On the death of Abe Guixiu in the spring and Autumn period of Archives

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 On the death of Abe Guixiu in the spring and Autumn period of Archives


Clock back 80 years ago. At the beginning of November 1939, the second independent mixed brigade of the Japanese army carried out a crusade against the Chinese Communist army in the south of Laiyuan, Hebei Province, in accordance with the so-called the third phase public order and rectification plan. On November 3, the Crusade team of Fucun Village (the largest part of the first brigade of the second independent mixed brigade) was severely damaged by the Eighth Route Army in yansuya, and the head of Abe planned to show his revenge with reinforcements.

On the evening of June 6, the Japanese army arrived at Huangtuling to camp on the spot. Abe issued an order to chase the Eighth Route Army from west to east along the Huangtuling shangzhuangzi zhaituo qiaojiahe river channel on the 7th. As an avant-garde is the Crusade team in Fucun, followed by the brigade headquarters. In order to strengthen the force, 138 members of the third squadron of the third independent infantry brigade will be assigned to the command of Fucun. (order of the second independent mixed brigade, 21:30, November 6)

Detailed report on Huangtuling battle of the special mission of the 120th division of the Eighth Route Army

Huangtuling is located on the side of Laiyuan at the junction of Laiyuan and Yixian, and shangzhuangzi, close to Laiyuan in the East, returns to Yixian. Our army is called Huangtuling battle, while the Japanese army is called fighting near shangzhuangzi, which is one thing.

At 9 a.m. on the 7th, Fu Village started from Huangtuling. A little later than 10:00, this part went east to Jiaochang village and shangzhuangzi line. It was found that the Northeast highland and the East Highland of shangzhuangzi had been occupied by the Eighth Route Army.

At the same time, the 3rd and 2nd regiments (belonging to the 3rd Division) entered the South and north of the river every peak edge, and the 120th division Secret Service Regiment closed the Japanese retreat in the Huangtuling mountain in the West.

Abe judged: the enemy lured us with one part, and the main force gathered near the Huangtuling mountain, trying to attack from behind our brigade. (Japanese Defense Department War History Office North China Public Security war) then, Abe issued the reverse advance order at 11:00 and ordered the troops to start from shangzhuangzi at 12:00 and break through to the west through Huangtuling mountain. (detailed report of fighting near shangzhuangzi)

Detailed report of fighting near shangzhuangzi

Just as the Japanese army was about to withdraw, the Eighth Route Army launched an attack: at noon on the 7th, when the teams started to move, the enemies lurking at the top of the mountain suddenly turned to counter attack, completely surrounded the brigade and launched fierce battles everywhere. (War History Office of Japan Defense Department, North China Security war)

a beast at bay will put up a desperate fight. The Japanese attacked the Huangtuling mountain, trying to open the gap and rush out of the encirclement, but they were tenacious resistance of the enemy in the direction of Huangtuling mountain. The enemys mortar shells fell nearby, and the first line of the enemy also started fighting with grenades.. (detailed report of fighting near shangzhuangzi)

Fan Zhongxiang, the political commissar of the special mission recalled: at 1 p.m., the enemy concentrated their forces and repeatedly attacked the second battalion position of our special mission in the East Highland of Huangtuling mountain, trying to seize the road and break through. Relying on the favorable terrain of the Highlands, the second battalion fought fiercely with the enemy for about two hours with the support of the regiment mortar and machine gun company, and fought back the enemys five attacks in a row, always pressing the enemy into the teaching field ditch, forcing the enemy to stop attacking. (general fan Zhongxiangs journey Collection)

The position of the artillery position of the Eighth Route Army is recorded in the attached figure 2 of the detailed report of fighting near shangzhuangzi

Chen Zhengxiang, head of the 1st regiment, recalled: at noon on the 7th, the enemy concentrated nearly 300 commandos in an attempt to recapture Huangtuling under the cover of ground and air firepower and open a breakthrough. But the enemy did not succeed. In the afternoon The enemies in the west of the teaching ground use the enclosure corners of several independent courtyards on both sides of the mountain and along the village to form the blocking and blocking firepower to the Huangtuling mountain in the west, and once again organize about 300 commandos to attack the Huangtuling mountain in an attempt to open the escape road.

