The tutor of Wenkeng, who was praised as teachers mother, was once a hero of Qinghai Tibet railway

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 The tutor of Wenkeng, who was praised as teachers mother, was once a hero of Qinghai Tibet railway


The first worlds fame was destroyed by the divine script.

Tibet Naqu, a distant but not unfamiliar name. It is located between the Tanggula mountains, Nianqing Tanggula mountains and Gangdise mountains. Over the years, it has become more and more popular on all kinds of tourism websites, sometimes as a high-frequency word.

It is over 4500 meters above sea level, close to the sky, but far away from human society. The cold, lack of oxygen and the coming Blizzard make its beauty inaccessible. People who have been there can understand at a glance what is the real bitter place.

In Naqu, there is a place called Ando. Its altitude is higher than the average altitude of Naqu. Tanggula railway station is here. Every day, there are two short stops here, but no tourists get off.

Not that they are indifferent to the vast scenery outside the train, but that they are not allowed to get off the train - the annual average temperature outside the train is only minus 10 degrees, which is often as low as minus 40 degrees in winter, and the oxygen concentration is only 20 or 30 percent of the inland. Once they get off the train, there may be accidents or even life risks due to strong high reaction.

But even through the window, a glimpse of the sky, which is almost compressed into a gap, is enough to make a train of tourists exclaim.

From the external perspective of the train, this winding railway is the most unusual landscape of the land.

Different from the inland railway, there is a metal pipe on both sides of the Qinghai Tibet railway, which is not too thick. In the high-speed train, we can not even see the whole picture of the metal pipe. It is the God of railway protection and one of the solutions that the expert team found to overcome the problem of 550km permafrost area.

The contributors include Cheng Guodong, a frozen earth expert and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

01

Qinghai Tibet railway is one of the four major projects in the new century in China. The whole project has experienced half a century of exploration, with ups and downs of three times of horse riding and two times of horse riding.

On May 25, 1951, on the third day after the signing of the agreement on the peaceful liberation of Tibet, Mao Zedong made a decision to build the Qinghai Tibet highway. In 1956, the former Ministry of Railways formally undertook the preliminary planning for the construction of the railway to Tibet, and began the survey and design work. In 1958, the construction of Xining and Guanjiao tunnels of the 814 km long xiningge (Ermu) section of the Qinghai Tibet railway was started. However, due to the economic difficulties at that time, the national strength was unbearable. In March 1961, the construction of the SiGe section and the gra section of the Qinghai Tibet railway started.

In 1967, Cheng Guodong, who graduated from Beijing Institute of Geology and worked in the Institute of glacial and frozen deserts, Chinese Academy of Sciences, went to the Qinghai Tibet line for the first time.

In the spring of 1973, Mao Zedong met with king Birendra of Nepal in Zhongnanhai. He said to Birendra, the Qinghai Tibet railway will be built to Lhasa, and to the border between China and Nepal.

This call has also changed the lives of many people, including Cheng Guodong.

One of the biggest problems for the Qinghai Tibet railway to be built is permafrost. Permafrost refers to the temperature below 0 u2103, and rich in underground ice and various rock and soil. Permafrost is very sensitive to temperature. With the change of temperature, it will become thin or fat.

Cheng Guodong once explained in an interview that the permafrost of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, also known as permafrost, means that it exists for at least two years or more, or even hundreds of years. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau will also be thawed in summer and frozen in winter. But thats the surface activity, also called the active layer, and under the active layer are all permafrost.

The most terrible thing is that there is ice in the frozen soil, that is to say, when it is frozen, it will freeze, when it becomes ice, its volume will expand, and then it will frost heave; when the ice melts, it will become a bank of mud, and there will be no bearing capacity. So the biggest challenge of Qinghai Tibet railway subgrade is frost heave and thaw of frozen soil.

Cheng Guodong said that in the activity floor, there will be many strange phenomena, such as freezing in winter and melting in summer. For example, frost heaving mound, because of Frost Heaving in a good place, the ground swells up. He once saw a frost heaving mound about 14 meters high, with a diameter of more than 100 meters, below which is very thick underground ice.

Permafrost is a worldwide problem. According to research, Chinas permafrost area ranks behind Russia and Canada in the world. Third place. In terms of classification, China has the largest area of high-altitude permafrost in the world. Several countries in the world, including Russia, Canada and the United States, have made great efforts to solve the technical problems of frozen soil. Railway Construction in permafrost area has a history of one hundred years in the world, but many problems have not been solved because of the difficulty.

