu Xingxing, reporter of Beijing News
Three landing modes
On January 23, new crown pneumonia spread rapidly in Wuhan. The fever outpatients and inpatient departments of three major hospitals in Wuhan are overcrowded, and the infection of medical staff has occurred. In order to contain the epidemic, Wuhan decided to build a 1000 bed hospital in Zhiyin lake, Caidian, with reference to Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital during the period of SARS, to centrally treat patients infected with new coronavirus. This is the huoshenshan hospital delivered on February 3.
But thats not enough. On January 25, Wuhan decided to open the second Xiaotangshan hospital, leishenshan hospital, in Huangjiahu, Jiangxia District. After design, the final building area of the hospital is expanded to about 60000 square meters, and the number of beds is increased to 1600. It is planned to be delivered for use on February 5.
Besides Wuhan, Ezhou, Xian, Shenzhen and other places also began to prepare for the construction of new emergency hospitals.
According to the official website of Ezhou municipal government, the project of Ezhou emergency hospital for disease prevention and control is officially named Leishan hospital. The hospital is constructed in two phases, with 386 wards and 772 beds. Xiaotangshan Hospital in Xian, located in the southeast of Gaoling District, Xian City, was officially started on February 3, with a construction period of 8 days. It is planned to be completed on February 10. After the first phase is put into operation, it can accommodate more than 500 patients in hospital at the same time.
In more areas, Xiaotangshan mode is realized by transforming the original hospital areas, such as Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xiangyang, Changsha, Yueyang and other places with serious epidemic situation in Hubei Province.
According to Zou Sanming, the general director of Xiaogan southeast hospital, in an emergency, the original hospital is transformed into Xiaotangshan Hospital, which is more emergency and efficient.
At the end of January, Xiaogan City, Yingcheng, Yunmeng and Dawu counties under its jurisdiction established four Xiaotangshan model hospitals with 990 beds through expropriation of existing hospitals. According to the introduction of the relevant person in charge of the urban hospital of traditional Chinese medicine, the difficulty of the reconstruction is mainly to empty the ward in the early stage, and properly handle the discharge procedures or transfer procedures for the patients. In general, the patients understand and support, and the next disinfection and reconstruction work will be very smooth.
Huanggang is the most serious city in Hubei except Wuhan. Under the condition of long line of medical treatment and tight beds, the medical center in Dabie Mountain area was expropriated as the centralized treatment point for fever patients and transformed into Xiaotangshan Hospital of Huanggang version. Dabie Mountain Area Medical Center is the new hospital area of Huanggang central hospital. The main works, indoor and outdoor decoration have been completed. The original plan is to move the whole hospital in May this year. This provides favorable preconditions for the transformation.
Within three days, the hospitals water, electricity, access walkway and three areas and two channels construction were completed, more than 15000 square meters of hospital rooms were cleaned, more than 700 beds were installed, and officially opened on the evening of January 28.
In order to ensure the construction speed and quality, Zhengzhou and other places combined the rapid transformation of the original hospital area with the new ward in the process of building Xiaotangshan model hospital.
On January 27, Zhengzhou decided to transform the original site of the port hospital of the first peoples Hospital of Zhengzhou into a designated hospital for the treatment of pneumonia patients infected with new coronavirus.
According to reports, the hospital construction includes the reconstruction of the outpatient building and ward building of the former port hospital of Zhengzhou first peoples Hospital, as well as the expansion of two ward buildings at the back of the hospital. The new ward building covers an area of more than 14000 square meters, adopts the form of movable board room, and can provide more than 280 beds, which is expected to be delivered for use on February 6.
On February 3, TV sets were installed in some wards of Wuhan huoshenshan hospital. Photography / Ma Jun, reporter of Beijing News
Speed of construction
Cheng Liping, the builder of Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital and former general manager of Beijing Sumitomo di6 development and Construction Co., Ltd., said that the Xiaotangshan model hospital is actually a typical field hospital, characterized by simplicity and applicability, so the difficulty of construction is not construction, but time is too tight.
The project will be started on January 25 and completed and delivered on February 2. Wuhan huoshenshan hospital was built by 7500 builders.
Affected by the epidemic situation and the Spring Festival, it is very difficult for labor workers to dispatch, and the logistics management pressure of living materials, meal arrangement, accommodation and resettlement is also huge; the construction site is faced with many adverse factors such as low temperature and freezing rain, blocked roads, and large site elevation difference. The maximum height difference between the East and the west of the construction site is nearly 10 meters. There are not only buildings to be demolished, but also a lot of dredging work and fish pond backfilling tasks. The transportation capacity is tight, low temperature and freezing rain, roads are blocked The problems faced by the builders are one after another.
