Released by academician Zhong Nanshan team! Guide for the elderly to prevent new crown pneumonia

category:Society
 Released by academician Zhong Nanshan team! Guide for the elderly to prevent new crown pneumonia


Background

The elderly with weakened immune function and chronic basic diseases are the high risk population of infectious diseases. People are generally susceptible to the new type of coronavirus. The elderly are seriously ill after infection. Most of the dead patients are the elderly and those with basic diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the awareness and prevention of new coronavirus pneumonia in the elderly.

2u3001 Prevention of new coronavirus pneumonia in the elderly

Avoid contact with infectious sources

The new coronavirus can infect many kinds of animals including human. The natural host of the new coronavirus is still unclear. There is evidence to suggest that the Chinese Rhinolophus may be its natural host, and other wild animals may also participate in the transmission. Based on this, we need to do: do not eat wild animals; wash hands after contacting livestock; do not directly contact sick livestock and sick poultry; do not process or eat dead livestock and poultry meat that has not passed quarantine; do not eat raw or uncooked poultry meat. Elderly peoples daily life is often assisted by escort, so the object of prevention should include the elderlys escort.

Patients with new coronavirus pneumonia and pathogen carriers are the main communicators. It is an effective way to cut off the transmission of new coronavirus to cure or isolate this part of the population. The old peoples body response is weakened, many potential diseases occur, and some clinical manifestations are not typical. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the old people who have a history of disease contact, and carry out more strict screening if necessary. The incubation period of the new coronavirus can be as long as 14 days. For suspicious objects, close observation for 14 days is helpful to eliminate the disseminator.

Cut off the way of transmission

The new coronavirus has strong pathogenicity and high infectivity, and its transmission mode includes: air droplet transmission, contact transmission and possible fecal oral transmission.

Air droplet transmission is the main mode of transmission of new coronavirus, which can be caused by daily face-to-face talking, sneezing and coughing. Wearing a mask correctly is an effective way to reduce the spread of droplets. It is also a reliable way to reduce the spread of droplets. In order to protect the operator and the object of operation and reduce the incidence of infection, it is necessary to strictly abide by the operation process of auxiliary sputum discharge. The new type of coronavirus can survive in the air for a short time, and form particles that can be transmitted through the air and spread after a long distance. Keeping the environment ventilated, avoiding the places where people gather and self isolation are all effective methods to reduce the air transmission. Pay attention to avoid the excessive change of indoor temperature caused by ventilation.

The new coronavirus can be transmitted by contact with skin and conjunctiva. In order to reduce the spread of contact, it is necessary to wash hands in time, do a good job in hand hygiene, at the same time, do a good job in indoor cleaning, keep the environment clean and tidy, reduce indoor environmental pollution, and clean domestic garbage and dirt in time. The virus can be effectively inactivated by disinfecting the frequently contacted articles with alcohol.

In addition, the recent detection found that the patients feces can be separated from the new coronavirus, so the possibility of fecal oral transmission could not be ruled out. Pay attention to personal hygiene to prevent disease from entering the mouth. After using the toilet, pay attention to cover the toilet cover before flushing to prevent aerosol from spreading into the air.

The old people are weak in body, poor in adaptability to environment, especially in the ability of regulating environment temperature. They are easy to cause respiratory infectious diseases due to cold. The elderly have poor ability of self-care, and inevitably need care, so it is difficult to achieve absolute self isolation. In order to cut off the transmission path, it is necessary to ensure the health of care workers.

Protect vulnerable people

According to the characteristics of the elderly, in order to reduce the incidence of diseases, it is suggested to do the following:

u2460 Reasonable eating habits: malnutrition is one of the main negative factors affecting the disease outcome of elderly patients [4]. Balance diet, control the body mass index (BMI) within 19-24kg / m2, balance the intake of calories, protein, vitamins, minerals, etc., eat less and eat more. It is recommended to eat foods that are easy to digest or help digest, eat more vegetables, fruits, drink water frequently, and eat reasonable high protein foods every day, including fish, meat, eggs, milk, beans and nuts, and resolutely prohibit contact with wild animals , refuse to eat rotten or expired food, or half cooked or raw food. Maintain a variety of food types and sources, not partial to food, meat and vegetable collocation, balanced diet, to ensure adequate nutrition. For the elderly who have difficulty in eating, they can follow the advice of the nutritionist and take nasal feeding. If necessary, they can take parenteral nutrition support treatment. For all the elderly, aspiration pneumonia should be avoided in the process of eating.

u2461 Good living habits: ensure daily sleep and keep warm. Choose a reasonable way of exercise, fully understand yourself, exercise moderately, maintain a healthy living condition, and improve resistance. Try to avoid going out to the elderly activity center, the elderly university and other places where people gather. Open windows frequently, ventilate frequently, disinfect regularly, do not spit everywhere, keep hands clean, take the initiative to do personal health monitoring, and take the initiative to measure the temperature when suspected of fever. The elderly with long-term bedridden and limited physical activity should have physical rehabilitation training, turn over regularly to prevent deep vein thrombosis and bedsore.

u2462 Healthy psychological state: psychological crisis intervention should be included in the overall deployment of epidemic prevention and control to reduce the psychological harm caused by the epidemic. After retirement, the scope of activities of the elderly will be reduced, the activity center will be changed, and the psychological characteristics will also be changed under the influence of physiological changes such as feeling, movement and cognition, which are manifested as the decrease of sense of security and adaptability, and the sense of loss, inferiority, emptiness and so on. When the disease comes, the elderly will show more intense anxiety, depression, etc., which is difficult to cooperate with the treatment. Provide targeted medical, entertainment and other services for the elderly, regularly care about their living conditions, encourage the elderly to play their own talents and interests, actively adapt to the new lifestyle, make the elderly get family and social care and recognition, reduce the elderly anxiety, depression and other attacks, maintain a healthy psychological state, and promote the patients to be active Cooperate with the treatment.

u2463 Active treatment of basic diseases: the elderly are often associated with chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc., which is the high incidence group of critical illness and death cases in this epidemic. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the doctors orders, take drugs on time, regularly and regularly according to the different basic diseases, and do well in the secondary prevention and treatment of related diseases. At the same time, learn to evaluate your own condition, monitor your general situation, seek medical treatment in time when the condition changes, correctly describe the condition, do not go to the doctor randomly, and do not hide the disease. For patients with limited activity and cognitive impairment, the family members of the patients need to assist in treatment, and do a good job in evaluation and monitoring.

Three, summary

With the aggravation of social aging, the health problems of the elderly are increasingly concerned. Old people have poor resistance, often combined with other basic diseases. When this new type of coronavirus pneumonia broke out, it showed universal susceptibility, high prevalence, rapid progress and high mortality, which is the key object of epidemic prevention and control. In view of the condition that the elderly are different from the adults, such as the decline of body function, the decline of resistance and the limitation of self-care ability, the research team put forward the prevention suggestions suitable for the elderly on the basis of the prevention suggestions for the adult new coronavirus pneumonia, so as to ensure that the protection work should not only include the elderly patients themselves, but also the elderly patients caregivers, so as to achieve a comprehensive, meticulous and attention In order to achieve the victory in the fight against the new coronavirus pneumonia as soon as possible.

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