After controlling the Huangtuling mountains, our special mission has made full preparations for the breakthrough of the enemy. When the enemy enters the effective range of all kinds of light weapons of the Secret Service Regiment, the regiment suddenly straws at the enemy violently and carries out counter attack from the left side of the enemy with a part. (brilliant footprints: famous Chinese General Chen Zhengxiang)

At the time of the battle, Abe Guixiu was knocked over by the Eighth Route Army mortar about 1000 meters south of shangzhuangzi, and died three hours later.

Two

Where is the artillery position of the Eighth Route Army? Look at the three fork, Huangtuling battle report in the first division of the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military area. There are no battle maps or descriptions of artillery positions. Fortunately, there is a diary of Chen Zhengxiang. According to the diary of Chen Zhengxiangs general in the army, a division of mortars was on the 803 high ground in the northeast of shangzhuangzi: our command post, mortar company and three battalions advanced from 10:00 on the 7th to occupy the 803 position (the villagers call it baimianpo), until about 16:00 on the 8th.

In 1939, in the battle of Huangtuling, the artillery position of our army (photographed by Cai Guoming, chief of photography section of 120 Division)

What about the secret service? Maybe a lot of people didnt know that the secret service had guns. According to the military history of the first army group, after receiving the order, the secret service corps of the (120) division carried three mortars to Huangtuling quickly. 82 mortar position is about 100 meters northeast of the No. 3 highland.

According to the military history and the war years - the second infantry division in the war years, highland 3 is the second battalion position. In addition, according to fan Zhongxiangs recollection and the special missions detailed report of battle in Huangtuling, the second battalion is all equipped to the east of Huangtuling, the mortar position is to the east of Huangtuling.

In the same way as the first division, the report of the secret service did not indicate the specific position of the artillery position. However, the Japanese war report indicates that there are mortars in two positions of the Eighth Route Army, one north and one south, which are generally consistent with the positions of the first regiment and the Secret Service Regiment, for reference.

A picture of the artillery of the Eighth Route Army in Huangtuling battle is widely spread, and it is generally believed that it is the artillery of Jin chaji. In fact, this photo was taken by Cai Guoming, the chief of the photography section of the 120th division. The film plate is now in the National Museum.

In the 1950s, Cai Guoming took more than 1000 photos and negatives of the fighting life of the 120 division, annotated them and donated them to the Chinese Revolutionary Museum, including Huangtuling. In February 2003, the Museum of Chinese revolution and the Museum of Chinese history merged into the National Museum of China. This famous picture became the collection of the National Museum.

Three

The first shelling of the targets hill, about 150 meters from the independent house. What was the target of the second shelling at 4:05 in the afternoon? Ravines. Chen Zhengxiang recalled: then, I ordered the artillery company to hit several shells in the ditch to the north of the independent courtyard to bombard the enemy hiding in the dead corner.

Abe Guixiu, the supreme commander of the Mongolian Garrison and the head of the second independent mixed brigade, the highest commander of this battle, the executioner with Chinese peoples blood on his hands and the enemy chieftain full of evil, was finally buried in the valley of Huangtuling mountain and deserved punishment. (brilliant footprints: famous Chinese General Chen Zhengxiang)

On November 7, 2009, Bai Mianpo (803 highland) overlooks the mountain south of the independent house

Wei Wei, a famous writer, was an education officer of the 1st regiment and 1st battalion and witnessed the shelling. He wrote in the diary of Huangtuling battle:

We are cheering for our mortars. We see several people coming out of an independent house near shangzhuangzi, pointing and drawing there. It looks like a group of commanders. One comrade said, our mortars, if only we could wedge a few towards them! During the conversation, several shells exploded one after another. After the smoke, several bodies fell, and the rest ran into the house.

Chen Zhengxiang and Wei Wei wrote in their diaries that there were no more than four shells.