In Huoshen mountain, all nodes are calculated in hours or even minutes. Under the limit of construction period, the design, construction and supervision personnel shall keep the site together. The whole construction process can be summarized as design, construction, modification and adjustment at the same time.
50 million netizens witnessed the construction speed of Huoshen mountain through live broadcast of online supervisor:
On January 25, when the design drawings were still uncertain, the builders entered the site ahead of time.
On January 26, the construction of impervious layer was fully launched.
On January 27, the first batch of container plank houses were hoisted and built.
On January 28, the steel structure of a double-layer ward area took shape.
On January 29, the installation of plank house was completed by 20%.
On January 30, the mobilization, refitting and hoisting of container plank houses were promoted rapidly.
On January 31, the foundation concrete pouring was completed.
On February 1, all the movable plank houses were installed.
On February 2, the hospital was completed and delivered.
For the Xiaotangshan Hospital project reconstructed on the basis of the original hospital, the construction period is shorter, and the basic requirements are completed within 2-3 days.
On the 27th, 28th and 29th, we have to complete the renovation of 14100 square meters. This is the time requirement when Changsha decided to renovate and repair Changsha public health treatment center (North Hospital of Changsha First Hospital) to receive all confirmed patients in and around Changsha. In an interview with the media, Hu e, chairman of Hunan kaolin construction group, who was in charge of the construction, said that at that time, he had no idea that it was hard to find people on the second day of the new year.
To his surprise, in the early morning of January 27, 58 workers and friends rushed to the hospital, no one said the conditions, we just eat this bowl of rice, we dont build a hospital, where can we treat the sick? One worker said.
In the afternoon, the number of workers increased to nearly 200, and some of them sneaked in despite the opposition of their families. By the 28th and 29th, a total of more than 400 people from 17 teams had been put into construction, far exceeding the original planned number of employees.
According to the vice president of the first hospital of Changsha City, during the reconstruction and repair of the hospital, the confirmed patients have been admitted in succession. Many times, the patients are hospitalized upstairs and the workers are working downstairs. Although the workers have taken the necessary protective measures, the pressure of admitting and diagnosing the patients while competing against time and seconds for construction can be imagined.
After 400 people fighting for three days and nights, three old buildings of Changsha public health treatment center have been connected with running water, network and gas successively, two wards have been reconstructed to meet the prevention and control standards, 300 tons of sewage collection and treatment tanks have been installed in place, and the first building of medical service room has been completed.
This special hospital was built in 2003 during the SARS period. 17 years later, it became the main battlefield of fighting against the new type of pneumonia in Changsha.
February 4, Wuhan leishenshan hospital under construction. Drawing provided by China Construction Third Engineering Bureau
On January 29, the site of Xiaotangshan SARS designated hospital in Beijing was under construction. Photography / Li Kaixiang, reporter of Beijing News
Isolation experience from Beijing
While Xiaotangshan model has been implemented nationwide, Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital has also started repair, which will be supplemented by the change of epidemic situation.
During the SARS period in 2003, in order to effectively control the epidemic, Beijing built Xiaotangshan designated hospital within 7 days, setting a world hospital construction speed record. The hospital has treated one seventh of the patients with SARS in two months, and no case of nosocomial infection has occurred among the medical staff.
At that time, Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital was basically a first floor ward with 22 wards and 1000 beds. It is divided into East and west areas, each of which has 6 rows of wards. The south side of the ward is X-ray room, CT room and operation room. To the north of the ward are intensive care unit, reception room and laboratory.
Huang Xige, a well-known designer who participated in the design of Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, learned that Wuhan would refer to the Xiaotangshan model to build the hospital, and then called the design team. He pointed out that the design of Xiaotangshan Hospital in those days had left some regrets and shortcomings, such as the ward was close to the ground, there was no air separation layer, and it was easy to be wet; there was no special ward corridor, and the door was the courtyard, so the management was inconvenient.
We fully listened to these valuable opinions and suggestions in the design. Tang Qun, deputy chief architect of CITIC architectural design and Research Institute Co., Ltd. and chief designer of huoshenshan hospital, said in an interview with the media.
On the basis of the design of Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, huoshenshan hospital has two inpatient buildings, which are arranged in the shape of fish bone in the middle of medical wards on both sides. Standing in the corridor, you can walk to any ward.
The ward is 30cm overhead from the ground. Each ward is equipped with two beds and an independent toilet. A special isolation and protection window composed of two windows and a passage is used for the transfer of drugs and food. And most of the rooms in the hospital are negative pressure rooms. The pressure in the room is lower than that outside. Its like wearing a mask on the ward to avoid cross infection of the virus with the air flow. Introduction of relevant person in charge.