The disease rate of the first Siberian Railway in Russia, which has been operated for nearly 100 years, was 45% in 1996. By the time of investigation in 1994, the disease rate of the second Siberian Railway built in 1970s had reached 27.5%. The disease rate of Northeast China Railway is nearly 40%.

Unlike the permafrost in Siberia, Russia, Alaska, etc., because of the high altitude, most of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau belongs to high-temperature permafrost, which is close to zero degrees Celsius, and is easy to melt with a little disturbance.

In addition, the impact of global warming, as Cheng Guodong said, there are two statements about the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, one is called the amplifier, and the range of warming and warming is higher than the global average; the other is called the precursory period, that is to say, the signal of global warming first appeared in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Therefore, when building the Qinghai Tibet railway, we have to take into account the climate warming factors 50 or 100 years later.

02

In order to overcome the difficulties, experts including Cheng Guodong devoted themselves to long-term front-line research.

According to the recollection of Zhang Luxin, the leader of the expert advisory group of the general headquarters of Qinghai Tibet railway construction, in 1975, together with Cheng Guodong and others, he rushed to the five beams on the edge of Hoh Xil, and then advanced from the five beams to the depth of the plateau.

When we got to Wudaoliang, we couldnt see father and mother.. They took a Jiefang Truck up the mountain. Only the female comrades were qualified to sit in the cab. The male comrades were all in the back of the car. They wandered on the gravel road called washboard by Cheng Guodong for a whole week, which made them feel miserable.

Because its a no mans land, the team members are very nervous. There is no road on the plateau, so cars are easy to sink in. After sinking in, sometimes they can dig it out, sometimes they cant dig it out, and if they cant dig it out, their lives are in danger. At an altitude of 4700 meters, Wudaoliang made Zhang Luxin feel headache and want to crack. He could not take any painkillers and could only hold his head and shout desperately.

The temperature of Wudaoliang in March was only a dozen degrees below zero. As soon as they set up their tent, the strong wind blew the tent away. They chased desperately in the back, and then fell on the tent to hold down. Several people gasped for more than an hour before they were able to carry the tent back.

There is also a tense situation that is afraid of getting sick. Cheng Guodong recalled that once when he did surveying and mapping, when his homework was finished, it rained like ice particles. One of the students caught a cold after being drenched. He had a fever that night and couldnt see it. But I couldnt help it, and I couldnt send it out. I had to rely on the sanitary box I took at that time to rescue him. Fortunately, the young man was in good health and survived.

Another time was more exciting. It was a day in July at that time, Zhang Luxin and his two companions visited the area around the Chiqu river. A blizzard suddenly hit us. It was dark. We lost our way. We dont know what to do with it. We feel more and more far away from the camp. At 3 oclock in the night, the three people who were all wet could not walk any more, curled up in a shelter, and began to talk about the bequest and how to keep the frozen soil data. In a daze, Zhang Luxin seemed to hear someone crying their names.

The three of us are tired and hungry, and have no energy to make a sound. In all kinds of frustration, we found a waterproof paper cigarette box and the last three matches on our body, and tore the cigarette box into three pieces. Ignite one, blown out by the wind; ignite another, no one noticed. There was only one last hope left. I lit the last cigarette case with trembling, and the flames shot up. By the light of the night, our companions found us

In such an environment, Cheng Guodong and Zhang Luxin persisted for eight months.

From 1974 to 1978, researchers did a lot of work on a large scale and basically made the preliminary design of the Qinghai Tibet railway. Cheng Guodong recalled that at that time, when the Qinghai Tibet railway was built, many people died. This is probably the later proposition of the Ministry of Railways to take the Yunnan Tibet line. Its too terrible to take the Qinghai Tibet line, which is terrible to react in the plateau.

There was a tunnel from Xining to Golmud, in which more than fifty railway soldiers died. Of course, at that time, the conditions were really poor and the guarantee conditions were poor.

According to the results of many years of field investigation, and on the basis of summarizing a lot of data, Cheng Guodong put forward the repeated segregation mechanism of thick layer underground ice formation. In 1983, his paper was published in the International Journal of frozen soil science and technology, which was called Chengs hypothesis by the international frozen soil academic circle.