When Yang Chengwu was commander of any division, he recalled in 1957: compress them in the ditch near shangzhuangzi. the commander of artillery battalion Yang jiubalance immediately ordered the artillery group to gather fire and shoot at the ditch. Only shaking the mountains and Howling the enemies at the bottom of the ditch. Abe Guixiu put this flower of famous generals under the line of our brave mortar artillery and petals are broken.

It can be seen from these words that the Eighth Route Army once believed that Abe Guixiu was killed by several shells in the second wave in the gully.

Later, various recollections successively changed mountain gully into mountain head, flat dam and hillside, that is, the first wave of shelling targets in a zone. In Chen Zhengxiangs diary, the target was several officers with swords watching us with binoculars.

In 1985, in his signed article, Yang Chengwu changed the mountain valley into the flat front of an independent courtyard.

Luo Yuanfa, who once served as a district political commissar, recalled: from the telescope, we can see a group of ghosts standing on a hilltop in pingbazi on the South Bank of Yuchang mountain villa. Some of them are wearing yellow cloth coats, and they are also observing our army with telescopes. Comrade Chen Zhengxiang immediately ordered the mortar company to aim at the target and fire several shells in succession. Those ghost commanders still stand there, relying on the bushido spirit. At this time, a shell is falling among the ghost officers, and Abe Guixiu is swallowed up by the smoke. (Memoirs of Luo Yuanfa)

In 1995, Wei Wei wrote a short article the battle of Manyi Huangtuling after visiting Huangtuling again, saying that Abe was buried on the hillside of only one or two families.

Whether its a gully or a mountain head, they are all targets in one area, but the firing time is different. No matter Abe is in the valley or at the top of the mountain, he cant hide. Official publications such as the second volume of the war history of the Chinese peoples Liberation Army during the Anti Japanese War (Military Science Press), the summary of the Eighth Route Army (PLA Press), the history of the Anti Japanese war in the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military region (Military Science Press) have unified the view that Abe Guixiu was killed in the vicinity of the independent house, avoiding the differences at the top of the mountain.

Four

According to the record of North China Public Security war, after 16:00 on the 7th, the brigade commander went to the rear of the causeway Crusade team, listened to the report of the captain, moved the command post to a nearby single courtyard, and immediately summoned all teams to accept the order. In preparation for the order to reorganize the front line, suddenly came mortar shells, exploded in the inner courtyard, the chief of the brigade died immediately, and all the staff of the brigade were injured.

At that time, the second independent mixed brigade of Abe was subordinate to the army stationed in Mongolia. Zhisanlang okabu, commander of the army stationed in Mongolia, recorded the death of Abe in many places in his diary. On November 17, Okamoto wrote:

Go to the hospital to visit dazzo Ishikawa, the staff officer of the mixed brigade, whose legs were injured by mortar shells recovered well after treatment. Talk about the death of the head of the brigade as follows: in the evening, to adjust the front line, the head of the brigade will call the officers under orders to the village (shangzhuangzi? ) Mortar shells exploded as an inner court prepared to give orders. (diary of general naosanro okabu)

In the diary, Dazuo Ishikawa was bombed together with Abe at that time, and he was lucky enough to get a life.

The next day, Okamoto wrote a report on the death of lieutenant general Abe Guixiu in the army, which was submitted to Hata JunLiu, the Minister of the Japanese Army: the chief of the army went to the front line to inspect the enemys situation and terrain, and issued an order to sweep the enemy from the southwest. A family about 1000 meters away from shangzhuangzi was suddenly exploded by several mortar shells, and dozens of people in the abdomen and feet were seriously injured.

Resume of Abe Guixiu

Note that the report says that Abe was bombed by several mortar shells. At present, Japanese records, both official reports and personal diaries, say that Abe was bombed in a farmyard rather than outdoors. This statement is not consistent with the mountain top, mountain ditch or nearby recognized by our army. By the way, the independent farmyard is still there. There is a shallow pit in the yard. The landlord said that the pit was left by the shell that killed Abe.