The hospital implements strict partition and isolation, which not only separates the medical area from the living area, but also sets up clean area, semi polluted area, polluted area, special passage for medical staff and special passage for patients, so as to strictly avoid cross infection.
In order to eliminate air and water pollution, the hospital has laid a 50000 square meter anti-seepage membrane, covering the whole hospital area, and set up a rainwater and sewage treatment system. After two times of chlorine disinfection treatment, it can be discharged into the municipal pipe network after reaching the standard. Each ward is separately set up with non recyclable fresh air system and exhaust system, which together constitute a negative pressure system to keep the ward fresh and clean air, The discharged gas will not be discharged into the air until it is disinfected; a garbage incinerator will be set up at the south side of ward 1 building to burn the solid waste in a centralized way to ensure no environmental pollution.
A lot of design standards and equipment are superior to the Xiaotangshan SARS special hospital in those days. Zhang Yanling, former president of Xiaotangshan SARS hospital in Beijing, said that the completion and operation of huoshenshan hospital would have great significance for the prevention and control of the epidemic.
On February 4, leishenshan hospital is carrying out the steel structure installation construction of medical technology building. Drawing provided by China Construction Third Engineering Bureau
The reconstruction of temporary infectious disease hospital in Hubei province will have rules to follow
With the experience of Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, emergency infectious disease hospitals across the country now have strict requirements for the isolation of different regions.
Xiaotangshan Hospital of Zhengzhou version is designed as ward inpatient area, reception and observation area, and medical technology comprehensive area. The three functional areas are relatively independent, with access control isolated from each other. The four lines of patient flow line, medical care flow line, sewage flow line and logistics flow line are separated, clear and convenient, so as to ensure clean sewage separation and medical patient separation.
The new Anlu infectious disease hospital in Xiaogan, with a planned area of 100 mu, is divided into three parts: living area, material supply area and first aid area. At the same time, there are patient channel, medical staff channel, cleaning goods channel and medical waste channel.
Why is the division of functional areas so strict? Relevant leaders said that this can not only effectively fight the current epidemic, but also improve the citys medical and health level in the long run.
But it is not easy to build a standardized infectious disease hospital.
Time constraints, heavy tasks, lack of technical personnel, and no ready-made design specifications for the construction or transformation of temporary hospitals are all obstacles on the road to construction. For this reason, the Department of housing and urban rural development of Hubei Province has recently urgently organized the preparation of guidelines for the design of temporary respiratory infectious disease hospitals (for Trial Implementation).
According to the guideline, in the overall planning and plane layout of temporary infectious disease hospitals, the functional divisions should be defined to achieve the division and diversion of clean and dirty areas in each department. Reasonable design of diagnosis and treatment process, pay attention to the relatively independent of the diagnosis and treatment activity area of patients in the medical area and the working area of medical staff. Reduce the cross and mutual infection probability of clean and polluted people flow and logistics.
At the same time, it is necessary to temporarily take into account the long term, take into account the requirements of short-term and long-term use in building functions, safety and other aspects, reserve certain space for development, and consider the possibility of reconstruction and expansion in layout, vertical and structure.
The reporter noted that the guidelines also disclosed the design plan and plan of Wuhan huoshenshan hospital and leishenshan hospital for the first time, which is a reference for the construction of temporary hospitals in Hubei. Two types of steel structure prefabricated building system with high degree of freedom, convenient installation and disassembly are given.
Before that, the construction of Xiaotangshan Hospital - Leishan hospital in Ezhou version, referring to the design of huoshenshan hospital and leishenshan hospital, combined with the local actual needs, designed and planned the site including call system, monitoring system, fire control system, etc.
According to China Construction daily, in order to effectively alleviate the prominent contradiction of insufficient ward patients, more than 120 temporary infectious disease hospitals or isolation ward construction and transformation are planned to be launched in Hubei Province.
It is reported that the above guidelines are applicable to the construction of new temporary hospital buildings for prevention and control of class A infectious diseases, and can effectively guide the construction or transformation of Hubei temporary infectious diseases hospital. This means that in the future, the construction and transformation of temporary infectious disease hospitals in Hubei Province will have rules to follow.
What role does huoshenshan hospital play when put into use? Zhong Nanshan comments like this
What role will huoshenshan hospital, completed in 10 days, play in the battle against new pneumonia? In this regard, academician Zhong Nanshan said in an interview: because Wuhan ward is not enough, many suspected or even confirmed mild patients can only go home, which is very dangerous. After the completion of huoshenshan hospital, it can accommodate these people and make them get good care, so as to relieve the pressure of the existing designated hospitals.