In 1984, Xining Golmud section of Qinghai Tibet railway was completed and opened to traffic. Due to capital and frozen soil problems, the second phase of the project, the Golmud Lhasa line was put on hold again. But since then, the former Ministry of Railways and scientific research institutions have not stopped their scientific research and Research on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and permafrost.

In July 1994, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council of China held the Third Symposium on the work of Tibet. At the meeting, it was again proposed to build a railway to Tibet.

At the beginning of 2000, the capacity expansion and reconstruction project of SiGe section of Qinghai Tibet railway was started. In September of the same year, the Central Committee held several demonstration meetings on the construction of the Qinghai Tibet railway. Zhang Luxin recalled that at a meeting that decided the fate of the railway, many people opposed the construction of the railway. At the meeting, it was proposed that the altitude of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is too high for people to stay, let alone construct. Zhang Luxin slowly stood up and said, look at me. I have been there for nearly 30 years.

In 2000, the State Key Laboratory of Permafrost Engineering, with Cheng Guodong as the director, participated in the compilation of two documents, i.e. Interim Provisions on permafrost engineering geological investigation of Qinghai Tibet railway and Interim Provisions on Design of Qinghai Tibet railway. In August 2001, they soon put forward the design scheme and the experimental subgrade construction scheme.

On February 8, 2001, the office meeting of the premier of the State Council of China listened to the report, studied the construction plan of the Qinghai Tibet railway and agreed to approve the project; on June 29, 2001, the commencement ceremony of the Qinghai Tibet railway was held in Golmud and Lhasa at the same time.

On October 12, 2005, the track laying of Qinghai Tibet railway was completed. On July 1, 2006, the whole line was put into trial operation.

The success of the Qinghai Tibet Railway proves that the assurance that the frozen soil problem can be solved by Chinese frozen soil experts in that year can stand the test, among which the contribution of the cooling subgrade method proposed by Cheng Guodong.

For example, the iron bar inserted next to the rail mentioned above is a sealed heat pipe filled with working medium (such as ammonia and propane). The upper end of the pipe is a condensation plate and the lower end is an evaporator. In cold season, the temperature of permafrost is higher than that of air. The liquid working medium in evaporator absorbs the heat of permafrost and evaporates.

Due to the pressure difference in the pipe, the steam pressure in the pipe flows to the condenser along the central channel of the hot rod, which is released at a relatively low temperature and then becomes liquid. After contacting the wall, the condensed vaporization becomes liquid. Under the effect of gravity, the steam flows back, and then evaporates along the wall of the evaporator. In this way, the cooling capacity of the atmosphere is continuously transmitted to the permafrost. In the warm season, the temperature of frozen soil is lower than the air temperature, and the hot rod stops working.

The idea of cooling subgrade including hot rod, block stone subgrade structure, ventilation pipe subgrade and sunshade is creative, and they protect the Qinghai Tibet railway.

03

(function() {(window. Slotbydup = window. Slotbydup| []). Push ({ID: u5811557, container: ssp_, async: true});))) (); an engineering expert told brother Dao that the achievements of Chinas road and bridge projects today, including the Qinghai Tibet railway, are the achievements of generations of peoples struggle. The contributions and achievements of the older generation deserve respect. It can be said that Cheng Guodong is not a false name. His contribution to the Qinghai Tibet railway should not only be honored by the state, recognized by the world, but also be respected by the students. But the students emotional expression to their tutors, including their teachers wives, was misplaced. Originally, the sarcastic toast at the honor banquet appeared in a core academic journal of natural science, and was sponsored by the state funds. How absurd! Cheng Guodong himself cant say that he has no responsibility for such strange things. This article is from Shangguan news, editor in charge: Liu Yuxin, nbjs7825

An engineering expert told Dao Ge that the achievements of Chinas road and bridge projects, including the Qinghai Tibet railway, today are the achievements of generations struggle. The contributions and achievements of the older generation deserve respect from the younger generation.

It can be said that Cheng Guodong is not a false name. His contribution to the Qinghai Tibet railway should not only be honored by the state, recognized by the world, but also be respected by the students. But the students emotional expression to their tutors, including their teachers wives, was misplaced. It was originally a sarcastic toast at the honor banquet, but it even appeared in a core academic journal of natural science, and it was sponsored by the state funds. How absurd!

There is such a strange thing, Cheng Guodong himself can not say that there is no responsibility. Its not a pity that the fame of the first world was destroyed by the divine script!