There is a question of location. According to Chen Zhengxiangs diary, Abe was bombed twice that day. The first time he hit the mountain and the second time he hit the mountain ditch, it seems that Abe was not bombed. There is also a question of time. According to the report on the death of lieutenant general Abe, Abe died at 9:50 p.m. on the 7th, more than three hours after being bombed. Back, Abe was bombed after 6 p.m. or 18 p.m. on the 7th, which was different from the shelling time recorded by Chen Zhengxiang.

So things get complicated. Because if the several shells that killed Abe did not come from a district, they could only come from the secret service, which is far from the traditional view. Although from the Japanese map, Abes bombing site seems to be closer to the artillery of the secret service.

Unfortunately, as in a division, the report of the secret service did not record the target, time and ammunition consumption. However, a sub district has Chen Zhengxiangs diary, which provides the time and target of the shelling. The secret service has no diary, but only one photo, so it cant get more details.

Will there be such a situation: Although the independent house is not the target of a district, a group of shells happened to run sideways and fly into the hospital, falling at Abes feet and being crooked? Its a bit of a drama. Theoretically possible, but without evidence. Chen Zhengxiang wrote in his diary that in the past two days, it is a pity that there are too few shells, otherwise it can kill the enemy greatly.. This one hundred strikes, one hundred hits, obviously does not support the speculation that several shells strayed into the houses by mistake. Besides, there are not many rounds in one area because of too few shells, so it should be clear at a glance that the shot is missed.

Add that after the disclosure of Japanese military historical data, many memories directly locked the independent house as one of the targets of shelling. The number of shelling and ammunition were also much more than Chen Zhengxiangs diary. If we ignore the original notes and play them at will, history may be a play.

Five

On November 22, 1939, Japanese newspapers reported that Abe Guixiu, the chief of the army, died in a fierce battle. On November 24, Mao Zedong and other officials sent telegrams to the headquarters of the Eighth Route Army and the Jin chaji army, asking NIE) Rongzhen to find out which department killed Abe and tell us about it . On the 25th, the CPCs new China Daily published a short comment: the Eighth Route Army killed the enemy general Abe.. For the first time since the Anti Japanese War, it was the commander of the enemy general who was killed by me on the battlefield. What a thrill! The government should reward and carry forward this glorious example.

Report on the death of lieutenant general Abe Guixiu

That month, Chiang sent a telegram of commendation to Zhu De:

According to the broadcast of enemy Hao (19): this month, Jiang (3) attacked Laiyuan in the west of Hebei Province to the south, fought with our 120th division, and defeated the enemy. On the fourth day, the Japanese enemy, general Abu, led his troops to help us and fell back in my encirclement. General Abu was killed on the spot. Chayun village brigade is indeed the first brigade of the second independent mixed brigade. It seems that lieutenant general Abu is the head of the brigade. After my annihilation and killing of lieutenant general Abu, it shows that our officers and soldiers are brave and brave in killing enemies, which is very gratifying. We hope to report the course of the last battle and the detailed investigation of the officers and men who have contributed to it, so as to obtain rewards. The 120th division is the 120th division of the Eighth Route Army.

Nie Rongzhen recalled: the enemys radio station broadcast the news of the death of the mortar shells in Abe Guixiu. I heard the enemys radio. Comrade Mao Zedong in Yanan also heard the news from the radio stations of all sides. He sent a telegram to verify this and instructed us to praise the meritorious troops. (Memoirs of Nie Rongzhen)

The investigation should not be difficult, because there is only one artillery company in Jin chaji. On January 21, 1940, Nie Rongzhen, commander and political commissar of the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military region, awarded the artillery company of the first division for its accurate shooting to the enemy chieftain and its outstanding achievements in the battle of Huangtuling mountain. Although the special mission of the 120th Division also took part in the battle with guns, and always adhered to the most fierce battle in Huangtuling, it was not part of the Shanxi Chahar Hebei military region sequence and was not within the scope of search.

Soon, in order to cooperate with the publicity, Yang Chengwu published an article in the new Great Wall magazine: the flowers of famous generals wither on Taihang Mountain - see if the Eighth Route Army is going to swim without attacking, telling the story of killing the Japanese lieutenant general. The name of Abe Guixiu has been closely linked with the honor of Jin chaji since then.

Say something strange. The head of the Japanese brigade is usually the major general, and the head of the division is the lieutenant general, with the exception of Abe. And according to the Convention, officers should be promoted to one rank after their death, but Abe did not advance to the rank after his death.

Its said that Abe can go back to Tokyo directly to go to his new post, but he didnt leave. Instead, he received an order to go to the army on the 26th of the next day and go to the army to command in person (report on the death of lieutenant general Abe in the army), and led the army to attack the Eighth Route Army in his unique capacity as the head of the brigade. Maybe Abe wants to stand on the last post and get a good reputation?

One of the forces of the Abe forces carried out a crusade across the Great Wall Line in the south of Laiyuan. The Ministry suffered huge losses in the south of baishikou the day before yesterday. Although the situation is unknown, it seems to be fighting in an unusual way. In this regard, in addition to making efforts to find out the situation, the army in Mongolia ordered the aircraft to cooperate with the operation and considered increasing its forces. However, as the head of the brigade applied to concentrate his forces in person, there was no need to send more troops, so the increase was cancelled. (diary of general naosanro okabu)

The news of Abe Guixius death was published in the Asahi Shimbun on November 22, 1939

Six

In order to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese peoples Liberation Army, on August 2, 1957, the peoples Daily published an article signed by Yang Chengwu: the flowers of famous generals wither on Taihang Mountain - before and after the battle of Huangtuling, general Guixiu of Abe, the Supreme Commander of the Japanese army garrison of Mongolia and Xinjiang. In the early 1960s, the fifth volume of the series a single spark starts a prairie fire published by the PLA press was included in this article.

On October 24, 1965, the peoples Daily published a report: a small record of guns is a record of killing an artillery company of general Abe Guixiu, the Japanese aggressor. the predecessor of this company was a mortar company in a sub district of Shanxi Chahar Hebei military area.

So far, there are no accounts of the Japanese army shelled by the Secret Service Corps in various public publications describing the battle in Huangtuling. The second infantry division and the first army group, which have the blood of the Secret Service Regiment, although recorded in their respective military histories, are limited to internal education and not external.

This is a glorious thing. Why did 120 division keep silent? In fact, this matter was controversial in that year. According to the detailed report of Huangtuling battle, the secret service group once recorded that you killed two senior officials of the devil, and the devil cried very profitably (severely) and harmfully and so on. After learning that Abe was killed, the army was more convinced that it was they who killed Abe Guixiu. Almost all the old comrades of the 120th division knew about this, and they were still fighting for the secret service group decades later.

But the words of he long, the 120 division head teacher, locked the dispute into history. He long said (general idea): who killed differently? Its all the Eighth Route Army. Whats the dispute! Since then, the secret service has been silent and no longer speaks openly, though not necessarily willingly. The 120 division reported the battle of Huangtuling to the headquarters of the Eighth Route Army. It simply said that Abe will be killed in this battle. Only the results of the war, not the credit.

At the time when the Eighth Route Army was widely publicized and Jinchaji was warmly celebrating its achievements, its hard to imagine the impact of another armys efforts. If both sides change positions, I believe that Jin chaji will also remain silent. Honor belongs to the Eighth Route Army. Thats enough.

With the passage of 80 years, the history is getting farther and farther, and the truth is getting closer and closer. The mortars that killed Abe were from a division or a secret service?

From the Japanese archives, the location and time of Abes bombing are all contrary to our armys view, which gives a question mark to the traditional narrative of the killing of Abe by Jin chaji. The two positions marked by the Japanese army, the photo endorsement of the National Museum, let the secret service group take guns to fight this dusty history for many years.

Perhaps there will be unexpected evidence in the future, providing more details for the fight. But the basic fact will never change. That is to kill the Japanese lieutenant general, who will always belong to the Eighth Route Army.

(function() {(window. Slotbydup = window. Slotbydup| []). Push ({ID: u5811557, container: ssp_, async: true});}) (); source: surging news Author: Yang Xiaozhe editor in charge: Wang Shuang bnj10766